Justin Hartupee

Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland, Ohio, United States

Are you Justin Hartupee?

Claim your profile

Publications (10)66.66 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: mRNAs encoding inflammatory chemokines that recruit neutrophils frequently exhibit short half-lives that serve to limit their expression under inappropriate conditions but are often prolonged to ensure adequate levels during inflammatory response. Extracellular stimuli that modulate the stability of such mRNAs may be the same as the transcriptional activator, as is the case with TLR ligands, or may cooperate with independent transcriptional stimuli, as with IL-17, which extends the half-life of TNF-induced transcripts. These different stimuli engage independent signaling pathways that target different instability mechanisms distinguished by dependence on different regulatory nucleotide sequence motifs within the 3'UTRs, which involve that action of different mRNA-binding proteins. The selective use of these pathways by different stimuli and in distinct cell populations provides the potential for tailoring of chemokine expression patterns to meet specific needs in different pathophysiologic circumstances.
    Journal of leukocyte biology 12/2011; 91(3):377-83. · 4.99 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: IL-17 contributes to inflammatory response in part by promoting enhanced expression of chemokines, such as CXCL1, by prolonging the t(1/2) of this constitutively unstable mRNA. Although IL-17 is a weak stimulus for transcription of the CXCL1 gene, it strongly potentiates message accumulation via stabilization when the mRNA is transcribed in cells stimulated with TNF. In myeloid cells, LPS-induced CXCL1 mRNA stabilization is dependent on AUUUA-containing sequence motifs that are recognized by the RNA binding protein tristetraprolin (TTP). Using deletion and site-specific mutagenesis, we report that IL-17-mediated stabilization of CXCL1 mRNA in nonmyeloid cells depends on a sequence that does not contain the AUUUA motif. Furthermore, a specific two-nucleotide mutation within this region markedly abrogates sensitivity for IL-17-mediated stabilization. Consistent with this finding, the IL-17-sensitive sequence does not exhibit increased instability in the presence of TTP, and CXCL1 mRNA remains unstable and can be stabilized in response to treatment with IL-17 in embryo fibroblasts from mice in which the TTP gene has been deleted. Whereas the RNA binding protein KSRP has been shown to participate in regulating the instability of human CXCL8 mRNA, inhibitory RNA-based reduction in KSRP does not effect the instability mediated by the IL-17-sensitive sequence motif. These findings suggest that IL-17-mediated chemokine mRNA stabilization in nonmyeloid cells uses a mechanism that is distinct from that operating to control AU-rich mRNA stability in myeloid cells.
    The Journal of Immunology 02/2010; 184(3):1484-91. · 5.52 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Regulation of neutrophil chemokine gene expression represents an important feature in tissue inflammation. While chemokine gene transcription through the action of NFkappaB is recognized as an essential component of this process, it is now clear that post-transcriptional mechanisms, particularly the rates of decay of mature cytoplasmic mRNA, provides an essential component of this control. Chemokine and other cytokine mRNA half life is known to be controlled via adenine-uridine rich sequence motifs localized within 3' untranslated regions (UTRs), the most common of which contains one or more copies of the pentameric AUUUA sequence. In myeloid cells AUUUA sequences confer instability through the action of RNA binding proteins such as tristetraprolin (TTP). The resulting instability can be regulated in response to extra-cellular stimuli including Toll like receptor ligands that signal to control the function of TTP through pathways involving the activation of p38 MAP kinases. Recent findings indicate that substantial mechanistic diversity is operative in non-myeloid cells in response to alternate pro-inflammatory stimuli such as IL-17. These pathways target distinct instability sequences that do not contain the AUUUA pentamer motif, do not signal through p38 MAPK, and function independently of TTP.
