[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interactions between zinc (Zn) and phosphate (Pi) nutrition in plants have long been recognized, but little information is available on their molecular bases and biological significance. This work aimed at examining the effects of Zn deficiency on Pi accumulation in Arabidopsis thaliana and uncovering genes involved in the Zn-Pi synergy. Wild-type plants as well as mutants affected in Pi signalling and transport genes, namely the transcription factor PHR1, the E2-conjugase PHO2, and the Pi exporter PHO1, were examined. Zn deficiency caused an increase in shoot Pi content in the wild type as well as in the pho2 mutant, but not in the phr1 or pho1 mutants. This indicated that PHR1 and PHO1 participate in the coregulation of Zn and Pi homeostasis. Zn deprivation had a very limited effect on transcript levels of Pi-starvation-responsive genes such as AT4, IPS1, and microRNA399, or on of members of the high-affinity Pi transporter family PHT1. Interestingly, one of the PHO1 homologues, PHO1;H3, was upregulated in response to Zn deficiency. The expression pattern of PHO1 and PHO1;H3 were similar, both being expressed in cells of the root vascular cylinder and both localized to the Golgi when expressed transiently in tobacco cells. When grown in Zn-free medium, pho1;h3 mutant plants displayed higher Pi contents in the shoots than wild-type plants. This was, however, not observed in a pho1 pho1;h3 double mutant, suggesting that PHO1;H3 restricts root-to-shoot Pi transfer requiring PHO1 function for Pi homeostasis in response to Zn deficiency.
Journal of Experimental Botany 01/2014; · 5.24 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cadmium (Cd) is a metal pollutant that accumulates in cultivated soils and has detrimental consequences in terms of food safety. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) can characterised by having a high capacity to accumulate Cd in its tissues. An analysis of Cd tolerance and Cd accumulation was carried out using two varieties of lettuce (‘Divina’ and ‘Melina’). A wide range of CdCl2 concentrations was used (0.0, 0.1, 0.6, 3.0, and 15.0 µM CdCl2). The lowest concentration (0.1 µM CdCl2) stimula’ted growth, while the two highest concentrations resulted in a reduction of the biomass production. Cadmium concentrations were found to be twice as high in roots as in shoots. ‘Divina’ displayed lower concentrations of Cd than ‘Melina’ in nearly all treatments. A strong negative correlation was observed between Cd concentrations and Cd tolerance in the roots and shoots (R² > 0.87) of both ‘Melina’ and ‘Divina’. Lettuce grown in the presence of 15.0 µM CdCl2 had leaf Cd concentrations that were 100 fold higher than the legal maximum level for vegetable products marketed for human consumption, but showed no signs of dehydration, chlorosis, or necrosis. This result is an important alert for lettuce consumers and growers.
Journal of Horticultural Science and Biotechnology 11/2013; 88(6):783–789. · 0.51 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Plant defensins are recognized for their antifungal properties. However, a few type 1 defensins (PDF1s) were identified for their cellular zinc (Zn) tolerance properties after a study of the metal extremophile Arabidopsis halleri. In order to investigate whether different paralogues would display specialized functions, the A. halleri PDF1 family was characterized at the functional and genomic levels. Eleven PDF1s were isolated from A. halleri. Their ability to provide Zn tolerance in yeast cells, their activity against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonii, and their level of expression in planta were compared with those of the seven A. thaliana PDF1s. The genomic organization of the PDF1 family was comparatively analysed within the Arabidopsis genus. AhPDF1s and AtPDF1s were able to confer Zn tolerance and AhPDF1s also displayed antifungal activity. PDF1 transcripts were constitutively more abundant in A. halleri than in A. thaliana. Within the Arabidopsis genus, the PDF1 family is evolutionarily dynamic, in terms of gain and loss of gene copy. Arabidopsis halleri PDF1s display no superior abilities to provide Zn tolerance. A constitutive increase in AhPDF1 transcript accumulation is proposed to be an evolutionary innovation co-opting the promiscuous PDF1 protein for its contribution to Zn tolerance in A. halleri.