[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The transmission of CAEV from male goats has not been well studied and the target cells that support viral replication are not well characterized. Epididymal epithelial cells (EECs) are important and play a key role in the fertility and motility of spermatozoa. During their transit, spermatozoa incorporate several EEC-produced proteins into their plasma membranes to stabilize them and prevent premature acrosomal reaction. This intimate interaction between spermatozoa and EECs may increase the likelihood of the infection of semen with CAEV if epididymal tissue is productively infected and sheds the virus into the duct. The aim of this study was to examine whether goat EECs are susceptible to CAEV infection in tissue culture. Cells were isolated from epididymides obtained from goats that were sampled from a certified-CAEV-free herd. Cultured cells were then inoculated with a molecularly-cloned isolate of CAEV (CAEV-pBSCA). Inoculated cells developed cytopathic effects (CPE), showing numerous multinucleated giant cells (MGC) in cell-culture monolayers. Expression of CAEV proteins was detected by immunofluorescence using an anti-p28, Gag-specific antibody. The culture medium of inoculated cells was shown to contain high titers (10(6) tissue culture infectious doses 50 per ml (TCID50/ml)) of infectious, cytopathic virus when assayed using indicator goat synovial membrane (GSM) cells. Our findings clearly demonstrate that cells of the buck genital tract are targets of CAEV and are thus a potential reservoir that sheds infectious CAEV into the semen of infected animals. These data suggest the use of sperm from CAEV-free goat males for artificial insemination in genetic selection programs to minimize CAEV dissemination.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Coxiella burnetii, an obligate intracellular bacterium of worldwide distribution, is responsible for Q fever. Detection of significant bacterial loads in flushing media and tissue samples (oviducts and uterine horns) from the genital tracts of nonpregnant goats is a risk factor for in utero infection and transmission during embryo transfer (Alsaleh et al. 2011 CIMID 34, 355-360). The aim of this study was to investigate (1) whether cells of early goat embryos isolated from in vivo fertilized goats interact with C. burnetii in vitro, (2) whether the embryonic zona pellucida (ZP) protects early embryo cells from infection, and (3) the efficacy of the washing protocol recommend by the IETS for bovine embryos. The study was performed in triple replicate: 12 donor goats, certified negative by ELISA and PCR, were synchronized, superovulated, and subsequently inseminated by Q fever-negative males. Sixty-eight embryos were collected 4 days later by laparotomy. Two-thirds of the resulting ZP-intact and ZP-free 8- to 16-cell embryos (9-9, 11-11, and 4-4 in replicates 1, 2, and 3, respectively) were placed in 1mL of MEM containing 10(7) C. burnetii CBC1 (IASP, INRA Tours). After overnight incubation at 37°C and 5% CO(2), the embryos were washed according to the IETS procedure. In parallel, the remaining third ZP-intact and ZP-free uninfected embryos (3-3, 5-5, and 2-2 in replicates 1, 2, and 3, respectively) were submitted to the same procedures but without C. burnetii, thus serving as controls. The 10 washing fluids for all batches of each replicate were collected and centrifuged for 1h at 13000g. The washed embryos and pellets were tested by PCR. Coxiella burnetii DNA was found in all batches of ZP-intact and ZP-free infected embryos after 10 successive washes. It was also detected in the first 5 washing fluids for ZP-free embryos and in the first 8 washing fluids for ZP-intact embryos. None of the control batches (embryos and washing fluids) were found to contain bacterial DNA. These results clearly demonstrate that caprine early embryonic cells are susceptible to infection by C. burnetii. The bacterium shows a strong tendency to cling to the ZP after in vitro infection, and the washing procedure recommended by the IETS for bovine embryos failed to remove it. The persistence of these bacteria makes the embryo a potential means of transmission to recipient goats. Further studies are needed to investigate whether the enzymatic treatment of caprine embryos infected by C. burnetii would eliminate the bacteria from the ZP.