    Cytokine 01/2010; 52(1-2):116-22. · 2.52 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: IL-17 alone is a relatively weak inducer of gene expression, but cooperates with other cytokines, including TNF-alpha, to generate a strong response in part via prolongation of mRNA t(1/2). Because TNFR-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) has been reported to be essential for signaling by IL-17, we examined its involvement in IL-17-mediated mRNA stabilization. Although overexpression of TRAF6 in HeLa cells activates NF-kappaB, it does not stabilize transfected KC mRNA. Furthermore, a dominant-negative TRAF6 abrogates NF-kappaB activation, but does not block IL-17-induced chemokine mRNA stabilization. IL-17 can stabilize KC and MIP-2 mRNAs comparably in TNF-alpha-treated mouse embryo fibroblasts from TRAF6(+/+) and TRAF6(-/-) mice. TRAF6 is known to couple upstream signals with activation of p38 MAPK and mitogen activated protein kinase activated protein kinase 2, both of which have been shown to be important for Toll/IL-1R-mediated mRNA stabilization in various cell types. Inhibition of p38 MAPK, however, does not block IL-17-induced KC mRNA stabilization, and IL-17 can stabilize KC mRNA equally in mouse embryo fibroblasts from both wild-type and mitogen activated protein kinase activated protein kinase 2/3 doubly-deficient mice. Finally, IL-17 can amplify the levels of multiple TNF-alpha-stimulated mRNAs in wild-type and TRAF6-deficient cells, but not in cells from Act1(-/-) mice. Collectively, these findings demonstrate the existence of a TRAF6/p38 MAPK-independent pathway that couples the IL-17R with enhanced mRNA stability. Because the most potent effects of IL-17 on gene expression are obtained in cooperation with other cytokines such as TNF-alpha, these findings suggest that this pathway is a major contributing mechanism for response to IL-17.
    The Journal of Immunology 03/2009; 182(3):1660-6. · 5.52 Impact Factor
  • Justin Hartupee, Xiaoxia Li, Thomas Hamilton
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Interleukin 1alpha (IL-1alpha) is capable of driving pro-inflammatory gene expression through both the initiation of transcription and by prolonging the half-life of short-lived mRNAs. Although the signaling events linking the IL-1 receptor to the activation of NFkappaB and the initiation of transcription have been well characterized, less is known about the signaling events linking to mRNA stabilization. As a model to study the control of mRNA stability we have used the mouse chemokine KC, expression of which requires both NFkappaB-driven transcription and stabilization of the constitutively unstable mRNA. We have evaluated the role of signaling adaptors known to play a role in IL-1alpha-driven NFkappaB activation in the generation of mRNA stability. Surprisingly, although TRAF6 is essential for NFkappaB activation, it is not required for IL-1alpha-induced mRNA stabilization. IRAK1, which is recognized to function upstream of TRAF6, is required for both mRNA stabilization and activation of NFkappaB. Consistent with the previous findings, the TRAF6 interaction sites in IRAK1 are required for NFkappaB activation but do not play a role in mRNA stabilization. These findings indicate that signals from the IL-1 receptor segregate into at least two separate pathways at the level of IRAK1; one couples through TRAF6 to NFkappaB activation while a second utilizes a TRAF6-independent pathway that is responsible for mRNA stabilization.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 07/2008; 283(23):15689-93. · 4.65 Impact Factor
  • Justin Hartupee, Xiaoxia Li, Thomas Hamilton
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Interleukin 1α (IL-1α) is capable of driving pro-inflammatory gene expression through both the initiation of transcription and by prolonging the half-life of short-lived mRNAs. Although the signaling events linking the IL-1 receptor to the activation of NFκB and the initiation of transcription have been well characterized, less is known about the signaling events linking to mRNA stabilization. As a model to study the control of mRNA stability we have used the mouse chemokine KC, expression of which requires both NFκB-driven transcription and stabilization of the constitutively unstable mRNA. We have evaluated the role of signaling adaptors known to play a role in IL-1α-driven NFκB activation in the generation of mRNA stability. Surprisingly, although TRAF6 is essential for NFκB activation, it is not required for IL-1α-induced mRNA stabilization. IRAK1, which is recognized to function upstream of TRAF6, is required for both mRNA stabilization and activation of NFκB. Consistent with the previous findings, the TRAF6 interaction sites in IRAK1 are required for NFκB activation but do not play a role in mRNA stabilization. These findings indicate that signals from the IL-1 receptor segregate into at least two separate pathways at the level of IRAK1; one couples through TRAF6 to NFκB activation while a second utilizes a TRAF6-independent pathway that is responsible for mRNA stabilization.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 06/2008; 283(23):15689-15693. · 4.65 Impact Factor
