[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We examined whether coupling of a ventricular myocyte to a non-myocyte cell expressing HCN2 could create a two-cell syncytium capable of generating sustained pacing. Three non-myocyte cell types were transfected with the mHCN2 gene and used as sources of mHCN2-induced currents. They were human mesenchymal stem cells and HEK293 cells, both of which express connexin43 (Cx43), and HeLa cells transfected with Cx43. Cell-cell coupling between heterologous pairs increased with time in co-culture, and hyperpolarization of the myocyte induced HCN2 currents, indicating current transfer from the mHCN2-expressing cell to the myocyte via gap junctions. The magnitude of the HCN2 currents recorded in myocytes increased with increasing junctional conductance. Once a critical level of electrical cell-cell coupling between myocytes and mHCN2 transfected cells was exceeded spontaneous action potentials were generated at frequencies of approximately 0.6 to 1.7 Hz (1.09 +/- 0.05 Hz). Addition of carbenoxolone (200 microM), a gap junction channel blocker, to the media stopped spontaneous activity in heterologous cell pairs. Carbenoxolone washout restored activity. Blockade of HCN2 currents by 100 microM 9-amino-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroacridine (THA) stopped spontaneous activity and subsequent washout restored it. Neither THA nor carbenoxolone affected electrically stimulated action potentials in isolated single myocytes. In summary, the inward current evoked in the genetically engineered (HCN2-expressing) cell was delivered to the cardiac myocyte via gap junctions and generated action potentials such that the cell pair could function as a pacemaker unit. This finding lays the groundwork for understanding cell-based biological pacemakers in vivo once an understanding of delivery and target cell geometry is defined.
The Journal of Physiology 10/2009; 587(Pt 21):5211-26. · 4.38 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ionic basis of automaticity in the sinoatrial node and His-Purkinje system, the primary and secondary cardiac pacemaking regions, is discussed. Consideration is given to potential targets for pharmacologic or genetic therapies of rhythm disorders. An ideal target would be an ion channel that functions only during diastole, so that action potential repolarization is not affected, and one that exhibits regional differences in expression and/or function so that the primary and secondary pacemakers can be selectively targeted. The so-called pacemaker current, If, generated by the HCN gene family, best fits these criteria. The biophysical and molecular characteristics of this current are reviewed, and progress to date in developing selective pharmacologic agents targeting If and in using gene and cell-based therapies to modulate the current are reviewed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ionic basis of automaticity in the sinoatrial node and His-Purkinje system, the primary and secondary cardiac pacemaking
regions, is discussed. Consideration is given to potential targets for pharmacologic or genetic therapies of rhythm disorders.
An ideal target would be an ion channel that functions only during diastole, so that action potential repolarization is not
affected, and one that exhibits regional differences in expression and/or function so that the primary and secondary pacemakers
can be selectively targeted. The so-called pacemaker current, If, generated by the HCN gene family, best fits these criteria. The biophysical and molecular characteristics of this current
are reviewed, and progress to date in developing selective pharmacologic agents targeting If and in using gene and cell-based therapies to modulate the current are reviewed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to determine whether oligonucleotides the size of siRNA are permeable to gap junctions and whether a specific siRNA for DNA polymerase beta (pol beta) can move from one cell to another via gap junctions, thus allowing one cell to inhibit gene expression in another cell directly. To test this hypothesis, fluorescently labelled oligonucleotides (morpholinos) 12, 16 and 24 nucleotides in length were synthesized and introduced into one cell of a pair using a patch pipette. These probes moved from cell to cell through gap junctions composed of connexin 43 (Cx43). Moreover, the rate of transfer declined with increasing length of the oligonucleotide. To test whether siRNA for pol beta was permeable to gap junctions we used three cell lines: (1) NRK cells that endogenously express Cx43; (2) Mbeta16tsA cells, which express Cx32 and Cx26 but not Cx43; and (3) connexin-deficient N2A cells. NRK and Mbeta16tsA cells were each divided into two groups, one of which was stably transfected to express a small hairpin RNA (shRNA), which gives rise to siRNA that targets pol beta. These two pol beta knockdown cell lines (NRK-kcdc and Mbeta16tsA-kcdc) were co-cultured with labelled wild type, NRK-wt or Mbeta16tsA-wt cells or N2A cells. The levels of pol beta mRNA and protein were determined by semiquantitative RT-PCR and immunoblotting. Co-culture of Mbeta16tsA-kcdc cells with Mbeta16tsA-wt, N2A or NRK-wt cells had no effect on pol beta levels in these cells. Similarly, co-culture of NRK-kcdc with N2A cells had no effect on pol beta levels in the N2A cells. In contrast, co-culture of NRK-kcdc with NRK-wt cells resulted in a significant reduction in pol beta in the wt cells. The inability of Mbeta16tsA-kcdc cells to transfer siRNA is consistent with the fact that oligonucleotides of the 12 nucleotide length were not permeable to Cx32/Cx26 channels. This suggested that Cx43 but not Cx32/Cx26 channels allowed the cell-to-cell movement of the siRNA. These results support the novel hypothesis that non-hybridized and possible hybridized forms of siRNA can move between mammalian cells through connexin-specific gap junctions.
