[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Little data exist on the mechanism and stability of transformation in Phytophthora parasitica, a major oomycete parasite of plants. Here, we studied the stability of drug-resistant protoplast transformants by analyzing single-zoospore derivatives. We show that the transgenic sequences are not stably integrated into the chromosomes, resulting in the loss of drug resistance in single-zoospore derivatives. However, in strains where the P. parasitica gene encoding the CBEL elicitor was silenced by transformation with sense or antisense constructs, silencing is not reversed when the transgenic sequences are lost. This suggests that instability of P. parasitica transformants is not an obstacle for loss-of-function studies in this organism.
Canadian Journal of Microbiology 02/2007; 53(1):152-7. · 1.20 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The cellulose binding elicitor lectin (CBEL) from Phytophthora parasitica nicotianae contains two cellulose binding domains (CBDs) belonging to the Carbohydrate Binding Module1 family, which is found almost exclusively in fungi. The mechanism by which CBEL is perceived by the host plant remains unknown. The role of CBDs in eliciting activity was investigated using modified versions of the protein produced in Escherichia coli or synthesized in planta through the potato virus X expression system. Recombinant CBEL produced by E. coli elicited necrotic lesions and defense gene expression when injected into tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) leaves. CBEL production in planta induced necrosis. Site-directed mutagenesis on aromatic amino acid residues located within the CBDs as well as leaf infiltration assays using mutated and truncated recombinant proteins confirmed the importance of intact CBDs to induce defense responses. Tobacco and Arabidopsis thaliana leaf infiltration assays using synthetic peptides showed that the CBDs of CBEL are essential and sufficient to stimulate defense responses. Moreover, CBEL elicits a transient variation of cytosolic calcium levels in tobacco cells but not in protoplasts. These results define CBDs as a novel class of molecular patterns in oomycetes that are targeted by the innate immune system of plants and might act through interaction with the cell wall.
The Plant Cell 08/2006; 18(7):1766-77. · 9.25 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ability of a Colletotrichum sp., originally isolated from Brassica campestris, to infect Arabidopsis thaliana was examined. Sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS)1, 5.8S RNA gene and ITS2 regions of ribosomal (r)DNA showed the pathogen to be Colletotrichum destructivum. The host range was broad, including many cruciferous plants and some legumes. At 25 degrees C, all A. thaliana accessions tested were susceptible to the Brassica isolates of C. destructivum; however, at 15 degrees C, the accession Ws-2 showed a temperature-dependant resistance, in which single epidermal cells underwent a rapid hypersensitive response. Legume isolates of C. destructivum were unable to infect A. thaliana and induced deposition of callose papillae at sites of attempted penetration. In compatible interactions, C. destructivum showed a two-stage, hemibiotrophic infection process. The initial biotrophic phase was associated with large, intracellular primary hyphae and was confined to one epidermal cell; whereas, in the subsequent necrotrophic phase, narrow secondary hyphae extensively colonized the tissue and conidia were produced in acervuli. An efficient transformation system was established for C. destructivum, using Agrobacterium-mediated transfer of DNA. The ability to genetically manipulate both partners in the interaction is an important advantage, and the Arabidopsis-Colletotrichum pathosystem should provide a valuable new model for dissecting plant-fungal interactions.