Reproduction Fertility and Development 12/2012; 25(1):231-2. · 2.58 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to investigate methods of decontaminating early goat embryos that had been infected in vitro with bluetongue virus (BTV). Embryos were isolated from in vivo-fertilized BTV-free goats. Zona pellucida (ZP)-intact 8 to 16 cell embryos were cocultured for 36 h in an insert over a Vero cell monolayer infected with BTV serotype 8. The embryos were then treated with one of five different washing procedures. The treatment standard (TS) comprised phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) + 0.4% BSA (five times over for 10 s), Hank's +0.25% trypsin (twice for 45 s), and then PBS + 0.4% BSA again (five times for 10 s). The four other washing procedures all included the same first and last washing steps with PBS but without BSA (five times for 10 s) and with PBS + 0.4% BSA (five times for 10 s), respectively. The intermediate step varied for each washing procedure. Treatment 1 (T1): 0.25% trypsin (twice for 45 s). Treatment 2 (T2): 0.25% trypsin (twice for 60 s). Treatment 3 (T3): 0.5% trypsin (twice for 45 s). Treatment 4 (T4): 1% hyaluronidase (once for 5 min). After washing, the embryos were transferred and cocultured with BTV indicator Vero cell monolayers for 6 h, to detect any cytopathic effects (CPE). The effectiveness of the different washing techniques in removing the virus was evaluated by RT-qPCR analysis. The TS, T1, T3, and T4 trypsin or hyaluronidase treatments did not eliminate BTV; Treatment 2 eliminated the virus from in vitro infected goat embryos.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine, in vivo, whether in vitro infected cryopreserved caprine sperm is capable of transmitting caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) vertically to early embryo development stages via artificial insemination with in vitro infected semen. Sperm was collected from CAEV-free bucks by electroejaculation. Half of each ejaculate was inoculated with CAEV-pBSCA at a viral concentration of 10(4) TCID(50)/mL. The second half of each ejaculate was used as a negative control. The semen was then frozen. On Day 13 of superovulation treatment, 14 CAEV-free does were inseminated directly into the uterus under endoscopic control with thawed infected semen. Six CAEV-free does, used as a negative control, were inseminated intrauterine with thawed CAEV-free sperm, and eight CAEV-free does were mated with naturally infected bucks. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect CAEV proviral-DNA in the embryos at the D7 stage, in the embryo washing media, and in the uterine secretions of recipient does. At Day 7, all the harvested embryos were PCR-negative for CAEV proviral-DNA; however, CAEV proviral-DNA was detected in 8/14 uterine smears, and 9/14 flushing media taken from does inseminated with infected sperm, and in 1/8 uterine swabs taken from the does mated with infected bucks. The results of this study confirm that (i) artificial insemination with infected semen or mating with infected bucks may result in the transmission of CAEV to the does genital tack seven days after insemination, and (ii) irrespective of the medical status of the semen or the recipient doe, it is possible to obtain CAEV-free early embryos usable for embryo transfer.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: For each of the five fertilization trials of the experiment, frozen semen was prepared for in vitro capacitation at a concentration of 1 × 10(7) spz/ml and divided into three groups. One group was used as a control, while the two others were inoculated with 100 μl/ml of either culture medium from non-infected cells (placebo group) or cell culture medium containing virus at a concentration of 10(5) TCID(50)/ml (infected group). A total of 789 oocytes were used for IVF. For each of the five trials a group of oocytes were used as a non-infected control and were found to be caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) free. The other oocytes were divided in two equal batches. Oocytes in the first batch were in vitro fertilized with CAEV infected sperm (infected group) and the second batch were fertilized with CAEV non-infected sperm (placebo and control groups). After IVF, the zygotes of each group were washed 12 times. The CAEV genome was not detected (using RT-PCR) in the washing media of either the control or placebo groups from each trial. In contrast, the first three washing media from the infected group were consistently found to be positive for the CAEV genome (5/5), whereas subsequent washing media were CAEV-free (P < 0.05). Zygotes obtained using all semen groups tested negative for both the provirus and genome of CAEV. These results clearly show that the first four washes were sufficient to remove viral particles from CAEV infected fertilization media and that CAEV-free embryos can be produced by IVF using spermatozoa infected in vitro by CAEV.