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Zinc (Zn) is essential for the optimal growth of plants but is toxic if present in excess, so Zn homeostasis needs to be finely tuned. Understanding Zn homeostasis mechanisms in plants will help in the development of innovative approaches for the phytoremediation of Zn-contaminated sites. In this study, Zn tolerance quantitative trait loci (QTL) were identified by analyzing differences in the Bay-0 and Shahdara accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana. Fine-scale mapping showed that a variant of the Fe homeostasis-related FERRIC REDUCTASE DEFECTIVE3 (FRD3) gene, which encodes a multidrug and toxin efflux (MATE) transporter, is responsible for reduced Zn tolerance in A. thaliana. Allelic variation in FRD3 revealed which amino acids are necessary for FRD3 function. In addition, the results of allele-specific expression assays in F1 individuals provide evidence for the existence of at least one putative metal-responsive cis-regulatory element. Our results suggest that FRD3 works as a multimer and is involved in loading Zn into xylem. Cross-homeostasis between Fe and Zn therefore appears to be important for Zn tolerance in A. thaliana with FRD3 acting as an essential regulator.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Plant Zn/Cd/Pb/Co P1B-ATPases (HMAs) play different roles, among which are the control of metal transport from the roots to the shoot and/or from the cytoplasm into the cell vacuole. Transferring the knowledge acquired on HMAs from model species to HMAs from other species requires one to identify orthologues in these other species. Through an extensive screening of the public sequence databases, 96 plant P1B-ATPases showing orthology to any of the AtHMA1, AtHMA2, AtHMA3 or AtHMA4 isoforms were identified from 32 plant species belonging to 15 botanical families. The number of paralogues within a species varied greatly from species to species, even within a specific botanical family, suggesting that gene duplication events occurred after speciation. The phylogenetic tree gathering the Zn/Cd/Pb/Co P1B-ATPases was strongly structured according to the botanical family to which the sequences could be related to. In particular, no strict orthology relationship links the Brassicaceae HMAs to the non-Brassicaceae or the Poaceae ones. Recent data showed that the sole rice HMA characterised to date displays different functional properties from the Arabidopsis HMAs. Altogether, data suggest that it might be risky to directly transfer the knowledge acquired through the study of HMAs in model plant species to HMAs from other species.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: • Apart from their antifungal role, plant defensins have recently been shown to be involved in abiotic stress tolerance or in inhibition of root growth when added in plant culture medium. We studied the subcellular localization of these proteins, which may account for these different roles. • Stable and transient expression of AhPDF1.1::GFP (green fluorescent protein) fusion proteins were analysed in yeast and plants. Functional tests established that the GFP tag did not alter the action of the defensin. Subcellular localization of AhPDF1.1 was characterized: by imaging AhPDF1.1::GFP together with organelle markers; and by immunolabelling AhPDF1.1 in Arabidopsis halleri and Arabidopsis thaliana leaves using a polyclonal serum. • All our independent approaches demonstrated that AhPDF1.1 is retained in intracellular compartments on the way to the lytic vacuole, instead of being addressed to the apoplasm. • These findings challenge the commonly accepted idea of secretion of defensins. The subcellular localization highlighted in this study could partly explain the dual role of plant defensins on plant cells and is of major importance to unravel the mechanisms of action of these proteins at the cellular level.
New Phytologist 06/2011; 192(1):140-50. · 6.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This work reports the first characterization of the natural variation of Zn tolerance and accumulation in Arabidopsis thaliana. Root and shoot growth as well as Zn content were determined for 27 A. thaliana accessions grown in vitro in presence of Zn concentrations ranging from 1 to 250 µm. All traits varied by at least twofold and their broad sense heritability varied from 0.36 to 0.91. Primary and lateral root developments were differently affected by Zn in the different accessions. Remarkably, Zn was for the first time shown to be essential for the development of lateral roots. As a general rule, the different traits showed uncorrelated variations. In particular, variation in Zn tolerance was not linked to either root or shoot Zn contents. The only detectable relationship between different traits linked Zn sensitivity of roots to root-to-shoot Zn translocation but the correlation between variation of these traits was pretty low. This suggests that Zn translocation from root to shoots explains only a part of Zn tolerance. Our analysis opens the way to the characterization of genetic determinants controlling different Zn-related traits through the identification of particular accessions displaying contrasted phenotypes and representing excellent starting material to develop quantitative trait locus (QTL) studies.