The Journal of Physiology 11/2005; 568(Pt 2):459-68. · 4.54 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although the neonatal sinus node beats at a faster rate than the adult, when a sodium current (I(Na)) present in the newborn is blocked, the spontaneous rate is slower in neonatal myocytes than in adult myocytes. This suggests a possible functional substitution of I(Na) by another current during development. We used ruptured [T-type calcium current (I(Ca,T))] and perforated [L-type calcium current (I(Ca,L))] patch clamps to study developmental changes in calcium currents in sinus node cells from adult and newborn rabbits. I(Ca,T) density did not differ with age, and no significant differences were found in the voltage dependence of activation or inactivation. I(Ca,L) density was lower in the adult than newborn (12.1 +/- 1.4 vs. 17.6 +/- 2.5 pA/pF, P = 0.049). However, activation and inactivation midpoints were shifted in opposite directions, reducing the potential contribution during late diastolic depolarization in the newborn (activation midpoints -17.3 +/- 0.8 and -22.3 +/- 1.4 mV in the newborn and adult, respectively, P = 0.001; inactivation midpoints -33.4 +/- 1.4 and -28.3 +/- 1.7 mV for the newborn and adult, respectively, P = 0.038). Recovery of I(Ca,L) from inactivation was also slower in the newborn. The results suggest that a smaller but more negatively activating and rapidly recovering I(Ca,L) in the adult sinus node may contribute to the enhanced impulse initiation at this age in the absence of I(Na).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ventricular pacemaker current (I(f)) shows distinct voltage dependence as a function of age, activating outside the physiological range in normal adult ventricle, but less negatively in neonatal ventricle. However, heterologously expressed HCN2 and HCN4, the putative molecular correlates of ventricular I(f), exhibit only a modest difference in activation voltage. We therefore prepared an adenoviral construct (AdHCN2) of HCN2, the dominant ventricular isoform at either age, and used it to infect neonatal and adult rat ventricular myocytes to investigate the role of maturation on current gating. The expressed current exhibited an 18-mV difference in activation (V(1/2) -95.9+/-1.9 in adult; -77.6+/-1.6 mV in neonate), comparable to the 22-mV difference between native I(f) in adult and neonatal cultures (V(1/2) -98.7 versus -77.0 mV). This did not result from developmental differences in basal cAMP, because saturating cAMP in the pipette caused an equivalent positive shift in both preparations. In the neonate, AdHCN2 caused a significant increase in spontaneous rate compared with control (88+/-5 versus 48+/-4 bpm). In adult, where HCN2 activates more negatively, the effect was evident only during anodal excitation, requiring significantly less stimulus energy than control (2149+/-266 versus 3140+/-279 mV. ms). Thus, ventricular maturational state influences the voltage dependence of expressed HCN2, resulting in distinct physiological impact of expressed channels in neonate and adult myocytes. The full text of this article is available at http://www.circresaha.org.
