Jan J Ochnio

University of British Columbia - Vancouver, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada

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Publications (19)70.7 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection rates in Canada are low and declining. A nationwide pediatric serosurvey in 2003 confirmed that HAV infection is uncommon in children. Additional seroepidemiological data for adults would help to guide domestic use of HAV vaccines. A country-wide survey of HAV antibody positivity and selected risk factors was conducted among 18-69 year olds identified by random digit dialing, in samples proportional to regional populations. Volunteers were sent study materials and returned oral fluid and completed questionnaires by mail. An ultra-sensitive assay was used to detect HAV antibody in oral fluid. Multiple logistic regression was used for risk factor assessment. Of 2104 potential study participants, 1552 (74%) returned an adequate oral fluid specimen and questionnaire. Anti-HAV was detected in 509 individuals (33%) and was associated with birth in HAV endemic areas, self-reported hepatitis A vaccination, prior travel to endemic areas, and increasing age. Only 15% reported having been vaccinated. Among Canadian-born, non-vaccinated participants anti-HAV was present in 20%, ranging regionally from 14% to 30%. Age-specific positivity rates in this subset were: 18-29 years 2.6%; 30-39 years 6.1%; 40-49 years 11.4%; 50-59 years 26.4% and 60-69 years 45.9%. Travel to HAV-endemic countries was reported by 55% of participants but only 24% of travelers had been vaccinated. Past HAV infection rates among Canadian-born, non-vaccinated individuals are low in young adults and increase by two-fold per age decade. Travel to endemic areas is a significant risk factor, amenable to prevention by greater use of HAV vaccine.
    Vaccine 07/2010; 28(32):5174-8. · 3.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Booster doses of diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccines restore waning serum antibody values but frequently cause local inflammation. Cell-mediated immunity (CMI) develops after primary DTaP vaccination and might contribute to local reactions to booster doses, a possibility explored in this study. Healthy 4 to 5-year-old children were bled before DTaP.IPV booster vaccination. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were tested for proliferative responses to D toxoid (DT), T toxoid, pertussis toxoid, pertactin, filamentous hemagglutinin and fimbriae (FIM) types 2, 3, and cytokine release patterns assessed. Proliferative responses were examined in relation to prebooster serum antibody concentrations and local reaction rates, previously reported. Among 167 subjects tested, proliferative response rates were: filamentous hemagglutinin 95%, pertussis toxoid 90%, T toxoid 84%, pertactin 67%, DT 41%, and FIM 31%. Responses were present to 3 to 6 antigens in 87% of subjects and absent altogether in 2%. Subjects without residual pertussis antibodies often had CMI to pertussis antigens. Subjects with CMI had higher corresponding serum antibody concentrations before the booster, compared with CMI-negative subjects. CMI responses were mixed TH1/TH2 type by cytokine profile for all antigens. Injection site erythema (>or=5 mm) was twice as frequent in those with than without CMI to DT (P=0.009) or FIM (P=0.042, Fisher exact test), the only antigens evaluable. CMI to vaccine antigens was often detectable in children before preschool booster vaccination and preliminary evidence suggests a role for CMI in local reactions to this dose.
    The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 09/2009; 28(11):985-9. · 3.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The booster (fourth) dose of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) is recommended to be given at 12-15 months but in Canada it better fits the national schedule at 18 months, prompting this comparison of the safety and immunogenicity of booster immunization at 15 or 18 months. Children who had completed a study of primary PCV7 immunization (with final serology at 7-8 months of age) were enrolled at 12 months, bled and randomly assigned to receive a PCV7 booster at age 15 or 18 months, with serologic testing before and 4 weeks afterward. Adverse events were documented for 3 days postbooster. Antibody concentrations were measured for the 7 pneumococcal serotypes and Haemophilus influenzae type b at 7-8, 12, 15 or 18 months and after boosting. Three hundred thirty-one children were boosted, 167 at 15 months and 164 at 18 months. Pneumococcal geometric mean antibody concentrations declined by 15 months to 23.4% of peak geometric mean concentrations at age 7-8 months and to 19.8% by 18 months. Spontaneous increases in 1 or more antibody concentrations were noted in 195 subjects (61.7%), most commonly with types 6B and 19F. Antibody responses to PCV7 were similarly brisk at 15 and 18 months. Mild injection-site redness and swelling were significantly more frequent at 15 than 18 months but no other differences in reactogenicity were observed. Residual antibody concentrations differed minimally between 15 and 18 months. Spontaneous antibody increases often occurred before boosting, possibly from colonization. PCV7 booster vaccination at 18 months appears to be safe and provides comparable immunogenicity to 15 months vaccination.