Plant Cell and Environment 03/2011; 34(7):1065-78. · 5.14 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) is a plant species that shows high accumulation of cadmium, a toxic heavy metal. Lettuce is therefore a good model both for identifying determinants controlling cadmium accumulation in plant tissues and for developing breeding strategies aimed at limiting cadmium accumulation in edible tissues. In this work, 14-day-old plants from three lettuce varieties were grown for 8 days on media supplemented with cadmium concentrations ranging from 0 to 50 microM. Growth, as well as Cd(2+), Zn(2+), K(+), Ca(2+), NO(3)(-), SO(4)(2-), Cl(-), phosphate, malate and citrate root an shoot contents were analyzed. The three lettuce varieties Paris Island Cos, Red Salad Bowl and Kordaat displayed differential abilities to accumulate cadmium in roots and shoots, Paris Island Cos displaying the lowest cadmium content and Kordaat the highest. From the global analysis of the three varieties, three main trends were identified. First, a common negative correlation linked cadmium tissue content and relative dry weight reduction in response to cadmium treatments in the three varieties. Second, increasing cadmium concentration in the culture medium resulted in a parallel increase in zinc tissue content in all lettuce varieties. A common strong positive correlation between cadmium and zinc contents was observed for all varieties. This suggested that systems enabling zinc and cadmium transport were induced by cadmium. Finally, the cadmium treatments had a contrasting effect on anion contents in tissues. Interestingly, citrate content in shoots was correlated with cadmium translocation from roots to shoots, suggesting that citrate might play a role in cadmium transport in the xylem vessels. Altogether, these results shed light on three main strategies developed by lettuce to cope with cadmium, which could help to develop breeding strategies aimed at limiting cadmium accumulation in lettuce.
Journal of plant physiology 10/2010; 167(15):1239-47. · 2.50 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gene duplication is a major mechanism facilitating adaptation to changing environments. From recent genomic analyses, the acquisition of zinc hypertolerance and hyperaccumulation characters discriminating Arabidopsis halleri from its zinc sensitive/non-accumulator closest relatives Arabidopsis lyrata and Arabidopsis thaliana was proposed to rely on duplication of genes controlling zinc transport or zinc tolerance. Metal Tolerance Protein 1 (MTP1) is one of these genes. It encodes a Zn(2+)/H(+) antiporter involved in cytoplasmic zinc detoxification and thus in zinc tolerance. MTP1 was proposed to be triplicated in A. halleri, while it is present in single copy in A. thaliana and A. lyrata. Two of the three AhMTP1 paralogues were shown to co-segregate with zinc tolerance in a BC1 progeny from a cross between A. halleri and A. lyrata. In this work, the MTP1 family was characterized at both the genomic and functional levels in A. halleri. Five MTP1 paralogues were found to be present in A. halleri, AhMTP1-A1, -A2, -B, -C, and -D. Interestingly, one of the two newly identified AhMTP1 paralogues was not fixed at least in one A. halleri population. All MTP1s were expressed, but transcript accumulation of the paralogues co-segregating with zinc tolerance in the A. halleri X A. lyrata BC1 progeny was markedly higher than that of the other paralogues. All MTP1s displayed the ability to functionally complement a Saccharomyces cerevisiae zinc hypersensitive mutant. However, the paralogue showing the least complementation of the yeast mutant phenotype was one of the paralogues co-segregating with zinc tolerance. From our results, the hypothesis that pentaplication of MTP1 could be a major basis of the zinc tolerance character in A. halleri is strongly counter-balanced by the fact that members of the MTP1 family are likely to experience different evolutionary fates, some of which not concurring to increase zinc tolerance.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Potassium-sodium interaction was compared in two natural accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana, Columbia-0 and NOK2. Seedlings were grown in the presence of 0 or 50 mM NaCl and 0.1; 0.625 or 2.5 mM K(+). At the lowest K(+) concentration, salt treatment inhibited both K(+) uptake and growth. Increasing the K(+) availability did not modified salt response in Columbia-0, but restored nearly normal net K(+) uptake in NaCl condition and alleviated NaCl growth reduction in NOK2. The effect of K(+) and NaCl on transcript level of several K(+) and Na(+) transporters in both shoots and roots was assessed using semi-quantitative RT-PCR. The mRNA abundance of the NHX1 and SOS1 Na(+)/H(+) antiporters was significantly increased by 50 mM NaCl in the two accessions. NHX1, which is responsible for Na(+) sequestration into vacuoles, was more up-regulated in NOK2 leaves than in Columbia-0's in NaCl stress condition. AKT1, which is the major channel involved in K(+) absorption, was down-regulated in salt stress condition, but was not responding to K(+) treatments. Only in NOK2, SKOR and AKT2, which respectively control xylem and phloem K(+) transport, were markedly up-regulated by 2.5 mM K(+) in both roots and shoots, independently of NaCl. Phenotypic and gene expression analyses suggest that the relative salt tolerance of NOK2 is mainly due to a high ability to sequester Na(+) in the vacuole and to take up and transport K(+). Up-regulation of SKOR and AKT2 by K(+), and of NHX1 by NaCl could participate in determining this phenotype.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Production of the recombinant Arabidopsis halleri defensin AhPDF1.1 in a native-like form.