Circulation Research 08/2001; 89(1):E8-14. · 11.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The HCN family of ion channel subunits underlies the currents I(f) in heart and I(h) and I(q) in the nervous system. In the present study, we demonstrate that minK-related peptide 1 (MiRP1) is a beta subunit for the HCN family. As such, it enhances protein and current expression as well as accelerating the kinetics of activation. Because MiRP1 also functions as a beta subunit for the cardiac delayed rectifier I(Kr), these results suggest that this peptide may have the unique role of regulating both the inward and outward channels that underlie cardiac pacemaker activity. The full text of this article is available at http://www.circresaha.org.
Circulation Research 07/2001; 88(12):E84-7. · 11.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the present study, we demonstrate that minK-related peptide 1 (MiRP1) is a b subunit for the HCN family. As such, it enhances protein and current expression as well as accelerating the kinetics of activation. Because MiRP1 also functions as a b subunit for the cardiac delayed rectifier IKr, these results suggest that this peptide may have the unique role of regulating both the inward and outward channels that underlie cardiac pacemaker activity. The full text of this article is available at http://www.circresaha.org. (Circ Res. 2001;88:e84-e87.)
Circulation Research 06/2001; 88(12). · 11.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have reported previously that the sinoatrial node (SAN) in the newborn rabbit expresses a Na+ current (INa) with properties similar to the neuronal type-I isoform and that this current contributes to the net inward current flowing during diastolic depolarization. To characterize this current further we conducted cell-attached single-channel experiments in isolated newborn SAN myocytes. The Na+ channel was sensitive to divalent cation block and had a single-channel conductance of 25.6 pS in the absence of divalent cations. Kinetic compatibility between single-channel and previous whole-cell data was confirmed by measuring the time constant of current decay. At pacemaker potentials, time constants were of the order of tens of milliseconds. Additional experiments indicated that this slow inactivation arises because the Na+ channels expressed in the neonatal SAN tend to re-open frequently at potentials in the pacemaker range. We suggest that this is the mechanism by which a small tetrodotoxin (TTX)-sensitive current contributes to the total inward current flowing during slow diastolic depolarization in neonatal (but not adult) pacemaker myocytes.
Pflügers Archiv - European Journal of Physiology 06/2001; 442(2):192-6. · 3.07 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Isolated newborn, but not adult, rabbit sinoatrial node (SAN) cells exhibit spontaneous activity that (unlike adult) are highly sensitive to the Na(+) current (I(Na)) blocker TTX. To investigate this TTX action on automaticity, cells were voltage clamped with ramp depolarizations mimicking the pacemaker phase of spontaneous cells (-60 to -20 mV, 35 mV/s). Ramps elicited a TTX-sensitive current in newborn (peak density 0.89 +/- 0.14 pA/pF, n = 24) but not adult (n = 5) cells. When depolarizing ramps were preceded by steplike depolarizations to mimic action potentials, ramp current decreased 54.6 +/- 8.0% (n = 3) but was not abolished. Additional experiments demonstrated that ramp current amplitude depended on the slope of the ramp and that TTX did not alter steady-state holding current at pacemaker potentials. This excluded a steady-state Na(+) window component and suggested a kinetic basis, which was investigated by measuring TTX-sensitive I(Na) during long step depolarizations. I(Na) exhibited a slow but complete inactivation time course at pacemaker voltages (tau = 33.9 +/- 3.9 ms at -50 mV), consistent with the rate-dependent ramp data. The data indicate that owing to slow inactivation of I(Na) at diastolic potentials, a small TTX-sensitive current flows during the diastolic depolarization in neonatal pacemaker myocytes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The developmental increase in L-type Ca current (I(Ca,L)) density in the rat ventricle is reproduced in vitro by culturing neonatal myocytes with sympathetic neurons. We tested whether this effect of sympathetic innervation results from a chronic or sustained action of neurally released neuropeptide Y (NPY). Ventricular myocytes from newborn rats were cultured in serum-free medium with or without sympathetic neurons, NPY, or NPY analogs. Ca currents were measured in single myocytes at room temperature using the perforated patch clamp. In all cell groups (control, innervated, or NPY treated), the current-voltage relation for I(Ca,L) was represented by a bell-shaped curve with maximal value near 0 mV. The current density at 0 mV normalized to that of corresponding mean control values was 1.63 +/- 0.12 and 1.52 +/- 0.16 for innervated and NPY-treated myocytes, respectively. Both groups differed significantly from control (P < 0.05). NPY analogs exhibited the following rank order of effectiveness: NPY >/= NPY-(13-36) >/= PYY > [Leu31Pro34]NPY, suggesting that the NPY effect occurs via a Y2-receptor subtype. In confirmation, chronic treatment of innervated cultures with a Y2-selective NPY antagonist prevented the innervation-dependent increase in I(Ca,L). These results indicate that sympathetic innervation contributes to the developmental increase in I(Ca,L) via neurally released NPY acting at Y2 receptors on the ventricular myocytes.