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine, using immunofluorescence and in situ hybridization, whether CAEV is capable of infecting goat uterine epithelial cells in vivo. Five CAEV seropositive goats confirmed as infected using double nested polymerase chain reaction (dnPCR) on leucocytes and on vaginal secretions were used as CAEV positive goats. Five CAEV-free goats were used as controls. Samples from the uterine horn were prepared for dnPCR, in situ hybridization, and immunofluorescence. The results from dnPCR confirmed the presence of CAEV proviral DNA in the uterine horn samples of infected goats whereas no CAEV proviral DNA was detected in samples taken from the uninfected control goats. The in situ hybridization probe was complementary to part of the CAEV gag gene and confirmed the presence of CAEV nucleic acids in uterine samples. The positively staining cells were seen concentrated in the mucosa of the lamina propria of uterine sections. Finally, laser confocal analysis of double p28/cytokeratin immunolabelled transverse sections of CAEV infected goat uterus, demonstrated that the virus was localized in glandular and epithelial cells. This study clearly demonstrates that goat uterine epithelial cells are susceptible to CAEV infection in vivo. This finding could help to further our understanding of the epidemiology of CAEV, and in particular the possibility of vertical transmission.
Veterinary Research 01/2012; 43(1):5. · 3.43 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The three objectives of this study were to investigate whether cells of early goat embryos isolated from in vivo fertilized goats interact with bluetongue virus (BTV) in vitro, whether the embryonic zona pellucida (ZP) protects early embryo cells from BTV infection, and whether the 10 wash cycles recommended by the International Embryo Transfer Society (IETS) for bovine embryos effectively decontaminates caprine embryos exposed to Bluetongue Virus (BTV) in vitro. Donor goats and bucks were individually screened and tested negative for the virus by RT-PCR detection of BTV RNA in circulating erythrocytes. ZP-free and ZP-intact 8-16 cell embryos were co-cultured for 36 h in an insert over a Vero cell monolayer infected with BTV. Embryos were washed 10 times in accordance with IETS recommendations for ruminant and porcine embryos, before being transferred to an insert on BTV indicator Vero cells for 6 h, to detect any cytopathic effects (CPE). They were then washed and cultured in B2 Ménézo for 24 h. Non-inoculated ZP-free and ZP-intact embryos were submitted to similar treatments and used as controls. The Vero cell monolayer used as feeder cells for BTV inoculated ZP-free and ZP-intact embryos showed cytopathic effects (CPE). BTV was found by RT-qPCR in the ten washes of exposed ZP-free and ZP-intact embryos. In the acellular medium, the early embryonic cells produced at least 10(2.5) TCID(50)/ml. BTV RNA was detected in ZP-free and ZP-intact embryos using RT-qPCR. All of these results clearly demonstrate that caprine early embryonic cells are susceptible to infection with BTV and that infection with this virus is productive. The washing procedure failed to remove BTV, which indicates that BTV could bind to the zona pellucida.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of Neospora caninum antibodies and its effects on reproductive parameters in cows in intensive dairy herds in Dakar. Randomised blood samples were taken for serology from 196 cows in four herds with a history of sporadic abortion. All of the sera were assayed for antibodies against N. caninum, Candida guillermondii, Coxiella burnetii, and Chlamydophila sp. The associations between serostatus and reproductive parameters (abortion, number of inseminations to conception, and calving to conception interval) were assessed over a period of 5 years (2004-2008). The seroprevalence of N. caninum antibodies in dairy cattle was 17.9%. The local Gobra breed and crossbreeds had higher levels of N. caninum antibodies than exotic breeds (p < 0.05). For the most recent pregnancies, seropositive cows required more inseminations to establish conception than seronegative cows (p < 0.05). The results indicate that dairy cattle from Dakar are exposed to N. caninum. Neosporosis should, therefore, be systematically considered as a cause when the calving to conception interval is prolonged.
