Qiang Gao

Fudan University, Shanghai, Shanghai Shi, China

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Publications (48)265.12 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Background Triggering receptors expressed on myeloid cells 1 (TREM-1) is a novel molecule that modulates inflammatory responses. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a well-known type of inflammation-related cancer. However, TREM-1 expression and its direct effects on HCC cells have not been previously determined. Methods Western blotting, quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR), and immunofluorescence were used to detect TREM-1 expression. TREM-1 upregulation by pcDNA (mammalian expression vector with the CMV promoter) and its downregulation by shRNA (short hairpin RNA) were used to determine the function of this molecule. Transwell, CCK-8, cell cycle, and apoptosis assays were used to detect the effects of TREM-1 on HCC cells. Immunohistochemical staining of samples from a cohort of 322 HCC patients was used to determine the prognostic value of TREM-1. Results TREM-1 investigation through Western blot, qRT-PCR, and immunofluorescence analyses revealed that TREM-1 was expressed in HCC cells and tumor tissues. Functional experiments suggested that TREM-1 significantly promoted proliferation, invasion, and inhibited apoptosis of HCC cells. Inflammatory cytokine profiles under TREM-1 up- or downregulation indicated the majority of proinflammation cytokines significantly and positively correlated with TREM-1 expression, including IL-1β, TNF-α, and MCP-1. Western blot analyses revealed that p65, STAT3, ERK, and AKT might be the downstream effectors of TREM-1 signal transduction. High TREM-1 expression correlated significantly with increased recurrence and poorer survival in HCC patients, and it was an independent prognostic factor for recurrence (P = 0.009). Conclusions TREM-1 was found to be expressed in HCC cells and to be a prognostic factor for the clinical outcome of HCC.
    Annals of Surgical Oncology 12/2014; · 4.12 Impact Factor
  • Nature Reviews Clinical Oncology 11/2014; · 15.03 Impact Factor
  • Nature Reviews Gastroenterology &#38 Hepatology 11/2014; · 10.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: RYBP is a member of the polycomb group (PcG) proteins that typically act as transcriptional repressors via epigenetic modification of chromatin. The present study was designed to investigate the role of RYBP in HCC progression, chemosensitivity, and patient survival, and to explore the underlying molecular mechanism(s). In this study we investigated the expression of RYBP in 400 pairs of human HCC tissues and matched noncancerous samples. The effects of RYBP on HCC tumor growth and metastasis and chemosensitivity were determined both in vitro and in vivo. We herein demonstrate that the RYBP expression in HCC tissue samples was significantly lower than that in matched noncancerous liver tissues. Clinically, the low expression of RYBP was an independent predictor of a poor prognosis in patients with HCC. In in vitro HCC models, enforced RYBP expression inhibited cell growth and invasion, induced apoptosis, and increased the chemosensitivity of the cells, while RYBP knockdown led to the opposite effects. Furthermore, RYBP expression was induced by cisplatin, and adenovirus-mediated RYBP expression inhibited HCC tumor growth and sensitized HCC to conventional chemotherapy in vivo. Our results demonstrate that reactivating RYBP in cancer cells may provide an effective and safe therapeutic approach to HCC therapy.
    Oncotarget 10/2014; · 6.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Atypical chemokine receptors (ACRs) have been discovered to participate in the regulation of tumor behavior. Here, we reported a tumor suppressive role of a novel ACR member, CC chemokine receptor like 1 (CCRL1), in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Both mRNA and protein expressions of CCRL1 correlated with malignant phenotype of HCC cells and were significantly down-regulated in tumor tissue compared with paired normal liver tissue. In both the initial and validation cohorts (n = 240 and 384, respectively), CCRL1 deficiency was associated with advanced tumor stage and was an independent index for worse survival and increased recurrence. Furthermore, knockdown or forced expression of CCRL1 revealed that CCRL1 suppressed the proliferation and invasion of HCC cells in vitro and reduced tumor growth and lung metastasis in vivo, with depressed levels of CCL19 and CCL21. By sequestrating CCL19 and CCL21, CCRL1 reduced their binding to CCR7 and consequently mitigated the detrimental impact of CCR7, including Akt/GSK-3β pathway activation and nuclear accumulation of β-catenin in tumor cells. Clinically, the prognostic value of the CCR7 expression in HCC depended on the expression level of CCRL1, suggesting that CCRL1 may serve as an upstream switch for the CCR7 signaling cascade. Together, our findings suggest that CCRL1 impairs chemotactic events that associated with CCR7 in progression and metastasis of HCC. Our results also show a potential interplay between typical and atypical chemokine receptors in human cancer.