The American journal of physiology 09/1999; 277(3 Pt 2):H940-6. · 3.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: HCN cation channel mRNA expression was determined in the rabbit heart and neonatal and adult rat ventricle using RNase protection assays. In the rabbit SA node, the dominant HCN transcript is HCN4, representing >81% of the total HCN message. HCN1 is also expressed, representing >18% of the total HCN mRNA. Rabbit Purkinje fibers contained almost equal amounts of HCN1 and HCN4 transcripts with low levels of HCN2, whereas rabbit ventricle contained predominantly HCN2. The SA node contained 25 times the total HCN message of Purkinje fibers and 140 times the total HCN message of ventricle. No reports of hyperpolarization-activated current (If) exist in rabbit Purkinje fibers, and we could not record If in rabbit ventricular myocytes. To investigate the possible role of isoform switching in determining the voltage dependence of If, we determined the prevalence of HCN isoforms in neonatal and adult rat ventricle. We had previously determined the threshold for activation of If to be approximately -70 mV in neonatal rat ventricle and -113 mV in adult rat ventricle. In both neonatal and adult rat ventricle, only HCN2 and HCN4 transcripts are present. The ratio of HCN2 to HCN4 is approximately 5:1 in the neonate and 13:1 in the adult. Taken together, these results suggest that different cardiac regions express different isoforms of the HCN family. The HCN1 and HCN4 isoforms are most closely associated with a depolarized threshold for If activation, whereas the HCN2 isoform is associated with a more negative activation curve.
Circulation Research 08/1999; 85(1):e1-6. · 11.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: During postnatal development, sympathetic innervation of the heart evolves, and repolarization accelerates. Our goal in this study was to test whether sympathetic innervation modulates the ion channels that regulate repolarization. We studied action potentials and repolarizing K+ currents in epicardial myocytes from rats in which sympathetic innervation was accelerated or delayed, respectively, by subcutaneous injection of nerve growth factor (NGF) or NGF antibody (Ab) for the first 15 days of life. A placebo group was included as well. Action potential duration (APD) to 90% repolarization was greater in the Ab (158 +/- 18 ms)-treated than the NGF (106 +/- 10 ms)-treated animals (P < 0.05); the APD at 90% repolarization for the placebo group was intermediate (125 +/- 30 ms). The transient outward (Ito) and inward rectifier (IK1) K+ currents were recorded in freshly dissociated cells using the whole cell patch-clamp technique. Ito was decreased in density at potentials positive to +40 mV in Ab-treated rats when compared with rats treated with NGF (P < 0.05). In addition, the inactivation curve of Ito in Ab-treated rats was shifted 13 mV positive to that of NGF-treated rats. IK1 also decreased in the Ab-treated group compared with the NGF group in the potential ranges of -100 to -90 mV (P < 0.05). However, the channel transcript abundance (RNA) in NGF-, Ab-, or placebo-treated rat hearts did not differ. Our results suggest that sympathetic innervation contributes to the developmental differences in K+ currents and APD postnatally in the rat.