Tropical Animal Health and Production 12/2009; 42(5):953-9. · 1.09 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to demonstrate that embryo transfer can be used to produce CAEV-free kids from CAEV-infected biological mothers when appropriate procedure is implemented. Twenty-eight goats that had tested positive for CAEV using PCR on vaginal secretions were used as embryo donors. Embryos with intact-ZP were selected and washed 10 times; they were then frozen and used for transfer into CAEV-free recipient goats. Nineteen of the 49 recipient goats gave birth, producing a total of 23 kids. Three blood samples were taken from each recipient goat, 10 days before, during, and 10 days after parturition; these were tested for CAEV antibodies using ELISA and for CAEV proviral DNA using PCR. The mothers were then euthanized. Tissue samples were taken from the lungs, udder, and retromammary and prescapular lymph nodes. The kids were separated from their mothers at birth. Seven of them died. At 4 months of age, 16 kids were subjected to drug-induced immunosuppression. Blood samples were taken every month from birth to 4 months of age; samples were then taken on days 15, 21, and 28 after the start of the immunosuppressive treatment. The kids were then euthanized and tissue samples taken from the carpal synovial membrane, lung tissue, prescapular lymph nodes, inguinal and retromammary lymph nodes, and uterus. All samples from the 19 recipient goats and 23 kids were found to be negative for CAEV antibodies and/or CAEV proviral DNA. Under acute conditions for infection this study clearly demonstrates that embryo transfer can be safely used to produce CAEV-free neonates from infected CAEV donors.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine the infectious status of semen and genital tract tissues from male goat naturally infected with the caprine lentivirus. Firstly, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect the presence of CAEV proviral-DNA in the circulating mononuclear cells, semen (spermatozoa and non-spermatic cells), and genital tract tissues (testis, epididymis, vas deferens, and vesicular gland) of nine bucks. RT-PCR was used to detect the presence of CAEV viral RNA in seminal plasma. Secondly, in situ hybridization was performed on PCR-positive samples from the head, body, and tail of the epididymis. CAEV proviral-DNA was identified by PCR in the blood cells of 7/9 bucks and in non-spermatic cells of the seminal plasma of 3/9 bucks. No CAEV proviral-DNA was identified in the spermatozoa fraction. The presence of CAEV proviral-DNA in non-spermatic cells and the presence of CAEV in the seminal plasma was significantly higher (p<0.01) in bucks with PCR-positive blood. Two of the three bucks with positive seminal plasma cells presented with at least one PCR-positive genital tract tissue. Proviral-DNA was found in the head (3/9), body (3/9), and tail (2/9) of the epididymis. In situ hybridization confirmed the presence of viral mRNA in at least one of each of these tissues, in the periphery of the epididymal epithelium. This study clearly demonstrates the presence of viral mRNA and proviral-DNA in naturally infected male goat semen and in various tissues of the male genital tract.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To improve the results obtained with a reference cryopreservation extender (control extender: Triladyl + 20% (v/v) egg yolk + 6.4% (v/v) glycerol) for freezing caprine semen, glutamine was added to 18 split ejaculates at concentrations of 0, 20, 40, 80 and 120 mM (experiment 1). In experiment 2, glutamine was added to 18 split ejaculates at concentrations of 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40 mM. In the third experiment, the egg yolk was replaced with the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) fraction of egg yolk. The quality of frozen then thawed spermatozoa in each extender was compared using computer-assisted semen analysis. In experiment 1, glutamine at concentrations of 20 mm and 40 mm significantly improved sperm motility compared with the control extender. However, at 120 mM, a significant decrease in motility and velocity was observed. In experiment 2, motility, curvilinear velocity and amplitude of lateral head displacement (ALH) were improved in glutamine at 25 mM compared with the control. In experiment 3, 8% LDL and 25 mM glutamine significantly improved sperm motility, straight line