    The Journal of Pathology 09/2014; · 7.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Therapeutic intervention in neddylation pathway is an emerging area for cancer treatment. Herein, we evaluated the clinical relevance and therapeutic potential of targeting this pathway in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC). Immunohistochemistry of neddylation pathway components in a cohort of 322 cases showed that E1 (NAE1 and UBA3) and E2 (UBC12) enzymes, as well as global NEDD8 conjugation, were upregulated in over 2/3 of human ICC. Notably, NAE1 was identified as an independent prognosticator for postoperative recurrence (P=0.009) and a combination of NEDD8 and NAE1 provided a better power for predicting patient clinical outcomes. In vitro treatment with MLN4924, a small-molecule NEDD8-activating enzyme inhibitor, led to a dose-dependent decrease of viability in both established and primary cholangiocarcinoma cell lines. Additionally, MLN4924 exhibited at least additive effect when combined with cisplatin. By blocking cullins neddylation, MLN4924 inactivated Cullin-Ring ligase (CRL) and caused the accumulation of CRL substrates that triggered cell cycle arrest, senescence or apoptosis. Meanwhile, MLN4924 was well-tolerated and significantly inhibited tumor growth in xenograft model of cholangiocarcinoma. Taken together, our findings indicated that upregulated neddylation pathway was involved in ICC progression and interference in this pathway could be a promising target for ICC therapy.
    Oncotarget 08/2014; · 6.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A number of oncoproteins and tumor suppressors are known to be neddylated, but whether the neddylation pathway is entirely activated in human cancer remains unexplored.
    Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 06/2014; 106(6).
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    ABSTRACT: Expression of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein AB (hnRNPAB) has been reported to be dysregulated in tumors but its specific contributions to tumor formation and progression are not fully understood. Here, we demonstrate that hnRNPAB is overexpressed in highly metastatic cells and tumor tissues from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients with recurrence. We found that hnRNPAB overexpression promoted epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in a manner associated with HCC metastasis in vitro and in vivo. RNAi-mediated silencing of the EMT factor Snail attenuated hnRNPAB-enhanced cell invasion in vitro and lung metastasis in vivo. Mechanistically, HnRNPAB acted to transactivate Snail transcription, which in turn inhibited transcription of the pivotal Snail target gene E-cadherin. Overexpression of hnRNPAB in HCC samples correlated with higher Snail levels, shorter overall survival and higher tumor recurrence. HnRNPAB overexpression, alone or in combination with Snail, was found to be a significant independent risk factor for recurrence and survival after curative resection. In conclusion, our findings define hnRNPAB as an activator of EMT and metastasis in HCC that predicts poor clinical outcomes.
    Cancer Research 03/2014; · 9.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Studies have highlighted important features of the nucleocytoplasmic transport of mRNAs and proteins. Nuclear RNA export factor 3 (NXF3) is a member of the nuclear RNA export factor family that plays a role in mediating the export of cellular mRNA from the nucleus to the cytoplasm for translation. However, little is known about the clinical significance of NXF3 in human tumors. To evaluate the prognostic significance of NXF3 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the expression levels of NXF3 in a cohort of 112 patients with primary HCC who had undergone hepatectomy for histologically confirmed HCC were assessed by immunohistochemistry. It was identified that the expression levels of NXF3 were higher in the primary HCC tissues compared with those in paired peritumoral liver tissues. The overexpression of NXF3 in the HCC tissues was correlated with decreased survival time [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.954, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.034-3.695, P=0.039] and earlier tumor recurrence (HR = 2.101, 95% CI = 1.186-3.722, P=0.011) in postoperative patients with HCC. Notably, overexpression of NXF3 was correlated with a poor survival time and increased recurrence following HCC resection in male patients (P=0.020 and P=0.007, respectively) but not in female patients (P=0.916 and P=0.821, respectively). In conclusion, the findings provide evidence that implicates NXF3 as a prospective predictor of HCC prognosis as well as a potential therapeutic target for cancer treatment.