The American journal of physiology 03/1998; 274(3 Pt 2):H915-22. · 3.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neonatal rat ventricular myocytes express both beta 1-and beta 2-adrenergic receptors linked to enhanced intracellular adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) accumulation and the modulation of contractile function. This study tests the hypothesis that muscarinic agonists act via distinct mechanisms to interfere with beta 1-and beta 2-adrenergic receptor actions. The beta 2-selective agonist zinterol (10(-7) M) elicits approximately a fourfold increase in cAMP accumulation, which is mimicked, both in magnitude and kinetics, by 10(-9) M of the mixed beta 1-receptor agonist/beta 2-receptor agonist isoproterenol. At these concentrations, isoproterenol and zinterol elicit equivalent inotropic and lusitropic (i.e., enhanced relaxation) responses. Carbachol inhibits all three responses (cAMP, inotropic, and lusitropic) elicited by isoproterenol. In contrast, carbachol does not interfere with the effect of zinterol to augment cAMP accumulation or to induce a positive inotropic response. However, carbachol inhibits the lusitropic response to zinterol via an action at an M2-muscarinic receptor linked to a pertussis toxin-sensitive pathway. Additional studies indicate that beta 2-receptor-dependent phosphorylation of troponin I and phospholamban is substantially attenuated by carbachol. We conclude that carbachol interferes with beta 1-receptor actions by reducing cAMP accumulation. In contrast, the anti-beta 2-receptor actions of carbachol are mediated by a mechanism that is distinct from inhibition of cAMP accumulation, involving an M2-muscarinic receptor coupled to a pertussis toxin-sensitive G protein, which leads to inhibition of troponin I and phospholamban phosphorylation and inhibition of the beta 2-receptor-dependent lusitropic response.
The American journal of physiology 07/1997; 272(6 Pt 2):H2726-35. · 3.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The hearts in newborn mammals have greater intrinsic beating rates, rates of diastolic depolarization, and sensitivity to autonomic stimulation than those in adults. The differences could be explained partly by altered properties of the hyperpolarization-activated current (If). To test this possibility, sinoatrial node myocytes from the hearts of newborn (9- to 10-day) and adult (>30-day) rabbits were isolated, and the If was examined with the perforated-patch-clamp technique. The fully activated current-voltage relationship yielded a larger slope conductance of If in newborn SA node myocytes (0.244 +/- 0.020 vs. 0.158 +/- 0.012 pS/pF), compatible with the more rapid diastolic depolarization. Activation curves of the If had similar midactivation voltages (newborn, -66.71 +/- 1.94 mV; adult, -66.33 +/- 2.60 mV), but the slope was significantly greater in newborns (inverse slope factor: newborn, -9.57 +/- 0.35 mV; adult, -11.34 +/- 0.54 mV). No differences in shifts of the If activation curve in response to maximal concentrations of acetylcholine (newborn, -9.70 +/- 1.8 mV; adult, -12.60 +/- 2.10 mV) and isoproterenol (newborn, 6.90 +/- 2.5 mV; adult, 5.3 +/- 1.5 mV) or in the total shift in response to these agonists (newborn, 16.60 +/- 3.30 mV; adult, 18.00 +/- 1.00 mV) were observed. The greater If density and steeper voltage dependence can contribute to both the greater heart rate and the greater sensitivity of the SA node to autonomic modulation in newborn animals.
The American journal of physiology 04/1997; 272(3 Pt 2):H1549-52. · 3.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 1. Newborn rabbit sino-atrial node (SAN) myocytes were recently found to express a tetrodotoxin (TTX)-sensitive Na+ current. We now report that the dose-response relation indicates that this SAN Na+ channel has unusually high TTX sensitivity, with half-maximal inhibition (26 +/- 5 nM) which is more typical of neuronal than cardiac tissue. 2. Additional characterization used mu-conotoxin GIIIA and Cd2+ as relatively selective blockers of the skeletal and cardiac isoforms, respectively. mu-Conotoxin GIIIA had no effect on the current recorded from SAN myocytes, but the Cd2+ sensitivity was unexpectedly high for a neuronal isoform (half-maximal inhibition = 185 +/- 8 microM). 3. Analysis of the time constant of inactivation did not reveal evidence of multiple inactivation processes, with the data well fitted by a single, relatively rapid exponential (inactivation time constant = 0.58 +/- 0.03 ms at 0 mV). 4. In situ hybridization with anti-sense cDNA probes was used to test for expression of neuronal type I, II and III Na+ channel isoforms. Myocardial cells in newborn SAN tissue exhibited clear hybridization to the type I, but not the type II or III probes. No hybridization was observed in adult SAN tissue with any of the three probes. 5. It is concluded that the newborn SAN expresses a neuronal type I-like Na+ channel isoform, and that this probably accounts for the unusual characteristic of high sensitivity to both TTX and Cd2+.