Mature AhPDF1.1 cDNA was cloned into pET-28-a(+) and expressed in Escherichia coli Rosetta. After a denaturing extraction, purification by metal affinity chromatography and CNBr cleavage of the His-tag, a protein without extra amino acids at the N-terminus was obtained. An oxidative folding step was then required to renature the protein that was then purified to homogeneity by a C18 HPLC separation. Mass spectroscopy and circular dichroism analyses showed that the recombinant AhPDF1.1 has the expected molecular mass and 3D-structure features of a folded defensin with four-disulfide bridges. The recombinant protein is active against the filamentous fungus Fusarium oxysporum with a minimal inhibitory concentration of 0.6 micromol l(-1).
The proposed purification protocol produces a native-like defensin suitable for tests of new biological roles.
Plant defensins are essentially known as anti-fungal proteins; however, some unexpected actions on plant cells have recently been discovered. AhPDF1.1, for example, has been shown to confer zinc tolerance. Efficient production of native-like defensins is required to explore the different targets and roles of plant defensins.
Journal of Applied Microbiology 03/2009; 106(5):1640-8. · 2.20 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: * In Arabidopsis, SULTR1;1 and SULTR1;2 are two genes proposed to be involved in high-affinity sulphate uptake from the soil solution. We address here the specific issue of their functional redundancy for the uptake of sulphate and for the accumulation of its toxic analogue selenate with regard to plant growth and selenate tolerance. * Using the complete set of genotypes, including the wild-type, each one of the single sultr1;1 and sultr1;2 mutants and the resulting double sultr1;1-sultr1;2 mutant, we performed a detailed phenotypic analysis of root length, shoot biomass, sulphate uptake, sulphate and selenate accumulation and selenate tolerance. * The results all ordered the four different genotypes according to the same functional hierarchy. Wild-type and sultr1;1 mutant plants displayed similar phenotypes. By contrast, sultr1;1-sultr1;2 double-mutant plants showed the most extreme phenotype and the sultr1;2 mutant displayed intermediate performances. Additionally, the degree of selenate tolerance was directly related to the seedling selenate content according to a single sigmoid regression curve common to all the genotypes. * The SULTR1;1 and SULTR1;2 genes display unequal functional redundancy, which leaves open for SULTR1;1 the possibility of displaying an additional function besides its role in sulphate membrane transport.