    Oncology letters 03/2014; 7(3):641-646. · 0.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Virus-induced hepatocarcinogenesis involves a series of histological developmental processes with the step-wise acquisition of several genetic changes that are necessary for the malignant transformation of hepatocytes. Although genetic alterations are known to be involved in the pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), little is known about the contributions of specific genes to this process. To gain insight into the genetic alterations involved in the neoplastic evolution from chronic hepatitis B virus infection to dysplastic nodules (DN) to HCC, we captured and sequenced the exomes of four DNA samples: one DN sample, two HCC samples and one control peripheral blood sample from a single HCC patient. Mutations in the UBE3C gene (encoding ubiquitin ligase E3C) were observed in both tumor tissues. Then, we resequenced the UBE3C gene in a cohort of 105 HCC patients and identified mutations in 17 out of total 106 (16.0%) HCC patients. The subsequent experiments showed that UBE3C promoted HCC progression by regulating HCC cells epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Clinically, a tissue microarray study of a cohort containing 323 HCC patients revealed that the overexpression of UBE3C in primary HCC tissues correlated with decreased survival (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.657, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.220-2.251, P = 0.001) and early tumor recurrence (HR = 1.653, 95% CI = 1.227-2.228, P = 0.001) in postoperative HCC patients. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that UBE3C is a candidate oncogene involved in tumor development and progression and therefore a potential therapeutic target in applicable HCC patients. (Hepatology 2014;).
    Hepatology 01/2014; · 12.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Metastasis accounts for the most deaths in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL) is associated with cancer metastasis, while its role in HCC remains largely unknown.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(9):e108507. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background & Aims Pathogenesis of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC), the second-most common hepatic cancer, is a poorly understood and its incidence is increasing worldwide. We searched for mutations in human ICC tumor samples and investigated how they affect ICC cell function. Methods We performed whole-exome sequencing of 7 paired ICCs and their surrounding, non-tumor tissues to detect somatic alterations. We then screened 124 pairs of ICC and non-tumor samples for these mutations, including 7 exomes. We compared mutations in PTPN3 with tumor recurrence in 124 patients, and PTPN3 expression levels with recurrence in 322 patients (the combination of both in 86 patients). The functional effects of PTPN3 variations were determined by RNA interference and transgenic expression in cholangiocarcinoma cell lines (RBE, HCCC-9810, and Huh28). Results Based on exome sequencing, pathways that regulate protein phosphorylation were among the most frequently altered in ICC samples, and genes encoding protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) were among the most frequently mutated. We identified mutations in 9 genes encoding PTPs in 4/7 ICC exomes. In the prevalence screen of 124 paired samples, 51.6% of ICCs contained somatic mutations in at least 1/9 PTP genes; 41.1% had mutations in PTPN3.Transgenic expression of PTPN3 in cell lines increased cell proliferation, colony formation, and migration. PTPN3L232R and PTPN3L384H, which were frequently detected in ICC samples, were found to be gain-of-function mutations; their expression in cell lines further increased cell proliferation, colony formation, and migration. ICC-associated variants of PTPN3 had altered phosphatase activity. Patients whose tumors contained activating mutations or higher levels of PTPN3 protein than non-tumor tissues had higher rates of disease recurrence than patients without. Conclusions Using whole-exome sequencing of ICC samples from patients, we found that more than 40% contain somatic mutations in PTPN3. Activating mutations in and high expression levels of PTPN3 were associated with tumor recurrence in patients.