The Journal of Physiology 03/1997; 498 ( Pt 3):641-8. · 4.54 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Myocytes were isolated from newborn and adult rat ventricle. Using the whole-cell patch clamp, the two cell populations were compared for the presence of the hyperpolarization-activated pacemaker current if. As in other mammalian species, the threshold voltage in acutely dissociated adult rat myocytes was extremely negative (-113 +/- 5 mV; n=12). In contrast, threshold in newborn cells was relatively positive, regardless of whether measured in acutely dissociated (-72 +/- 2 mV; n=6) or cultured cells (-70 +/- 2 mV; n=9). Current density was not reduced in the adult. These results suggest that with development the ventricle assumes its non-pacemaker function, at least in part, by a shift of the voltage dependence of if outside the physiological range.
Pflügers Archiv - European Journal of Physiology 03/1997; 433(4):533-5. · 3.07 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Developmental changes occur in beta-adrenergic modulation of repolarization in canine. Purkinje fibers that may have important implications for rhythm and arrhythmias. No comparable data exist for ventricular myocardium. Therefore, we studied developmental changes in beta-adrenergic regulation of repolarization and delayed rectifier potassium current (IK) in canine ventricular epicardium. We first investigated the effects of isoproterenol (Iso) on action potentials (AP) recorded from epicardial slices with standard microelectrodes, and then we further determined the mechanisms of Iso action using the nystatin-perforated patch technique on isolated epicardial myocytes. In microelectrode studies Iso (10(-7) M) induced a shortening of the AP in preparations from adult dogs but not in those from dogs < 30 days old. These results were confirmed on AP recorded from single myocytes. Although the plateau was increased by Iso at all ages, the AP at 90% of repolarization was shortened (P < 0.05, n = 6) in adult but unchanged in < 30-day-old myocytes (NS, n = 6). Voltage-clamp studies showed that IK of adult cells was increased from a control value of 10.23 +/- 1.87 to 13.43 +/- 1.92 pA/pF with Iso (step to +50 mV, P < 0.05, n = 6), but IK was not modified in cells from young animals (6.49 +/- 2.72 pA/pF in control and 6.56 +/- 2.62 pA/pF with Iso, n = 4). Increasing the Iso concentration to 10(-5) M failed to increase IK significantly (n = 4). However, 10(-7) M Iso did increase L-type Ca2+ current from 172 +/- 31 to 262 +/- 42 pA (P < 0.05, n = 4), consistent with the effect to increase the AP plateau. These results show that there are developmental changes in beta-adrenergic regulation of repolarization in canine epicardium and that the control site of developmental changes is in the IK channel rather than the beta-adrenergic receptor cascade.
