[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare adherence and persistence to typical versus atypical antipsychotics and between specific atypical agents in the usual care of schizophrenia and to examine the association between adherence and persistence.
Data were drawn from a 3-year prospective, nonrandomized, noninterventional study of schizophrenia conducted during 1997-2003. Initiators on haloperidol, risperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine, and clozapine with at least 1 year of follow-up were included (n = 878). Adherence (Medication Possession Ratio, MPR) and persistence (time to all-cause medication discontinuation) were assessed using medical record prescription information. Analyses employed multivariate statistics adjusted for group differences.
Overall, 58% of the patients were deemed adherent (MPR >80%). Adherence rates were higher: for atypical (59.4%) than typical antipsychotics (34.5%, p < 0.001), for clozapine (77%) than each comparator excluding olanzapine (p < 0.01), and for olanzapine (64%) than risperidone (57%, p = 0.027) and quetiapine (52%, p = 0.019). Differences between risperidone and quetiapine were not statistically significant. Adherence and persistence were highly correlated (r = 0.957, p < 0.001).
In the usual care of schizophrenia, medication adherence and persistence appear to be highly correlated and to significantly differ between typical and atypical antipsychotics and among atypical agents. The choice of antipsychotic may play a meaningful role in patients' adherence to and persistence with antipsychotic medications.
Patient Preference and Adherence 01/2008; 2:67-77. · 1.33 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study examined trends and costs of second-generation antipsychotic polypharmacy among Medicaid beneficiaries with schizophrenia in San Diego County.
Medicaid data were used to identify 15,962 persons with schizophrenia receiving antipsychotic medications between 1999 and 2004. The yearly proportion of beneficiaries receiving second-generation antipsychotic polypharmacy, duration of polypharmacy, inpatient admissions, and pharmaceutical costs were examined.
The proportion of clients receiving second-generation antipsychotic polypharmacy increased from 3.3% in 1999 to 13.7% in 2004, whereas annual antipsychotic medication costs increased from $4,128 to $5,231 (2004 dollars). Among those receiving second-generation polypharmacy, the percentage receiving second-generation polypharmacy for 12 months increased from 5.1% to 14.4%, and the percentage hospitalized increased from 7.2% to 9.0%.
The prevalence of long-term second-generation antipsychotic polypharmacy and its associated costs increased substantially between 1999 and 2004. Prescribing antipsychotic polypharmacy is an unproven and costly strategy that if left unchanged could lead to administrative efforts to cut costs and dictate practice.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study aimed to prospectively identify the best single predictor and the best set of predictors of risk for nonadherence with anti-psychotic medication in the treatment of patients with schizophrenia.
We used data from 1579 patients in a 3-year, prospective, naturalistic, nonrandomized, multisite study of schizophrenia patients conducted from July 1997 to September 2003 (U.S. Schizophrenia Care and Assessment Program). Adherence with any oral antipsychotic medication was assessed using patient-reported medication adherence and an indirect adherence measure based on medical record prescription information. Patients who reported poor medication adherence or had a medication possession ratio < or = 80% (percentage of days with prescriptions for any oral antipsychotic) during the first year after enrollment were defined as nonadherent (N = 296, 18.8%). Thirty-nine previously reported potential risk factors of nonadherence with antipsychotic medication were assessed at enrollment with valid and reliable measures. Risk factors represented patient-, environment-, and treatment-related domains, including sociodemographics, symptom severity, substance use, threat to safety of self and others, other illness-related factors, need for supervision, medication-related adverse events, and prior medication-utilization patterns.
The best single predictor of future nonadherence was nonadherence during the 6 months prior to enrollment (odds ratio = 4.1, 95% confidence interval = 3.1 to 5.6, p < .001). The best set of predictors of nonadherence, ordered by strength of association, included prior non-adherence, recent illicit drug use, recent alcohol use, prior treatment with antidepressants, and greater patient-reported, medication-related cognitive impairment.
Nonadherence with antipsychotic medication is associated with a well-defined set of risk factors that can be used to identify patients who are predisposed to poor adherence.