    Gastroenterology 01/2014; · 12.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the differences in enhancement pattern of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) 20 mm or smaller and enhancement effects of hepatic vessels on early dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) obtained with gadoxetic acid and gadopentetate dimeglumine in the same patients with cirrhosis.We reviewed MR images using gadoxetic acid and gadopentetate dimeglumine in the same 34 patients with 42 histologically confirmed HCCs (median diameter, 14.5 mm). The percentage enhancements (PEs) of HCC, the hepatic artery and portal vein and relative contrasts (RCs) between HCC and the liver were calculated and analyzed statistically.The PEs of HCC, the hepatic artery and portal vein were significantly lower for gadoxetic acid in comparison with gadopentetate dimeglumine in the arterial phase (p = 0.0256 for HCC, p p p = 0.0422), but was not significantly different in the portal phase (p = 0.1133). Forty-one of the 42 (97.62 %) nodules showed arterial hypervascularization. Of these, 31 (75.61 %) nodules were hypointense in the portal phase for gadoxetic acid, and 22 (53.66 %) were hypointense for gadopentetate dimeglumine (p = 0.038).Compared with gadopentetate dimeglumine, gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI demonstrated a different enhancement pattern of inferior arterial enhancement and was more rapidly hypointense in the portal phase for HCC. It showed markedly lower enhancement for hepatic artery and portal vein in the patients with cirrhosis.
    Hepatology International 01/2014; · 2.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Genetic epidemiological data in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) pedigrees indicate a pattern of X-linked recessive inheritance of HCC susceptibility genes. This study is designed to test the hypothesis that there are genes conferring susceptibility to HCC located on the X-chromosome. An X-chromosomal association study was conducted among Chinese men recruited from an area with a high prevalence of HCC. The candidate gene was further investigated by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). By analyzing 5454 X-chromosome single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 50 HCC patients and 50 controls, we found two promising regions in which the associated SNPs clustered, located at Xq22.1 and Xq26.2. We further selected 35 tag SNPs (tSNPs) from these two regions for additional genotyping analysis in another independent set of 290 cases and 242 controls. Notably, SNP rs5945919 at Xq22.1 exhibited a significant association with HBV-related HCC (odds ratio [OR]=2.22, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.15-4.30, P=0.016). The expressions of the three genes near the rs5945919 locus, RAB40AL, BEX1, and NXF3, were analyzed by qRT-PCR between another 24 HCC tissues and paired peritumoral liver tissues. The results indicated that NXF3, rather than RAB40AL and BEX1, mRNA level was found to be more abundant in HCC tissue than in peritumoral liver tissue. Our findings implicated Xq22.1 as a novel susceptibility locus for HCC and NXF3 as a candidate risk factor for relevant HCC.
    Gastroentérologie Clinique et Biologique 10/2013; · 0.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The role of infiltrating B cells in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has been overlooked for many years. This study is aimed to delineate the distribution, prognostic value and functional status of B cells in human HCC. Immunohistochemistry was used to investigate the distribution and clinical significance of infiltrating CD20+ B cells in a series of 120 HCC patients. The results were further tested in an independent series of 200 HCC patients. The functional status of CD20+ B cells was determined by flow cytometry, immunofluorescence and in vitro co-culture assay. Infiltrating CD20+ B cells were predominantly concentrated in the tumor invasive margin, compared to the peri-tumor and intra-tumor areas. High density of margin infiltrating B cells (MIL-Bs) positively correlated with small tumor size, absence of vascular invasion and increased density of CD8+ T cells (P<0.05). Survival analyses revealed that increased MIL-Bs and their penetration through the tumor capsule were significantly associated with improved overall and recurrence-free survival, and were identified as independent prognosticators for HCC patients (P<0.05). Importantly, the results were further validated in another independent HCC cohort. Moreover, we found that MIL-Bs featured an atypical memory phenotype (IgD-IgG+CD27-CD38-), expressed surface markers characteristic of antigen-presenting cells, possessed tumor-killing potential by producing IFN-γ, IL-12p40, granzyme B, TRAIL, and acted in cooperation with CD8+ T cells. The profile of CD20+ B cells in situ is a new predictor of prognosis for HCC patients and provides a novel target for an optimal immunotherapy against this fatal malignancy.