The American journal of physiology 10/1996; 271(3 Pt 2):H1174-81. · 3.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous studies established that thrombin stimulates phosphoinositide hydrolysis and modulates contractile function in neonatal rat ventricular myocytes. The present study further defines the signaling pathways activated by the thrombin receptor and their role in thrombin's actions in cardiac myocytes. The thrombin receptor-derived agonist peptide (TRAP, a portion of the tethered ligand created by thrombin's proteolytic activity) stimulates the rapid and transient accumulation of inositol bis- and tris-phosphates (IP2 and IP3, respectively), which is followed by the more gradual and sustained accumulation of inositol monophosphate (IP1). TRAP elicits a larger and more sustained accumulation of IP1 than does thrombin. Thrombin and TRAP also activate mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in cultured neonatal rat ventricular myocytes. Differences in the kinetics and magnitude of thrombin- and TRAP-dependent inositol phosphate (IP) accumulation are paralleled by differences in the kinetics and magnitude of thrombin- and TRAP-dependent activation of MAPK. Pretreatment with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) to downregulate protein kinase C (PKC) attenuates thrombin- and TRAP-dependent activation of MAPK, although small and equivalent effects of thrombin and TRAP to stimulate MAPK persist in PMA-pretreated cells. These results support the notion that the thrombin receptor activates MAPK through PKC-dependent pathways and that the incremental activation of MAPK by TRAP over that induced by thrombin is the consequence of enhanced activation through the PKC limb of the phosphoinositide lipid pathway. TRAP also increases the beating rate of spontaneously contracting ventricular myocytes and elevates cytosolic calcium in myocytes electrically driven at a constant basic cycle length. The effects of TRAP to modulate contractile function and elevate intracellular calcium are not inhibited by tricyclodecan-9-yl-xanthogenate (D609, to block TRAP-dependent IP accumulation) or pretreatment with PMA (to downregulate PKC). The TRAP-dependent rise in intracellular calcium also is not inhibited by verapamil or removal of extracellular calcium but is markedly attenuated by depletion of sarcoplasmic reticular calcium stores by caffeine. Patch-clamp experiments demonstrate that TRAP elevates intracellular calcium in cells held at a membrane potential of -70 mV. Taken together, these results support the conclusion that the thrombin receptor modulates contractile function by mobilizing intracellular calcium through an IP3-independent mechanism and that this response does not require activation of voltage-gated ion channels.
Circulation Research 05/1996; 78(4):553-63. · 11.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Carbachol increased ventricular automaticity in a concentration-dependent fashion from a control rate of 72 +/- 5 (mean +/- SEM) to 86 +/- 4 beats per minute at 10(-4) M carbachol. Pirenzepine, an M1-selective antagonist, and AFDX 116, an M2-selective antagonist, both at 10(-7) M, did not block the carbachol-induced positive chronotropic response. In contrast, 10(-7) M HHSiD, an M3-selective antagonist, completely blocked the positive chronotropic effect of carbachol. Carbachol stimulated the accumulation of IP1 in a concentration-dependent manner at concentrations > or = 3 x 10(-6) M. AFDX 116 had no effect on carbachol-induced IP1 accumulation. HHSiD significantly inhibited IP1 accumulation at concentrations > or = 3 x 10(-8) M, while pirenzepine inhibited IP1 accumulation only at concentrations > or = 10(-5) M. McN A343 and methacholine, two muscarinic receptor agonists with minimal M2 activities, and carbachol did not alter basal cAMP concentration, but all three agonists significantly attenuated the increase in cAMP accumulation in response to isoproterenol. Carbachol inhibited isoproterenol-mediated cAMP accumulation at concentrations > or = 10(-7) M. AFDX 116, HHSiD, and pirenzepine blocked the carbachol-induced inhibition of isoproterenol-stimulated cAMP accumulation. At equimolar concentrations, the inhibitory effects of HHSiD and AFDX-116 were similar, while that of pirenzepine was much less. Pretreatment with pertussis toxin for 24 h did not prevent the carbachol-mediated positive chronotropic response or accumulation of IP1 but completely abolished the inhibition of isoproterenol-stimulated cAMP accumulation. These results indicate that (a) neonatal ventricular myocytes in culture have a heterogeneous population of muscarinic (M2 and M3) receptors, (b) the M3 receptor is coupled to pertussis toxin-sensitive and pertussis toxin-insensitive G proteins, (c) M3 receptor stimulation activates phosphoinositide hydrolysis and increases automaticity via a pertussis toxin-insensitive G protein-dependent pathway, and (d) both M2 and M3 receptors couple to pertussis toxin-sensitive G protein(s) to mediate the inhibition of intracellular cAMP accumulation in response to isoproterenol stimulation.
Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology 05/1996; 27(4):455-61. · 2.11 Impact Factor