The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 07/2006; 67(7):1114-23. · 5.81 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Atypical antipsychotics have become a common pharmacologic option for the treatment of various psychiatric and behavioral symptoms in older adults, although these medications have been officially approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for use only in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Despite the widespread use of these agents, there is a relative shortage of rigorously conducted trials. This review focuses on recently published randomized, blinded, controlled trials involving the use of atypical antipsychotics in elderly patients with dementia (n = 9) or schizophrenia (n = 3), with some discussion of published large, open-label studies and a few unpublished controlled trials. In general, the studies of patients with dementia reported modest efficacy of atypical antipsychotics when compared to placebo and conventional antipsychotics. In addition, an advantage in terms of motor side effects was consistently noted with atypical antipsychotics when compared to conventional antipsychotics. The studies have also shown, however, a greater risk of mortality and adverse cerebrovascular events with several of these agents than with placebo in individuals with dementia. There are insufficient data comparing atypical antipsychotics to one another. In the trials involving elderly persons with schizophrenia, atypical antipsychotics were associated with significant improvements in psychopathology; differences in efficacy among atypical antipsychotics were unclear. A careful consideration of the risk-benefit ratio of atypical antipsychotics, as well as that of available alternative treatments, is needed for each individual elderly patient. Clinical judgment, caution, and consent should be the watchwords in this area of psychopharmacology.
Harvard Review of Psychiatry 01/2005; 13(6):340-51. · 3.50 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The authors compared antihypertensive medication adherence and blood pressure control among middle-aged and older outpatients with schizophrenia and related those with psychotic disorders versus persons without any psychiatric illness. A total of 178 subjects were included in the investigation (89 patients with a psychotic disorder and 89 randomly selected, age-matched comparison subjects). Although the two groups had similar antihypertensive medication adherence, the patients with a psychotic disorder were significantly less likely to have had controlled blood pressure during the 1-year study period. The results highlight the need for clinicians to monitor closely the management of medical comorbidity in patients with schizophrenia and related disorders.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to develop and test a brief scale (Brief Evaluation of Medication Influences and Beliefs [BEMIB]) designed to identify patients who are more likely to be nonadherent to their antipsychotic medication.
Sixty-three outpatients with schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders were enrolled and given an assessment battery including the BEMIB, a previously published adherence scale, extrapyramidal symptom rating scales, and an adherence assessment with patient self-report and prescription refill records. The BEMIB consisted of 8 statements derived from the health belief model with a 5-point Likert-type scale for each statement. Subjects chose a single answer for each item depending on their level of agreement or disagreement.
According to refill records, subjects meeting BEMIB-based criteria for nonadherence had significantly larger gaps in antipsychotic therapy (greater nonadherence) compared with those of participants not meeting criteria for nonadherence. For the 1-week test-retest reliability, the BEMIB total score and 5 of 8 single items correlated significantly. BEMIB total scores correlated significantly with an established assessment of adherence (Drug Attitude Inventory), demonstrating adequate construct validity.
The BEMIB represents a promising scale for identifying patients more likely to be nonadherent to their medications.
Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology 09/2004; 24(4):404-9. · 3.51 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The authors' goal was to evaluate the relationship between adherence to treatment with antipsychotic medication and health expenditures. A secondary objective was to identify risk factors predictive of nonadherence.
Data included Medicaid eligibility and claims data from 1998 to 2000 for San Diego County, Calif. Pharmacy records were used to assess adherence to treatment with antipsychotic medication according to the cumulative possession ratio (the number of days medications were available for consumption divided by the number of days subjects were eligible for Medi-Cal). Regression models were used to examine risk factors, hospitalizations, and costs associated with nonadherence, partial adherence, adherence, and excess fills of antipsychotic medication.
Forty-one percent of Medicaid beneficiaries with schizophrenia were found to be adherent to treatment with their antipsychotic medications: 24% were nonadherent, 16% were partially adherent, and 19% were excess fillers. Rates of psychiatric hospitalization were lower for those who were adherent (14%) than for those who were nonadherent (35%), partially adherent (24%), or had excess fills (25%). Rates of medical hospitalization were lower for those who were adherent (7%) than for those who were nonadherent (13%) or had excess fills (12%). Those who were adherent had significantly lower hospital costs than the other groups; pharmacy costs were higher among those who were adherent than among those who were nonadherent or partially adherent and were highest for excess fillers. Total costs for excess fillers (14,044 US dollars) were substantially higher than total costs for any other group.