New Phytologist 09/2008; 180(3):608-19. · 6.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The molecular mechanisms regulating the initial uptake of inorganic sulfate in plants are still largely unknown. The current model for the regulation of sulfate uptake and assimilation attributes positive and negative regulatory roles to O-acetyl-serine (O-acetyl-Ser) and glutathione, respectively. This model seems to suffer from exceptions and it has not yet been clearly validated whether intracellular O-acetyl-Ser and glutathione levels have impacts on regulation. The transcript level of the two high-affinity sulfate transporters SULTR1.1 and SULTR1.2 responsible for sulfate uptake from the soil solution was compared to the intracellular contents of O-acetyl-Ser, glutathione, and sulfate in roots of plants submitted to a wide diversity of experimental conditions. SULTR1.1 and SULTR1.2 were differentially expressed and neither of the genes was regulated in accordance with the current model. The SULTR1.1 transcript level was mainly altered in response to the sulfur-related treatments. Split-root experiments show that the expression of SULTR1.1 is locally regulated in response to sulfate starvation. In contrast, accumulation of SULTR1.2 transcripts appeared to be mainly related to metabolic demand and is controlled by photoperiod. On the basis of the new molecular insights provided in this study, we suggest that the expression of the two transporters depends on different regulatory networks. We hypothesize that interplay between SULTR1.1 and SULTR1.2 transporters could be an important mechanism to regulate sulfate content in the roots.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We constructed and characterized the first large-insert DNA BAC library for Arabidopsis halleri, a close relative of Arabidopsis thaliana. Double size selection of high molecular weight DNA was performed to increase the average insert size. The BAC library consists of 6128 clones of which 87% have an insert size above 125 kb. Organellar DNA contamination is estimated to 1.4%. The coverage of the library is equivalent to 4.5 times the haploid genome (250 Mb), indicating the library is suitable for almost any application. We explored the possibility of generating a physical map of A. halleri using the high conserved synteny existing between this species and A. thaliana. A set of unigenes separated by 50 kb in a 850 kb region of A. thaliana chromosome II was used to probe the library. The A. halleri BAC clones isolated with these probes were grouped into two contigs. Analysis of BAC-end sequences revealed that the two A. halleri genomic contigs were highly colinear with the A. thaliana genome. Therefore, the exploitation of the conserved synteny existing between the two species will greatly facilitate the construction of a raw full physical map of A. halleri.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Screening an Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) T-DNA mutant library for selenate resistance enabled us to isolate a selenate-resistant mutant line (sel1-11). Molecular and genetic characterization showed that the mutant contained a lesion in the SULTR1;2 gene that encodes a high affinity root sulfate transporter. We showed that SULTR1;2 is the only gene among 13 mutated genes of the Arabidopsis sulfate transporter family whose mutation conferred selenate resistance to Arabidopsis. The selenate resistance phenotype of the sel1-11 mutant was mirrored by an 8-fold increase of root growth in the presence of selenate as shown by the calculated lethal concentration values. The impairment of SULTR1;2 activity in sel1-11 resulted in a reduced (35)S-sulfate uptake capacity by both roots and calli and a reduced sulfate and selenate content in root, shoot, and calli. Comparing sulfate-to-selenate ratios instead of absolute sulfate and selenate contents in roots and shoots enabled us to gain better insight into the mechanism of selenate toxicity in Arabidopsis. Roots of the sel1-11 mutant line showed a higher sulfate to selenate ratio than that of wild-type roots, while there were no significant differences in sulfate to selenate ratios in shoots of wild-type and mutant lines. These results indicated that the mechanism that confers the selenate resistance phenotype to the sel1-11 line takes place rather in the roots. It might be in part the result of a lower selenate uptake and of a protective effect of sulfate against the toxic effects of selenate on root growth. These results revealed in plants a central and specific role of the transporter SULTR1;2 in selenate sensitivity; they further suggested that root growth and potentially the root tip activity might be a specific target of selenate toxicity in Arabidopsis.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The metal tolerance of metal hyper-accumulating plants is a poorly understood mechanism. In order to unravel the molecular basis of zinc (Zn) tolerance in the Zn hyper-accumulating plant Arabidopsis halleri ssp. halleri, we carried out a functional screening of an A. halleri cDNA library in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to search for genes conferring Zn tolerance to yeast cells. The screening revealed four A. halleri defensin genes (AhPDFs), which induced Zn but not cadmium (Cd) tolerance in yeast. The expression of AhPDF1.1 under the control of the 35S promoter in A. thaliana made the transgenic plants more tolerant to Zn than wild-type plants, but did not change the tolerance to Cd, copper (Cu), cobalt (Co), iron (Fe) or sodium (Na). Thus, AhPDF1.1 is able to confer Zn tolerance both to yeast and plants. In A. halleri, defensins are constitutively accumulated at a higher level in shoots than in A. thaliana. A. halleri defensin pools are Zn-responsive, both at the mRNA and protein levels. In A. thaliana, some but not all defensin genes are induced by ZnCl2 treatment, and these genes are not induced by NaCl treatment. Defensins, found in a very large number of organisms, are known to be involved in the innate immune system but have never been found to play any role in metal physiology. Our results support the proposition that defensins could be involved in Zn tolerance in A. halleri, and that a role for plant defensins in metal physiology should be considered.
