Bastian Noller

University of Wuerzburg, Würzburg, Bavaria, Germany

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Publications (16)56.7 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: In this Article, we present mass-selected threshold photoelectron spectra of propargyl as well as the 1- and 3-bromopropargyl radicals. The reactive intermediates were produced by flash pyrolysis of suitable precursors and ionized by VUV synchrotron radiation. The TPES of the propargyl radical was simulated using data from a recent high-level computational study. An ionization energy (IE) of 8.71 ± 0.02 eV was obtained, in excellent agreement with computations, but slightly above previous experimental IEs. The pyrolysis of 1,3-dibromopropyne delivers both 1- and 3-bromopropargyl radicals that can be distinguished by their different ionization energies (8.34 and 8.16 eV). To explain the vibrational structure, a Franck-Condon simulation was performed, based on DFT calculations, which can account for all major spectral features. Bromopropargyl photoionizes dissociatively beginning at around 10.1 eV. Cationic excited states of 1- and 3-bromopropargyl were tentatively identified. The dissociative photoionization of the precursor (1,3-dibromopropyne) was also examined, delivering an AE(0K) (C(3)H(2)Br(+)/C(3)H(2)Br(2)) of 10.6 eV.
    The Journal of Physical Chemistry A 03/2011; 115(11):2225-30. · 2.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cyclopropenylidene (c-C(3)H(2)), chlorocyclopropenylidene (c-C(3)HCl), and their deuterated isotopomers were studied by the threshold photoelectron-photoion coincidence (TPEPICO) technique using VUV synchrotron radiation. The carbenes were generated via flash pyrolysis. In all species a change in geometry is visible upon ionization, with significant activity in the C═C, C-C-stretching mode and, in the case of c-C(3)H(2)/D(2), the C-H-bending mode. The electron is removed from an sp(2) like hybrid orbital centered on the carbene C atom. The mass selected threshold photoelectron (TPE) spectra were fitted by a Franck-Condon simulation, yielding the equilibrium geometry of the cation ground state ((1)A(1)). The adiabatic ionization energy IE(ad) of c-C(3)H(2) was determined to be 9.17 eV, in good agreement with calculations and literature values. Two vibrational wavenumbers of the cation were determined experimentally (ν(3)(+) = 1150 cm(-1) and ν(2)(+) = 1530 cm(-1)). Chlorocyclopropenylidene was also studied by TPE spectroscopy and has a similar IE(ad) of 9.17 eV. The spectrum also shows a vibrational progression that corresponds to the C═C- and C-C-stretching modes of the cation. The equilibrium geometry was also determined by a Franck-Condon fit. The IE(ad) of the deuterated isotopomers, c-C(3)D(2) and c-C(3)DCl, were also determined to be 9.17 eV. The spectra confirm the assignments for the nondeuterated species.
    The Journal of Physical Chemistry A 10/2010; 114(42):11269-76. · 2.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The structure and dynamics of the C 2A2 electronically excited state of the benzyl radical, C7H7, were investigated by nanosecond and femtosecond pump-probe photoionization. A free jet of benzyl radicals was generated by flash pyrolysis from the precursors 2-phenylethyl nitrite and toluene. Nanosecond multiphoton ionization spectra show a number of vibronic bands that are excited in the wavelength range of 290–310 nm. At excitation wavelengths of 305, 301, and 298 nm, rapid biexponential decay of the excited states was observed. Lifetimes at the C-state origin (305 nm excitation) are 400 fs and 4.5 ps. The lifetimes decrease with increasing excitation energy. The dynamics can be understood within a two-step internal conversion to the electronic ground state.
    The Journal of Chemical Physics 08/2010; 133(7):074304-074304-5. · 3.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Threshold photoelectron spectra (TPES) of the isotopomers of the methyl radical (CH3, CH2D, CHD2, and CD3) have been recorded in the 9.5−10.5 eV VUV photon energy range using third generation synchrotron radiation to investigate the vibrational spectroscopy of the corresponding cations at a 7−11 meV resolution. A threshold photoelectron−photoion coincidence (TPEPICO) spectrometer based on velocity map imaging and Wiley−McLaren time-of-flight has been used to simultaneously record the TPES of several radical species produced in a Ar-seeded beam by dc flash-pyrolysis of nitromethane (CHxDyNO2, x + y = 3). Vibrational bands belonging to the symmetric stretching and out-of-plane bending modes have been observed and P, Q, and R branches have been identified in the analysis of the rotational profiles. Vibrational configuration interaction (VCI), in conjunction with near-equilibrium potential energy surfaces calculated by the explicitly correlated coupled cluster method CCSD(T*)-F12a, is used to calculate vibrational frequencies for the four radical isotopomers and the corresponding cations. Agreement with data from high-resolution IR spectroscopy is very good and a large number of predictions is made. In particular, the calculated wavenumbers for the out-of-plane bending vibrations, ν2(CH3+) = 1404 cm−1, ν4(CH2D+) = 1308 cm−1, ν4(CHD2+) = 1205 cm−1, and ν2(CD3+) = 1090 cm−1, should be accurate to ca. 2 cm−1. Additionally, computed Franck−Condon factors are used to estimate the importance of autoionization relative to direct ionization. The chosen models globally account for the observed transitions, but in contrast to PES spectroscopy, evidence for rotational and vibrational autoionization is found. It is shown that state-selected methyl cations can be produced by TPEPICO spectroscopy for ion−molecule reaction studies, which are very important for the understanding of the planetary ionosphere chemistry.