Despite the widespread use of atypical antipsychotic medications, alarmingly high rates of both underuse and excessive filling of antipsychotic prescriptions were found in Medicaid beneficiaries with schizophrenia. The high rates of antipsychotic nonadherence and associated negative consequences suggest interventions on multiple levels.
American Journal of Psychiatry 05/2004; 161(4):692-9. · 14.72 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To review the clinical features, treatment issues, and research needs surrounding HIV infection in older adults with psychotic disorders and new-onset psychosis in HIV-infected individuals, while focusing on the implications of the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era and the use of atypical antipsychotic agents.
We searched the Medline/HealthStar database for articles that had examined new-onset psychosis in HIV disease and existing HIV infection in adults with psychotic disorders.
Individuals with psychotic disorders have an elevated risk of HIV infection. The risk factors for, prognosis for, and treatment of HIV disease may all be affected by older age. New-onset psychosis in HIV-infected individuals presents with a range of clinical features and is likely to remain a problem encountered in the near future, despite the treatment advances associated with HAART. Antipsychotic agents are the treatment of choice for psychosis in HIV-infected individuals. Research has demonstrated the sensitivity of HIV-infected individuals to the extrapyramidal side-effects of conventional antipsychotic agents, adverse effects that are reduced with the use of atypical antipsychotic agents.
HIV, psychosis, and aging represent a trio with important clinical implications. HIV-infected older adults, a growing portion of the HIV population, face challenges in terms of concomitant illness, treatment sensitivity, and the potential for increased morbidity and premature mortality. Atypical antipsychotic agents in low doses represent an advance over conventional antipsychotic agents, although they do have their own side-effects.
AIDS 02/2004; 18 Suppl 1:S35-42. · 6.41 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Antipsychotics are commonly used for conditions other than schizophrenia, yet support for such use in the literature is unclear. This article reviews the literature on the pharmacologic treatment of specific types of non-schizophrenic disorders: those associated with psychotic depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, body dysmorphic disorder, bipolar disorder, and dementia. It focuses on the evidence for using antipsychotics in these conditions, placing emphasis on atypical antipsychotics. Medline/HealthStar and PsycInfo databases were used to identify published trials and reports of antipsychotics used specifically for non-schizophrenic disorders. Numerous studies were found supporting the use of atypical antipsychotics for non-schizophrenic disorders; however, with the exception of dementia, few randomized, double-blind controlled trials have been published examining the efficacy and safety of these agents in non-schizophrenic disorders. In general, most trials were restricted to short-term use as adjunctive therapy. The literature reviewed was primarily comprised of small open-label trials, thus making it difficult to draw definitive conclusions. Despite the limitations of the trials reviewed, atypical antipsychotics represent a promising treatment modality when considering their improved side effect profile compared to conventional agents. Appropriate dosing and the use of antipsychotics in combination with psychosocial treatments are important treatment considerations. Due to the frequent clinical use of atypical antipsychotics as adjunctive therapy, well-designed trials of these agents in non-schizophrenic disorders are necessary.
Journal of Psychiatric Research 02/2004; 38(1):73-103. · 4.07 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Medication nonadherence presents a considerable problem in patients with schizophrenia. There are limited and conflicting data on the association of cognitive impairment with antipsychotic nonadherence. In this study, we evaluated the correlation of patients' scores on Mattis' Dementia Rating Scale (DRS; total and subscale scores) with scores on the Medication Management Ability Assessment (MMAA), a performance-based measure of medication management.
Participants included 110 outpatients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Each was evaluated using the MMAA role-play tasks and the DRS. Patients also completed the Drug Attitude Inventory (DAI), and the PANSS (Positive And Negative Syndrome Scale).
Age, DAI score, and DRS scores were all correlated with MMAA performance. In a stepwise regression analysis, only DRS scores were predictive of MMAA performance. Among the DRS subscales, conceptualization and memory were the best statistical predictors of MMAA performance.
Cognitive functions, especially conceptualization and memory, were the strongest patient-related predictors of his or her ability to manage medications, over and above the effects of age, gender, education level, symptom severity, and attitudes toward medications. These results suggest a need for intervention studies focused on improving, or at least compensating for, specific cognitive deficits such as those in memory and conceptualization among patients with schizophrenia in order to improve their ability to manage medications.