velocity and ALH. In the fourth experiment, the quality of the previously defined freezing extender (Triladyl + 8% (v/v) LDL + 25 mM glutamine + 6.4% (v/v) glycerol) was tested by comparing acrosome, tail membrane, plasma membrane and DNA integrity in 18 split ejaculates of frozen then thawed spermatozoa with spermatozoa that had been frozen then thawed in the control extender, and with spermatozoa from fresh, unfrozen sperm. The percentage of spermatozoa with intact acrosomes and tail membranes was significantly higher with the newly defined extender than that observed with the control extender. There was no significant difference in the percentage of spermatozoa with intact DNA between the frozen and fresh semen.
Reproduction in Domestic Animals 02/2008; 43(4):429-36. · 1.39 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine whether oocytes taken from ovarian follicles in 123 naturally infected goats were carrying the proviral CAEV genome. Examination of DNA isolated from 190 batches of oocytes with intact cumulus cells and 190 batches of oocytes whose cumulus cells had been removed, taken from follicles of the same ovaries, demonstrated that 42/190 batches of oocytes with intact cumulus cells had the proviral CAEV genome, whereas none of the 190 batches of oocytes without cumulus cells were positive for the provirus. To confirm that the proviral genome was present in the cumulus cells and not in the oocyte cells, 586 oocytes from 56 different ovaries, were separated from their cumulus cells. The DNA was then extracted from each fraction and examined. The purity of the oocyte fraction was verified by searching for granulosa cell-specific mRNA, using RT-PCR; this was negative in all the batches of oocytes in which the cumulus cells had been removed. PCR analysis demonstrated that none of the oocytes without cumulus cells were positive, whereas 22/56 of the batches with cumulus cells were found to be positive. This study clearly demonstrates that despite being surrounded by infected cumulus cells, the oocytes are not infected, and that the enzymatic and mechanical technique for removing the cells surrounding the oocyte, as used in this study, is effective, thus enabling CAEV-free oocytes to be obtained from infected goats.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The success of artificial insemination with frozen semen implies the reduction of the deleterious effects on the cells induced by this technique. These effects can occur as early as during the first dilution in an extender, as well as at any step, during or after the freezing process. In this work, we have compared the modifications induced by Triladyl, low density lipoproteins (LDL) and Biociphos extenders, after dilution and cooling to 4 degrees C for 1, 4 and 24 h. Alterations in the cell structures were visualized by electron microscopy (EM). More than 80% of spermatozoa were injured after incubation for 4 h in Triladyl, while 3% and 47% were counted in LDL and Biociphos respectively. This latter extender was deleterious to cell membrane integrity after incubation for 4 h or longer. The ultrastructure of frozen spermatozoa was studied by EM of cryofixed-cryosubstituted samples obtained from regular 0.5 ml French straws frozen using our usual protocol. The main differences between samples concerned the size and appearance of the frozen extender veins, while very few cell defects were found to be added by the freezing process at any depth in the straws. After thawing, semen motility was twofold higher (P < 0.05) in Biociphos (64%) and LDL (61%) than in Triladyl (32%) and the cells were less altered in LDL. We concluded that the LDL extender offers a better protection for storage of frozen spermatozoa, and can probably also be used for the preservation of fresh semen for short periods.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The cryoprotective effect of l-glutamine and an approach of its mechanism of action, in preserving motility of stallion spermatozoa during the freezing-thawing process, were studied. In Experiment 1, thirty-six ejaculates were collected from six stallions (two good, two middle, and two of poor sperm freezability) and were diluted with 10 different freezing media derived from INRA 82 medium supplemented with 20 mM HEPES and 2% (v/v) centrifuged egg yolk (BM). After thawing, sperm motility was evaluated by a computer-assisted semen motility analyser. The effects of glutamine and glycerol at different concentrations on post-thaw sperm motility were studied. A possible interaction