ABSTRACT: The purpose of this research was to compare associated injuries and mortality in multiply injured patients with scapular fractures with those without scapular fractures.
A prospectively collected database of multiply injured motor vehicle occupants with an Injury Severity Score >12 admitted to a level I regional trauma center during from January 1, 1996, to December 31, 2001, was reviewed to assess skeletal and organ injuries associated with a scapular fracture.
Of 2,538 motor vehicle occupants, 94 occupants with concomitant scapular fractures and 2,444 occupants without scapular fractures revealed that 76.6% of motor vehicle occupants who sustained scapular fractures were males with a mean age of 44.3 years (SD=18.9). The presence of a scapular fracture reduced the risk of mortality by 44% (95%CI: 1-75%). Patients with scapular fractures had a greater proportion of flail chest injuries [relative risk (RR), 8.8; p < 0.001], clavicle fractures (RR, 4.5; p < 0.001), rib fractures (RR, 3.1; p < 0.01), spine fractures (RR, 2.7; p < 0.001), and tibia and fibular fractures (RR, 1.7; p < 0.025). The presence of a chest injury, either a pneumothorax (RR, 3.7; p < 0.001) or a pulmonary contusion (RR, 3.5; p < 0.001), was significantly more likely in patients with scapular fractures than control patients. Injuries to the spleen (RR, 2.4; p < 0.01) and liver (RR, 2.2; p < 0.025) were also significantly more common in patients with scapular fractures when compared with those without them.
In an observational study of multiply injured trauma patients from motor vehicle crashes, we report the following: (1) scapular fractures occur 3.7% of the time; (2) the presence of a scapular fracture was associated with a lower mortality; and (3) scapular fractures should alert healthcare personnel to the presence of other injuries, such as chest injuries, clavicle fractures, rib fractures, spine fractures, tibial fractures, and spleen and liver injuries. Our findings should be interpreted cautiously, because the mechanism of the association between scapular fractures and mortality remains unclear.
The Journal of trauma 12/2005; 59(6):1477-81. · 2.48 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Although rarely life-threatening, postoperative vomiting (POV) is a distressing complication. The incidence of POV ranges from 34 to 90% in children undergoing strabismus surgery when antiemetics are not administered prophylactically.
In this study, a cost-consequence analysis (CCA) is used to estimate the economic benefit of ondansetron and dimenhydrinate as antiemetics administered prophylactically in children undergoing strabismus surgery. This retrospective study was conducted at The Hospital for Sick Children based on a review of 70 charts.
Ondansetron was more effective with 45.3 POV-free patients (PFP) in an adjusted cohort of 100, while dimenhydrinate resulted in 38.2 PFP in an adjusted cohort of 100. The costs were significantly different between the two groups, CAD dollars 185.90 (+/-26.37, 95% CI, CAD dollars 173,89; CAD dollars 197.90) and CAD dollars 232.90 (+/-CAD dollars 66.84, 95% CI, CAD dollars 198.53; CAD dollars 267.27) per patient for ondansetron and dimenhydrinate, respectively. The length of stay in the postanesthetic care unit (PACU) represented over 97% of total costs, and the mean lengths of stay in the PACU for ondansetron and dimenhydrinate were significantly different, 3.43 and 4.41 h, respectively.
This study should serve as a pilot for a large-scale investigation on the correlation between the length of stay in the PACU and the antiemetic agent used.
Pediatric Anesthesia 10/2005; 15(9):755-61. · 2.10 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: To determine survival rates in adult trauma patients requiring cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR).
We used 1992-2002 trauma registry data to identify all adult trauma patients over the age of 16 who required CPR in the pre-hospital setting or within 24 hours of arriving at the hospital. Demographic information, mechanism of injury, injury severity score (ISS), vital signs at the scene and in the hospital, and mortality were obtained from patient charts. Patients were stratified into 2 groups: those with absent vital signs in the field who required prehospital CPR, and those who lost vital signs within 24 hours of arriving at the trauma suite.