    Clinical Cancer Research 09/2013; · 7.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Frequent deletions of the kinesin-like protein gene 1B (KIF1B) have been reported in neural tumors. Recently, a genome-wide association study revealed an association between polymorphisms in the KIF1B gene and the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and several case-control studies have further investigated this relationship. However, these studies have yielded controversial results. We therefore performed a meta-analysis to derive a more precise estimation of the association between the KIF1B gene polymorphisms and HCC risk. METHODOLOGYPRINCIPAL FINDING: PubMed, EMBASE, the ISI Web of Science and the CNKI databases were systematically searched to identify relevant studies. A total of 5 studies containing 13 cohorts with 5,773 cases and 6,404 controls were included. Odds ratios (ORs) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the strength of the associations. Subgroup analyses were conducted based on ethnicities, sample sizes and quality scores. Overall, the G allele at rs17401966 of the KIF1B gene was associated with a significantly decreased risk for HCC (OR = 0.81, 95%CI: 0.70-0.93; P = 0.003). Furthermore, subgroup analyses showed that the G allele at rs17401966 of the KIF1B gene significantly reduced the risk for HCC in Chinese cohorts (OR = 0.76, 95%CI: 0.64-0.90; P = 0.002), large-sample-size cohorts (OR = 0.80, 95%CI: 0.73-0.88, P<0.01) and high-quality cohorts (OR = 0.78, 95%CI: 0.71-0.87, P<0.01). However, no significant associations were found in small-sample-size cohorts, studies with low-quality scores and when excluding the cohorts from the study reporting the original discovery. CONCLUSIONSIGNIFICANCE: These findings demonstrate that the presence of the G allele at rs17401966 of the KIF1B gene may decrease the risk for HCC and suggest that KIF1B may play a critical role in the development of HCC. High-quality studies with larger sample sizes and different ethnic populations will be of great value to further confirm these findings.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(4):e62571. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the prognostic value of intratumoral invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after curative resection. Expression of TRAV10, encoding the Vα24 domain of iNKT cells, and IFN-γ mRNA were assessed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction in tumor from 224 HCC patients undergoing curative resection. The prognostic value of these two and other clinicopathologic factors was evaluated. Either intratumoral iNKT cells and IFN-γ alone or their combination was an independent prognostic factor for OS (P = 0.001) and RFS (P = 0.001) by multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis. Patients with concurrent low levels of iNKT cells and IFN-γ had a hazard ratio (HR) of 2.784 for OS and 2.673 for RFS. The areas under the curve of iNKT cells, IFN-γand their combination were 0.618 vs 0.608 vs 0.654 for death and 0.591 vs 0.604 vs 0.633 for recurrence respectively by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. The prognosis was the worst for HCC patients with concurrent low levels of iNKT cells and IFN-γ, which might be related with more advanced pTNM stage and more vascular invasion. Combination of intratumoral iNKT cells and IFN-γ is a promising independent predictor for recurrence and survival in HCC, which has a better power to predict HCC patients' outcome compared with intratumoral iNKT cells or IFN-γ alone.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(8):e70345. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We previously identified JWA as a novel microtubule-associated protein (MAP), which is implicated in carcinogenesis and tumor progression. The aims of the present study were to investigate the biological action and the prognostic significance of JWA in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot were used to detect JWA mRNA and protein expression, respectively, in stepwise metastatic HCC cell lines and HCC tissues. Short hairpin RNA was used to inhibit JWA expression in HCC cells. The effects of JWA depletion on cell migration, invasion, adhesion and in vivo metastasis were investigated. Immunohistochemistry of JWA was conducted in microarrays with tissue from 314 HCC patients who had undergone surgical resection. Prognostic significance was assessed using the Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank tests. The result showed JWA expression was decreased in the highly metastatic HCC cell lines and HCC