The Plant Journal 09/2006; 47(3):329-42. · 6.58 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The C-terminal region of sulfate transporters from plants and animals belonging to the SLC26 family members shares a weak but significant similarity with the Bacillus sp. anti-anti-sigma protein SpoIIAA, thus defining the STAS domain (sulfate transporter and anti-sigma antagonist). The present study is a structure/function analysis of the STAS domain of SULTR1.2, an Arabidopsis thaliana sulfate transporter. A three-dimensional model of the SULTR1.2 STAS domain was built which indicated that it shares the SpoIIAA folds. Moreover, the phosphorylation site, which is necessary for SpoIIAA activity, is conserved in the SULTR1.2 STAS domain. The model was used to direct mutagenesis studies using a yeast mutant defective for sulfate transport. Truncation of the whole SULTR1.2 STAS domain resulted in the loss of sulfate transport function. Analyses of small deletions and mutations showed that the C-terminal tail of the SULTR1.2 STAS domain and particularly two cysteine residues plays an important role in sulfate transport by SULTR1.2. All the substitutions made at the putative phosphorylation site Thr-587 led to a complete loss of the sulfate transport function of SULTR1.2. The reduction or suppression of sulfate transport of the SULTR1.2 mutants in yeast was not due to an incorrect targeting to the plasma membrane. Both our three-dimensional modeling and mutational analyses strengthen the hypothesis that the SULTR1.2 STAS domain is involved in protein-protein interactions that could control sulfate transport.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 05/2005; 280(16):15976-83. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two allelic recessive mutations of Arabidopsis, sas2-1 and sas2-2, were identified as inducing sodium overaccumulation in shoots. The sas2 locus was found (by positional cloning) to correspond to the AtHKT1 gene. Expression in Xenopus oocytes revealed that the sas2-1 mutation did not affect the ionic selectivity of the transporter but strongly reduced the macro scopic (whole oocyte current) transport activity. In Arabidopsis, expression of AtHKT1 was shown to be restricted to the phloem tissues in all organs. The sas2-1 mutation strongly decreased Na(+) concentration in the phloem sap. It led to Na(+) overaccumulation in every aerial organ (except the stem), but to Na(+) underaccumulation in roots. The sas2 plants displayed increased sensitivity to NaCl, with reduced growth and even death under moderate salinity. The whole set of data indicates that AtHKT1 is involved in Na(+) recirculation from shoots to roots, probably by mediating Na(+) loading into the phloem sap in shoots and unloading in roots, this recirculation removing large amounts of Na(+) from the shoot and playing a crucial role in plant tolerance to salt.
The EMBO Journal 06/2003; 22(9):2004-14. · 9.82 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A recessive mutation of Arabidopsis designated sas1 (for sodium overaccumulation in shoot) that was mapped to the bottom of chromosome III resulted in a two- to sevenfold overaccumulation of Na(+) in shoots compared with wild-type plants. sas1 is a pleiotropic mutation that also caused severe growth reduction. The impact of NaCl stress on growth was similar for sas1 and wild-type plants; however, with regard to survival, sas1 plants displayed increased sensitivity to NaCl and LiCl treatments compared with wild-type plants. sas1 mutants overaccumulated Na(+) and its toxic structural analog Li(+), but not K(+), Mg(2)+, or Ca(2)+. Sodium accumulated preferentially over K(+) in a similar manner for sas1 and wild-type plants. Sodium overaccumulation occurred in all of the aerial organs of intact sas1 plants but not in roots. Sodium-treated leaf fragments or calli displayed similar Na(+) accumulation levels for sas1 and wild-type tissues. This suggested that the sas1 mutation impaired Na(+) long-distance transport from roots to shoots. The transpiration stream was similar in sas1 and wild-type plants, whereas the Na(+) concentration in the xylem sap of sas1 plants was 5.5-fold higher than that of wild-type plants. These results suggest that the sas1 mutation disrupts control of the radial transport of Na(+) from the soil solution to the xylem vessels.
The Plant Cell 02/2001; 13(1):125-37. · 9.25 Impact Factor