Of 50 eligible patients, 28 (58%) were male and 46 (92%) sustained blunt trauma. Mean age was 44.8 +/- 20 years and mean ISS was 38 +/- 18. Overall mortality was 96% (48/50), and all patients who required prehospital CPR died. The only 2 survivors were patients who arrived with vital signs and developed pulseless electrical activity while in the trauma suite.
In this consecutive series of trauma victims with cardiopulmonary arrest there were no survivors among those who lost vital signs and required CPR prior to arriving at the hospital.
CJEM: Canadian journal of emergency medical care = JCMU: journal canadien de soins medicaux d'urgence 08/2004; 6(4):263-5. · 1.18 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Esophageal anastomotic leak is a potentially life threatening complication of esophagectomy and esophagogastrectomy. We reviewed our experience with this complication and tried to identify factors predictive of mortality after esophageal anastomotic leak.
Records of patients undergoing esophagectomy and esophagogastrectomy for benign or malignant disease over a 10-year period (1989-1999), who developed esophageal anastomotic leaks, were reviewed.
Three-hundred and seven patients underwent esophagectomy or esophagogastrectomy. Twenty-three (7.5%) developed esophageal anastomotic leaks. Eight of these patients (35%) died. Four of 23 (17%) patients had seemingly normal postoperative contrast studies. Factors potentially predictive of death included age (died, 72.8+/-8.3 years; survived, 65.3+/-8.8 years; p=0.063), location of anastomosis (cervical, 3/9 died; thoracic, 5/14 died; p=0.91), leak presentation (clinical, 6/12 died; contrast study, 2/11 died; p=0.11), time of leak (<7 days, 3/5 died; > or =7 days, 5/18 died; p=0.18), presence of gastric necrosis (necrosis, 3/3 died; no necrosis, 5/20 died; p=0.019), and treatment (surgical, 4/4 died; conservative, 4/19 died; p=0.005).
Postoperative esophageal anastomotic leaks prove fatal in a significant number of cases. The lethal potential of cervical anastomotic leaks should not be underestimated. Gastric necrosis is an important predictor of subsequent death. Advanced age, early postoperative (<7 days) leakage, and clinically apparent signs of leakage may be predictive of death but these factors did not reach statistical significance in our study. Surgical treatment of esophageal anastomotic leaks is associated with subsequent death, but this relationship is unlikely to be causal; severely ill patients tend to be treated surgically.
Annals of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery: official journal of the Association of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgeons of Asia 04/2004; 10(2):71-5. · 0.69 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Canadian trauma units have relatively little experience with major cardiac trauma (disruption of a cardiac chamber) so injury outcome may not be comparable to that reported from other countries. We compared our outcomes to those of other centers.
Records of patients suffering major cardiac trauma over a nine-year period were reviewed. Factors predictive of outcome were analyzed.
Twenty-seven patients (11 blunt and 16 penetrating) with major cardiac trauma were evaluated. Injury severity scores (ISS) were similar for blunt (49.6 +/- 16.6) and penetrating (39.5 +/- 21.6, p = 0.20) injuries. Five of 11 blunt trauma patients, and 9 of 16 penetrating trauma patients, had detectable vital signs on hospital arrival (p = 0.43). Ten patients underwent emergency department thoracotomy and 11 patients had cardiac repair in the operating theatre. Eleven patients survived and 16 died. Survivors had a lower ISS (33.7 +/-15.4) than non-survivors (50.4 +/- 20.4; p = 0.03). Two of 11 blunt trauma patients and 9 of 16 penetrating trauma patients survived (p = 0.06). Eleven of 14 patients with detectable vital signs survived; all 13 without detectable vital signs died (p = 0.00003). Ten of eleven patients treated in the operating theatre survived, while only one of the other 16 patients survived (p = 0.00002).
Patients with major cardiac injuries and detectable vital signs on hospital arrival can be salvaged by prompt surgical intervention in the operating theatre. Major cardiac injuries are infrequently encountered at our center but patient survival is comparable to that reported from trauma units in other countries.
BMC Surgery 02/2002; 2:4. · 1.33 Impact Factor