Schizophrenia Research 10/2003; 63(1-2):49-58. · 4.59 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Antipsychotic nonadherence is an important barrier to the successful treatment of schizophrenia and can lead to clinical and economic burdens. Interventions capable of significantly improving medication adherence in patients with schizophrenia would be beneficial in maximizing treatment outcomes with antipsychotics. This article reviews recent literature reporting interventions designed to improve antipsychotic adherence in patients with schizophrenia. We searched the Medline, Healthstar, and PsycInfo electronic databases for articles published since 1980 on interventions to improve medication adherence in schizophrenia. Twenty-one studies met our selection criteria. In this review, educational, behavioral, affective, or a combination of these approaches to improve adherence were examined. A total of 23 interventions were tested, as 2 studies investigated more than 1 intervention. While study design and adherence measures varied across the trials reviewed, medication adherence was noted to moderately improve with 15 of the 23 interventions tested. Interventions of a purely educational nature were the least successful at improving antipsychotic adherence. The greatest improvement in adherence was seen with interventions employing combinations of educational, behavioral, and affective strategies with which improvements in adherence were noted in 8 out of 12 studies, with additional secondary gains such as: reduced relapse, decreased hospitalization, decreased psychopathology, improved social function, gains in medication knowledge, and improved insight into the need for treatment. Longer interventions and an alliance with therapists also appeared important for successful outcomes. The continuing development and study of successful interventions to improve medication adherence are necessary to maximize the usefulness of pharmacologic treatment of schizophrenia.
Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology 09/2003; 23(4):389-99. · 3.51 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our aim was to study the risk of developing tardive dyskinesia in highly vulnerable patients (i.e., middle-aged and older adults with borderline dyskinesia) treated with conventional versus atypical antipsychotics.We examined the cumulative incidence of definitive tardive dyskinesia at 1, 3, and 6 months during antipsychotic treatment among 240 outpatients at least 45 years of age who had borderline tardive dyskinesia at baseline. Patients treated with conventional antipsychotics were approximately two times more likely to develop definitive tardive dyskinesia during the study period compared with those treated with atypical antipsychotics (p <.001). This difference was found despite patients in the atypical antipsychotic group being significantly older and having more severe extrapyramidal symptoms at baseline than those prescribed typical antipsychotics. Among patients at a very high risk for worsening tardive dyskinesia, the use of atypical antipsychotics was associated with a significantly lower risk of developing definitive tardive dyskinesia compared with conventional antipsychotics.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The prevalence and consequences of nonadherence to antipsychotic medications in schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders have been well described; however, little is known about adherence to medications for nonpsychiatric conditions in patients with psychotic disorders. We wished to determine medication adherence in nondemented middle-aged and older Veterans Affairs outpatients with schizophrenia or other psychotic disorders who had been prescribed oral medications for hypertension, hyperlipidemia, or diabetes.
Medication adherence was assessed by review of medication fill records for 76 patients aged 40 years and older who had been prescribed an oral antipsychotic in addition to an oral agent for hypertension (N = 60), hyperlipidemia (N = 28), or diabetes (N = 24). Up to 12 months of therapy was reviewed, and a compliant fill rate (the number of adherent fills in proportion to the total number of prescription fills) and cumulative mean gap ratio (the number of days when medication was unavailable in relation to the total number of days) were calculated for each medication.
The 12-month mean compliant fill rates for antipsychotics, antihypertensives, antihyperlipidemics, and antidiabetics ranged from 52% to 64%. Nonpsychiatric medication adherence rates were similar in patients on typical vs. atypical antipsychotics and did not correlate significantly with antipsychotic adherence rates.
Nonadherence rates were found to be equally problematic for both antipsychotic and nonpsychiatric medications in middle-aged and older patients with psychotic disorders. Interventions to improve adherence to both antipsychotic and nonpsychiatric medications are needed.