    The Journal of Physical Chemistry A 03/2010; 114(14). · 2.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The excited-state lifetime of the 2,3-dimethylbut-2-yl (DMB) radical, a hexyl isomer, upon electronic excitation into the 3p Rydberg state at 265 nm, is measured by femtosecond time-resolved photoionization. It is shown that the 3p state deactivates in a two-step process, which is well described by two time constants of 25 and 400 fs. The results are compared to tert-butyl (t-C(4)H(9)), another tertiary radical investigated before. Time-dependent DFT calculations confirm the earlier suggestion that curve crossings along the C-C coordinate play an important role in the excited-state deactivation.
    The Journal of Physical Chemistry A 10/2009; 114(9):3045-9. · 2.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The excited-state dynamics of the singlet carbene propadienylidene, l-C(3)H(2), were investigated by femtosecond time-resolved photoionisation. The carbene was excited into the C (1)A(1) state with 250 nm pulses and the subsequent excited state dynamics were probed by multiphoton ionization with 800 nm pulses. The lifetime of the C (1)A(1) state was determined to be 70 fs. In agreement with recent nanosecond experiments, we assume that the carbene deactivates to the electronic ground state where it subsequently dissociates. Since propadienylidene was generated from 3-bromo-1-iodopropyne, two further radical intermediates were studied, IC(3)H(2) and C(3)H(2)Br. For both species, an ultrafast excited state decay was observed with an upper limit of 40 fs for the respective lifetimes.
    Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics 08/2009; 11(26):5353-7. · 3.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Two phenylcarbenes, chlorophenylcarbene (CPC) and trifluoromethylphenylcarbene (TFPC), were generated by jet flash pyrolysis of diazirine precursors. Their photoionisation was studied by photoelectron-photoion coincidence spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation. For CPC we determined an adiabatic ionisation energy (IE) of 8.15 eV and a vertical IE of 9.3 eV. For TFPC we obtained an adiabatic IE of 8.47 eV and a vertical IE of 8.95 eV. The photoelectron spectra are broad and unstructured due to a large increase in the angle between the phenyl group, carbene centre and the substituent (Cl or CF(3)). The geometry change upon ionisation is more pronounced for CPC. Being a singlet arylcarbene, CPC is more strongly bent in the neutral ground state than the triplet TFPC. In addition, the bond between the carbenic centre and the chlorine atom shortens upon ionisation, because the radical cation is stabilised by the non-bonding electrons of the Cl through a mesomeric effect. The photoionisation and dissociative photoionisation of the diazirine precursors are also explored. The CPC precursor, 3-chloro-3-phenyldiazirine, undergoes complete dissociative photoionisation and only the CPC(+) fragment is observed above 8.8 eV. For 3-trifluoromethyl-3-phenyldiazirine some molecular ions can be observed above 9.05 eV. However, dissociative photoionisation also sets in right at the ionisation threshold. A fit to the data yields an appearance energy of AE (0 K) approximately 9.27 eV.
    Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics 08/2009; 11(26):5384-91. · 3.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The ultrafast dynamics of two carbene model systems, chlorophenylcarbene (CPC) and trifluoromethylphenylcarbene (TFPC), has been studied in a molecular beam. Velocity map imaging aids optimizing the pyrolysis conditions for a clean generation of reactive intermediates by supersonic jet flash pyrolysis. The dynamics was followed in real time by time-resolved mass spectroscopy and photoion and photoelectron imaging. CPC was excited at 265 nm into the 3 (1)A' state, corresponding to excitation from a pi-orbital of the aromatic ring into the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital, which contains the p-orbital at the carbene center. The experimental results suggest a three step deactivation process in agreement with computations. TFPC exhibits two absorption bands in the 36,000 cm(-1) and 41,000 cm(-1) range and gives rise to very similar dynamics, although it has a triplet ground state. The experimental data were augmented by computations.
