[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two surveys of maternal mortality conducted in Egypt, in 1992-93 and in 2000, collected data from a representative sample of health bureaus covering all of Egypt, except for five frontier governorates which were covered only by the later survey, using the vital registration forms. The numbers of maternal deaths were determined and interviews conducted. The medical causes of death and avoidable factors were determined. Results showed that the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) had dropped by 52% within that period (from 174 to 84/100,000 live births). The National Maternal Mortality Survey in 1992-93 (NMMS) revealed that the metropolitan areas and Upper Egypt had a higher MMR than Lower Egypt. In response to these results, the Egyptian Ministry of Health and Population (MOHP) intensified the efforts of its Safe Motherhood programmes in Upper Egypt with the result that the regional situation had reversed in 2000. Consideration of the intermediate and outcome indicators suggests that the greatest effect of maternal health interventions was on the death-related avoidable factors "substandard care by health providers" and "delays in recognizing problems or seeking medical care". The enormous improvements in these areas are certainly due in part to extensive training, revised curricula, the publication of medical protocols and services standards, the upgrading of facilities, and successful community outreach programmes and media campaigns. The impact on the utilization of antenatal care (ANC) has been less successful. Other areas that remain problematic are inadequate supplies of blood, drugs and equipment. Although the number of maternal deaths linked to haemorrhage has been drastically reduced, it remains the primary cause. The drop in maternal mortality in the 1990s in response to Safe Motherhood programmes was impressive and the ability to tailor interventions based on the data from the NMMS of 1992-93 and 2000 was clearly demonstrated. To ensure the continuing availability of information to guide and evaluate programmes for reducing maternal mortality, an Egyptian national maternal mortality surveillance system is being developed.
Bulletin of the World Health Organisation 07/2005; 83(6):462-71. DOI:10.1590/S0042-96862005000600015 · 5.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To review factors contributing to a 52% drop in Egypt's maternal mortality ratio (MMR) per 100,000 live births from 174 in 1992-93 to 84 in 2000.
Data on maternal mortality were collected from all 27 governorates in Egypt between 1 January and 31 December 2000. This round of maternal mortality data is compared with the earlier nation wide maternal mortality study in 1992. Health care interventions that may account for the decrease were reviewed.
MMR decreased by 51.7% nation wide. This decrease was greater in the less-developed parts of Upper Egypt (59%), than in Lower Egypt (30%). A multifaceted set of interventions were concentrated in Upper Egypt. The greatest decrease in maternal mortality was associated with the area of highest intervention, greatest need, and during the time period of the implementation of this program. There were increases in use of health services; use of modern contraceptives; hospital deliveries; and use of trained birth attendants. For most indicators, the changes were greater in Upper than Lower Egypt.
Since 1992-93, efforts by the Government of Egypt and donors to improve access to and the quality and utilization of services can be linked to a greatly reduced MMR.
Maternal and Child Health Journal 04/2005; 9(1):71-82. DOI:10.1007/s10995-005-3348-1 · 2.24 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To estimate stillbirth, perinatal (PMR) and neonatal mortality rates (NMR) in Egypt and to assign main causes of death.
Data were collected from a representative sample of women who gave birth from 17,521 households which were included in the Egypt Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS) 2000. Comparisons were made between three systems for classifying causes of death.
The NMR was 25 per 1000 live births (17 early and eight late). Half the deaths occurred in the first two days of life. Neonatal causes of death were pre-maturity (39%), asphyxia (18%), infections (7%), congenital malformation (6%) and unclassified (29%). The PMR was 34 per 1000 births, mainly attributed to: asphyxia (44%) and prematurity (21%). The revised Wigglesworth classification agreed well with the physicians except the panel attributed more deaths to infections (20%). The WHO verbal autopsy algorithm left 48% of deaths unclassified.
Infant mortality in Egypt is showing an epidemiological transition with a significant decrease in mortality, resulting in a disproportionate percentage of deaths in the first week of life. Infant mortality in Egypt declined 64% from 124 per 1000 between 1974 and 1978 to 44 per 1000 between 1995 and 1999, the decline being greatest among older infants; 55% of all infant deaths occurred during the neonatal period. The neonatal mortality rate in this study was estimated to be 25 per 1000 live births.
Journal of Perinatology 06/2004; 24(5):284-9. DOI:10.1038/sj.jp.7211084 · 2.07 Impact Factor