  • Cytokine 01/2008; 43(3):280-280. · 2.52 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: IL-17 plays an important role in host defense and autoimmunity via the induction of proinflammatory gene expression, particularly in combination with TNF-alpha. The molecular mechanisms by which IL-17 regulates such expression are not well understood. Using the mouse chemokine CXCL1 (KC) gene as a model, we have examined the effects of IL-17 alone or in combination with TNF-alpha on transcriptional and posttranscriptional events. Although treatment of mouse embryonic fibroblasts with IL-17 alone only modestly increased KC expression, the combination of IL-17 with TNF-alpha induced a synergistic response. IL-17 treatment exerted a strong posttranscriptional effect by extending the t1/2 of the highly unstable, TNF-alpha-induced KC mRNA. Using a tetracycline-regulated transgene in HeLa cells, we determined that IL-17 treatment alone promoted stabilization of KC mRNA in the absence of TNF-alpha. IL-17 treatment exerted little effect on KC transcription or NF-kappaB activation, suggesting that it primarily acts posttranscriptionally. We identified a number of other mRNAs whose t1/2 are prolonged in response to IL-17, suggesting that this is a common mechanism by which IL-17 promotes enhanced gene expression. Finally, activator of NF-kappaB1 protein (Act1), an adaptor protein recently implicated in IL-17 signaling, was necessary for IL-17-induced stabilization, and overexpression of Act1 resulted in stabilization of KC mRNA, indicating that events downstream of Act1 are sufficient to initiate this process. Thus, the synergy between TNF-alpha and IL-17 reflects their independent actions on KC gene expression; TNF-alpha serves as a stimulus to initiate transcription through activation of NF-kappaB, whereas IL-17 drives mRNA stabilization through an Act1-dependent pathway.
    The Journal of Immunology 10/2007; 179(6):4135-41. · 5.52 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The magnitude and character of the inflammatory process are determined in part via the trafficking of leukocytes into sites of injury and infection, and this process depends on proper control of the expression of genes encoding chemoattractant peptides and their receptors. Although these controls operate at multiple mechanistic levels, recent evidence indicates that post-transcriptional events governing the half-life of select mRNAs are important determinants. Adenine-uridine rich elements (AREs) located within 3' untranslated regions (UTRs) confer constitutive mRNA instability and in some cases, stabilization following stimulation by ligands of the Toll-IL-1 receptor (TIR) family. Although the importance of AREs in determining activity and mRNA half-life is well-recognized, the mechanistic scope and diversity remain poorly understood. Using the mouse KC or CXCL1 gene as a model, we have demonstrated that the abundance of mRNA and protein produced during an inflammatory response depends on multiple mechanistically distinct AREs present in the 3' UTR of the mRNA. The mRNA encoding the receptor for N-terminal formyl-methionine-containing peptides is also unstable and subject to stabilization in response to TIR ligands. These two models can, however, be readily distinguished from one another on the basis of specific stimulus sensitivity and the signaling pathways, through which such stimuli couple to the control of mRNA decay. These models demonstrate the substantial diversity operative in the post-transcriptional regulation of inflammatory gene expression.
    Journal of Leukocyte Biology 09/2007; 82(2):213-9. · 4.57 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: T helper cells that produce interleukin 17 (IL-17) are associated with inflammation and the control of certain bacteria. We report here the essential involvement of the adaptor protein Act1 in IL-17 receptor (IL-17R) signaling and IL-17-dependent immune responses. After stimulation with IL-17, recruitment of Act1 to IL-17R required the IL-17R conserved cytoplasmic 'SEFIR' domain, followed by recruitment of the kinase TAK1 and E3 ubiquitin ligase TRAF6, which mediate 'downstream' activation of transcription factor NF-kappaB. IL-17-induced expression of inflammation-related genes was abolished in Act1-deficient primary astroglial and gut epithelial cells. This reduction was associated with much less inflammatory disease in vivo in both autoimmune encephalomyelitis and dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis. Our data show that Act1 is essential in IL-17-dependent signaling in autoimmune and inflammatory disease.
    Nature Immunology 04/2007; 8(3):247-56. · 26.20 Impact Factor