Psychosomatic Medicine 01/2003; 65(1):156-62. · 4.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nonadherence to prescribed antipsychotic medications places patients with schizophrenia at a greatly increased risk of illness exacerbation and rehospitalization. Identification of risk factors for nonadherence is an initial step toward designing effective interventions. This article reviews recent literature on the prevalence of and risk factors for medication nonadherence in patients with schizophrenia.
We searched the MEDLINE/HealthSTAR and PsycINFO databases using combinations of the keywords risk factor(s), adherence, compliance, antipsychotic, neuroleptic, schizophrenia, and psychosis for articles published since 1980 that identified risk factors for medication nonadherence in schizophrenia patients. We included reports that (1) were published in English and (2) specifically examined risk factors for medication nonadherence. Thirty-nine articles met our selection criteria.
Among the 10 reports that met a strict set of study inclusion criteria, we found a mean rate of nonadherence of 41.2%; the 5 reports that met a stricter set of inclusion criteria had a mean nonadherence rate of 49.5%. In the 39 articles reviewed, factors most consistently associated with nonadherence included poor insight, negative attitude or subjective response toward medication, previous nonadherence, substance abuse, shorter illness duration, inadequate discharge planning or aftercare environment, and poorer therapeutic alliance. Findings regarding an association between adherence and medication type were inconclusive, although few studies explored this relationship. Other factors such as age, gender, ethnicity, marital status, education level, neurocognitive impairment, severity of psychotic symptoms, severity of medication side effects, higher antipsychotic dose, presence of mood symptoms, route of medication administration, and family involvement were not found to be consistent predictors of nonadherence. Limitations of the published literature are discussed.
Efforts to improve medication adherence in patients with schizophrenia should target relevant risk factors.
The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 11/2002; 63(10):892-909. · 5.81 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A number of studies, using different research designs and assessment instruments, have been conducted to elucidate the differential effects of drug treatments for psychosis, agitation and aggression in elderly patients with dementia. We have reviewed literature published from 1960 to 2000 on this topic; 48 studies that met our selection criteria were identified from Medline and Science Citation Index. Antipsychotic medication was generally effective for the treatment of psychosis and agitation in elderly patients with dementia. In double-blind, placebo-controlled trials in this population, mean improvement rates were 61% with antipsychotics and 35% with placebo. Atypical antipsychotics appeared promising, but the number of well-designed studies has been small so far. Methodological limitations of the studies reviewed are discussed; future trials should ensure adequate sample size and duration and involve direct comparisons of individual medications. In conclusion, conventional antipsychotics are modestly effective for treatment of psychosis and agitation in elderly individuals with dementia, whereas newer treatments such as atypical antipsychotics appear to be at least as effective while having fewer adverse effects. Nonetheless, there is no currently available ideal pharmacotherapy, and psychosocial management is a necessary part of overall treatment. Additional large-scale, well-controlled studies are needed before conclusive statements regarding the value of treatment of psychosis and agitation with atypical antipsychotics and non-antipsychotic agents can be made.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pharmacy refill records were used to compare medication adherence in outpatient veterans receiving typical versus atypical antipsychotic medications.
Consecutive patients meeting selection criteria and receiving prescriptions for haloperidol (N=57), perphenazine (N=60), risperidone (N=80), olanzapine (N=63), and quetiapine (N=28) over a 3-month period were identified from a computerized database. The hospital policy at the time of this study required failure in trials of at least two typical antipsychotics before initiation of an atypical agent. Patients' adherence with the antipsychotic regimen was calculated by analyzing refill records for up to 12 months. The cumulative mean gap ratio (the number of days when medication was unavailable in relation to the total number of days) and the compliant fill rate (the number of prescription fills indicating adherence in relation to the total number of prescription fills) at 6 and 12 months were calculated.
Adherence rates at 6 and 12 months were moderately higher in patients who received atypical antipsychotics than in those who received typical agents. Cumulative mean gap ratios were 23.2% for typical and 14.1% for atypical antipsychotics at 12 months; thus, patients who received typical agents were without medication for an average of 7 days per month, compared with 4 days per month for those who received atypical agents. At 12 months, compliant fill rates were 50.1% for typical and 54.9% for atypical antipsychotics.
Interventions to improve adherence are warranted even for patients who receive atypical antipsychotic medications.
American Journal of Psychiatry 02/2002; 159(1):103-8. · 14.72 Impact Factor