between medium and semen freezability was investigated. Only the 50 mM glutamine + 2.5% glycerol medium significantly improved sperm motility compared to classical freezing medium (2.5% glycerol). The presence of glutamine at 50 mM was not sufficient to offset the need to use glycerol in the freezing extender. The use of glutamine at a higher concentration >100 mM in the presence of 2.5% of glycerol was toxic. Reducing the glycerol proportion from 2.5% to 2 or 1.5% in the presence of glutamine at 50, 75, and 100 mM had no influence on post-thaw motility of semen of middle and good freezability. Moreover, the substitution of 2.5% glycerol by 50 mM glutamine in BM, did not significantly change the post-thaw motility of semen of good freezability. In Experiment 2, 3H-glutamine and 3H-glycerol were used to study the kinetics of penetration of glutamine and glycerol in sperm cells. The radioactivity of each radio-labelled semen pellet was measured at different times (0, 15, 30, 60, 90, 120 min), by using a Packard tri-carb 4530 apparatus. The percentages of incorporated radioactivity (%IRA) in semen pellets were calculated at different times. The %IRA of 3H-glycerol in semen pellets were significantly higher than the %IRA of 3H-glutamine. The %IRA of 3H-glycerol in semen pellets increased greatly from time 0 to 60 min, and then it is stabilized from 60 to 120 min. In contrast, the %IRA of 3H-glutamine in semen pellets increased slightly from 0 to 60 min, then it stabilized until 120 min. These experiments demonstrate that glutamine has a synergistic cryoprotective effect with glycerol on cryopreservation of stallion spermatozoa, and suggest that glutamine acts at the extra-cellular level, independently of glycerol.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate whether cells of early goat embryos isolated from in vivo-fertilized goats interact with the caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) in vitro and whether the embryonic zona pellucida (ZP) protects early embryo cells from CAEV infection. ZP-free and ZP-intact 8-16 cell embryos were inoculated for 2 h with CAEVat the 10(4) tissue culture infectious dose 50 (TCID50)/ml. Infected embryos were incubated for 72 h over feeder monolayer containing caprine oviduct epithelial cells (COECs) and CAEV indicator goat synovial membrane (GSM) cells. Noninoculated ZP-free and ZP-intact embryos were submitted to similar treatments and used as controls. Six days postinoculation, infectious virus assay of the wash fluids of inoculated early goat embryos showed typical CAEV-induced cytopathic effects (CPE) on indicator GSM monolayers, with fluids of the first two washes only. The mixed cell monolayer (COEC + GSM) used as feeder cells for CAEV inoculated ZP-free embryos showed CPE. In contrast, none of the feeder monolayers, used for culture of CAEV inoculated ZP-intact embryos or the noninoculated controls, developed any CPE. CAEV exposure apparently did not interfere with development of ZP-free embryos in vitro during the 72 h study period when compared with untreated controls (34.6 and 36% blastocysts, respectively, P > 0.05). From these results one can conclude that the transmission of infectious molecularly cloned CAEV-pBSCA (plasmid binding site CAEV) by embryonic cells from in vivo-produced embryos at the 8-16 cell stages is possible with ZP-free embryos. The absence of interactions between ZP-intact embryos and CAEV in vitro suggests that the ZP is an efficient protective embryo barrier.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neospora caninum is considered one of the major causes of abortion in cattle in most parts of the world. In this study, the role of N. caninum was investigated in groups of aborted cattle and dairy herds from the west of France. Good correlation was found between parasite DNA detection in fetuses and serologic statuses of dams. In groups with documented abortion status and no antibodies to other pathogens, 17-45% of aborted animals were seropositive for N. caninum, and significant relationship between prevalence of Neospora antibodies and frequency of abortions was found. Neospora-associated abortions were observed all the year round, with a peak in summer. Higher ratios of seropositive abortions were found before the 6th month of gestation. In 12 herds studied in the field, serologic prevalence ranged 6-47%. No difference in age was found between seropositive and seronegative cows. Results indicate that N. caninum is an important and stable cause of abortion in cattle in France.