    The Journal of Physical Chemistry A 03/2009; 113(13):3041-50. · 2.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The B 1B1 ← X 1A1 transition of isolated cyclopropenylidene, c-C3H2, has been studied by multiphoton ionization and H-atom photofragment Doppler spectroscopy. The carbene is produced by flash pyrolysis of 1-chlorocycloprop-2-ene. Three bands are observed at 271.0, 266.9, and 264.6 nm. The 271 nm band is assumed to be the origin of the transition, in agreement with TD-DFT computations that yield a vertical excitation energy of 4.74 eV (262 nm). The appearance of H-atom photofragments indicates that c-C3H + H is an important reaction channel at UV excitation energies.
    Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters 01/2009; 1(1):228 - 231. · 6.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Understanding the primary photophysical processes in molecules is essential for interpreting their photochemistry, because molecules rarely react from the initially excited electronic state. In this study the ultrafast excited-state dynamics of chlorophenylcarbene (CPC) and trifluoromethylphenylcarbene (TFPC), two species that are considered as models for carbene dynamics, were investigated by femtosecond time-resolved pump probe spectroscopy in the gas phase. Their dynamics was followed in real time by time-resolved photoionization and photoelectron imaging. CPC was excited at 265 nm into the 3 1A' state, corresponding to excitation from a pi-orbital of the aromatic ring into the LUMO. The LUMO contains a contribution of the p-orbital at the carbene center. Three time constants are apparent in the photoelectron images: A fast decay process with tau1 approximately 40 fs, a second time constant of tau2 approximatley 350 fs, and an additional time constant of tau3 approximately 1 ps. The third time constant is only visible in the time-dependence of low kinetic energy electrons. Due to the dense manifold of excited states between 3.9 and 5 eV, known from ab initio calculations, the recorded time-resolved electron images show broad and unstructured bands. A clear population transfer between the states thus can not directly be observed. The fast deactivation process is linked to either a population transfer between the strongly coupled excited states between 3.9 and 5.0 eV or the movement of the produced wave packet out of the Franck-Condon region. Since the third long time constant is only visible for photoelectrons at low kinetic energy, evidence is given that this time constant corresponds to the lifetime of the lowest excited A 1A' state. The remaining time constant reflects a deactivation of the manifold of states in the range 3.9-5.0 eV down to the A 1A' state.
    Journal of the American Chemical Society 11/2008; 130(45):14908-9. · 10.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hydrocarbon radicals CxHy are constituents of various planetary atmospheres, in particular Titan, as a result of the methane photochemistry induced by the solar radiation. They contribute to the neutral chemistry, but are also important for the ionosphere through their photoionisation leading to their cations CxHy +. These cations are also produced by ion-molecule reactions starting from the reaction of the primary ions CH4 + and CH3 + which are created in the non-dissociative and dissociative photoionisation of CH4. This work aims at caracterizing the VUV photoionisation of small hydrocarbon radicals as a function of photon energy. The objective is to provide laboratory data for modelers on the spectroscopy, the thermochemistry, and the reactivity of the radicals and their cations. The hydrocarbon radicals are much less caracterized than stable molecules since they have to be produced in situ in the laboratory experiment. We have adapted at Orsay [1-3] a pyrolysis source (Figure 1) well suited to produce cold beams of hydrocarbon radicals to our experimental setups. Available now at Orsay, we have two new sources of VUV radiation, complementary in terms of tunability and resolution, that can be used for these studies. The first one is the DESIRS beamline [4] at the new french synchrotron, SOLEIL. The second one is the VUV laser developped at the Centre Laser de l'Université Paris-Sud (CLUPS) [5]. At SOLEIL, a photoelectron-photoion coincidence spectrometer is used to monitor the photoionisation on a large photon energy range. At the CLUPS, a pulsedfield ionisation (PFI-ZEKE) spectrometer allows studies at higher resolution on selected photon energies. The first results obtained with these new setups will be presented. References [1] Fischer, I., Schussler, T., Deyerl, H.J., Elhanine, M. & Alcaraz, C., Photoionization and dissociative photoionization of the allyl radical, C3H5. Int. J. Mass Spectrom., 261 (2-3), 227-233 (2007) [2] Schüßler, T., Roth, W., Gerber, T., Alcaraz, C. & Fischer, I., The vacuum ultraviolet photochemistry of radicals: C3H3 and C2H5. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 7 (5), 819-825 (2005) [3] Schüßler, T., Deyerl, H. J., Dummler, S., Fischer, I., Alcaraz, C. & Elhanine, M., The vacuum ultraviolet photochemistry of the allyl radical investigated using synchrotron radiation J. Chem. Phys., 118 (20), 9077-80 (2003) [4] DESIRS, http://www.synchrotronsoleil. fr/portal/page/portal/Recherche/LignesLumiere/ DESIRS [5] CLUPS, http://www.clups.u-psud.fr/
    09/2008;
  • Christoph Gross, Bastian Noller, Ingo Fischer
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    ABSTRACT: We investigate the photochemistry and photodissociation dynamics of the linear C3H2 isomer propadienylidene by two-colour photofragment Doppler spectroscopy at excitation wavelengths between 260 and 230 nm, corresponding to excitation into the C1 A1 state. Propadienylidene is generated by pyrolysis from IC3H2Br. Almost complete conversion of the precursor can only be achieved at high pyrolysis temperatures. Two reaction channels, H-atom loss and loss of H2 molecules, are energetically close. Our results show that H-atom loss is indeed important in the investigated energy range. The Doppler profiles indicate that 34-37% of the excess energy is released as translation. The rates for H-atom loss are faster than the time resolution of our nanosecond-laser setup, kH > 10(8) s(-1).
    Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics 09/2008; 10(34):5196-201. · 3.83 Impact Factor
  • Bastian Noller, Ingo Fischer
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    ABSTRACT: The photodissociation of 2-propyl leading to propene+H was investigated with nanosecond time resolution. A supersonic beam of isolated 2-propyl radicals was produced by pyrolysis of 2-bromopopane. The kinetic energy release of the H-atom photofragment was monitored as a function of excitation wavelength by photofragment Doppler spectroscopy via the Lyman-alpha transition. The loss of hydrogen atoms after excitation proceeds in alpha position to the radical center with a rate constant of 5.8x10(7) s-1 at 254 nm. Approximately 20% of the excess energy is deposited as translation in the H-atom photofragment. In contrast 1-propyl does not lose H atoms to a significant extent. The experimental results are compared to simple Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus calculations. The possible reaction pathways are examined in hybrid density functional theory calculations.
    The Journal of Chemical Physics 05/2007; 126(14):144302. · 3.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The excited-state dynamics of the tert-butyl radical, t-C4H9, was investigated by femtosecond time-resolved photoionization and photoelectron spectroscopy. The experiments were supported by ab initio calculations. tert-Butyl radicals, generated by flash pyrolysis of azo-tert-butane, were excited into the A 2A1 (3s) state between 347 and 307 nm and the 3p band at 274 and 268 nm and ionized by 810-nm radiation, in a [1 + 2'] or [1 + 3'] process. Electronic structure calculations confirm that the two states are of s and p Rydberg characters, respectively. The carbon framework becomes planar and thus ion-like in both states. The photoelectron spectra are broad and seem to be mediated by accidental intermediate resonances in the probe step. All time-resolved photoelectron spectra can be described by a single decay time. For the A 2A1 state, lifetimes between 180 and 69 fs were measured. Surprisingly, a much longer lifetime of around 2 ps was found for the 3p state. To understand the decay dynamics, the potential energy was computed as a function of several important nuclear coordinates. A [1,2] H-atom shift to the isobutyl radical seems not to be important for the excited-state dynamics. Qualitative considerations indicate curve crossings between the ground state, the 3s state, and a valence state along the asymmetric C-C stretch coordinate that correlates to the dimethylcarbene + methyl product channel. The implications of the present study for earlier work on the nanosecond time scale are discussed.
    The Journal of Physical Chemistry A 04/2007; 111(10):1771-9. · 2.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The excited state decay of the hydrocarbon radicals ethyl, C(2)H(5); propargyl, C(3)H(3); and benzyl, C(7)H(7) was investigated by femtosecond time-resolved photoionization. Radicals were generated by flash pyrolysis of n-propyl nitrite, propargyl bromide, and toluene, respectively. It is shown that the 2 (2)A(') (3s) Rydberg state of ethyl excited at 250 nm decays with a time constant of 20 fs. No residual signal was observed at longer delay times. For the 3 (2)B(1) state of propargyl excited at 255 nm a slower decay with a time constant 50+/-10 fs was determined. The 4 (2)B(2) state of benzyl excited at 255 nm decays within 150+/-30 fs.
    The Journal of Chemical Physics 04/2005; 122(9):094302. · 3.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The one-electron oxidation potential of 10 triarylamines 1–10 with all permutations of chloro-, methoxy- and methyl-substituents in the three para-positions were determined by cyclic voltammetry. The half wave potential E1/2(I) of the first oxidation wave correlates linearly with the number of chloro- and methoxy-substituents. A high long-term stability of the first oxidation wave for all triarylamines was observed by multi-cycle thin-layer measurements. AM1-CISD derived values of the absorption energies are in good agreement with the experiments but differ strongly for the oscillator strengths as well as for neutral compounds 1–10 and their corresponding mono radical cations. The small solvent dependence of the experimental UV/Vis spectra in CH2Cl2 and MeCN reflects a minor charge transfer (CT) character of the electronic transitions of neutral and cationic compounds.
    Chemical Physics 01/2005; 316(1):141-152. · 1.96 Impact Factor