tissues. Depletion of JWA caused a notable increase in cell migration, invasion and adhesion in vitro and metastasis in vivo. Furthermore, there was an inverse correlation between JWA expression and FAK expression and phosphorylation, RhoA activation and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) activity in HCC cells. More notably, multivariate analysis revealed that a low level of JWA expression was an independent prognosticator for both recurrence-free and overall survival for HCC patients after surgical resection, especially for AFP-normal HCC patients. Taken together, our data demonstrate that JWA plays a crucial role in HCC progression and suggest JWA may be a potential prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target for HCC. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Molecular Carcinogenesis 11/2012; · 4.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Interferon regulatory factor (IRF)-1 and IRF-2 are transcriptional factors that mediate interferons functions; the loss of IRF-1 expression and gain of IRF-2 expression were associated with malignant phenotype in multiple cancers. However, their roles in the progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain poorly described. METHODS: Immunohistochemistry was used to analyze the nuclear expression of IRF-1/2 in a cohort of 332 HCC patients. The expression of IRF-1/2 in HCC cell lines with stepwise metastasis potential was determined by immunoblotting. Downregulation of IRF-1 or IRF-2 expression was mediated by shRNAs; a series of experiments were conducted to determine the changes of invasion ability and downstream molecular events. RESULTS: High expression of IRF-1 was associated with good outcome (p < .001 for OS/TTR), while high expression of IRF-2 was relevant to increased recurrence probability (p = .049) in HCC patients. The combination of the 2 IRFs showed better predictive power than either factor alone. Immunoblotting analysis revealed that IRF-2/IRF-1 ratio was positively correlated with the metastatic potential in human HCC cell lines. Downregulation of IRF-2 led to sharply attenuated invasion ability, paralleled with a decreased expression of STAT3, p-STAT3(Ser727), and MMP9. While downregulation of IRF-1 caused a concurrent decrease in IRF-2, little or no change was displayed in IRF-2/IRF-1 ratio, invasion ability, and MMP9 expression. CONCLUSIONS: IRF-1 and IRF-2 expression were associated with prognosis of HCC patients with opposite predictive power. IRF-2/IRF-1 ratio was associated with tumor invasion, probably through modulation of MMP9 expression mediated by STAT3.
    Annals of Surgical Oncology 07/2012; · 4.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the impact of different anesthetic techniques on T-helper (Th) cell subsets in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients undergoing hepatectomy. Sixty-one HCC patients who received hepatectomies were randomized into an epidural combined general anesthesia (G + E; n = 31) or a general anesthesia (G; n = 30) group. Blood samples were obtained the morning before the operation (d0), and on the second (d2) and seventh (d7) day after the operation. Th cell contents were evaluated using flow cytometry, real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In all 61 patients, Th1 and Th2 cell frequencies, and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) mRNA expression markedly increased on d2, compared to d0. They recovered slightly on d7, and the Th1/Th2 ratio increased markedly on d7, compared with d2. In contrast, Th17, regulatory T cell (Treg), and interleukin-17 (IL-17) levels and FOXP3 mRNA expression showed no significant change on d2, and then markedly decreased on d7. Similarly, plasma IFN-γ concentration on d2 was much higher than that on d0, and then partly recovered on d7. As compared with the G group, in the G + E group, Th1 cell frequencies and the Th1/Th2 ratio were slightly higher on d2 and significantly higher on d7, while Th2, Th17, and Treg cell frequencies were slightly lower on d2, and significantly lower on d7. Consistently, on d7, IFN-γ mRNA and protein levels and the IFN-γ/IL-4 ratio in the G + E group were higher than those in the G group. In contrast, the IL-17 mRNA level, and IL-17 and transforming growth factor-β₁ concentrations in the G + E group were lower than those in the G group. G + E is superior to G in shifting the Th1/Th2 balance towards Th1, while decreasing Th17 and Treg, potentially benefiting HCC patients by promoting anti-tumor Th polarization.
    World Journal of Gastroenterology 06/2012; 18(24):3089-98. · 2.55 Impact Factor