    The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 06/2007; 26(5):387-92. · 3.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study assessed compatibility of concurrently administered 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate (PCV7), hepatitis B (HB) and DTaP.IPV/Hib vaccines. Infants were given DTaP.IPV/Hib and HB at 2, 4, 6 months and randomly assigned (2:1) to receive PCV7 concurrently or sequentially (at 3, 5, 7 months). Antibody levels were compared in 246 concurrent and 122 sequential vaccinees. Responses to PCV7, DTaP.IPV/Hib and HB were generally unaltered with concurrent administration except that Hib responses were increased (p=0.008) and HB responses were reduced (p=0.006) with concurrent dosing, the latter possibly from same thigh injection with DTaP.IPV/Hib. We conclude that PCV7, DTaP.IPV/Hib and HB are compatible with concurrent, separate injections.
    Vaccine 04/2006; 24(12):2057-64. · 3.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Large injection site reactions commonly follow booster doses of diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccines at 4-6 years of age. A vaccine with lower diphtheria and pertussis dosage (Tdap) might be better tolerated for this dose. We conducted a randomized, controlled, evaluator-blinded comparison of local reactions to DTaP.inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine (IPV) or Tdap booster vaccinations, in 4- to 5.5-year-old children. Reactions were assessed daily by parents and after 48 hours by study nurses. Serologic responses were measured before and 4 weeks after vaccination and examined in relation to large local reactions (>or=50 mm redness and/or swelling). 288 children were vaccinated, 145 with DTaP.IPV and 143 with Tdap, and after 48 hours examiners noted local redness >or= 50mm in 17.2 and 6.3%, respectively (P = 0.004). DTaP.IPV vaccinees initially experienced local pain (in 54%) which limited arm motion (in 37%), but symptoms largely resolved by 48 hours. Tdap vaccinees had fewer symptoms (pain in 20%, limited arm motion in 14%). Children with large reactions to DTaP.IPV more often than nonreactors had elevated preimmunization antibody concentrations to 1 or more of diphtheria, pertussis toxin or pertactin and elevated postimmunization antibody concentrations to all antigens except fimbriae. Booster responses to Tdap were reduced with the smaller antigen doses but were generally satisfactory. This preschool DTaP.IPV booster vaccination caused large local reactions in 1 in 5 children, with transient discomfort. With Tdap vaccine, such reactions were significantly fewer but not eliminated. A Tdap.IPV vaccine warrants study for routine use at 4-6 years of age.
    The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 01/2006; 24(12):1059-66. · 3.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The risk of hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection during childhood is difficult to estimate without population serosurveys because HAV-related symptoms are often mild at this age. Few serosurveys have been conducted in Canada. The present study surveyed teenagers in two nonurban regions of British Columbia where the historical rate of reported HAV either exceeded (region A) or was less than (region B) the historical provincial rate. A point prevalence survey of salivary HAV-specific immunoglobulin G was conducted in high schools among grade 9 students in regions A and B. A questionnaire was used to gather sociodemographic data. The survey was extended to grade 1 and grade 5 students in community 1 of region B. Associations between risk factors and prior infection were evaluated by logistic regression. Eight hundred eleven grade 9 students were tested. Antibody to HAV was detected in 4.7% of students in region A (95% CI 2.9% to 7.2%) and 9.6% of students in region B (95% CI 6.9% to 12.9%). The region B figure reflected HAV antibody prevalence rates of 19.5% in community 1 and 2.5% in the remainder of the region. Younger students in community 1 had low HAV antibody to HAV prevalence rates (3.9% for grade 1 and 3.1% for grade 5), and positive tests in this community were associated with a particular school, foreign travel and brief residence. The risk factors for HAV infection in grade 9 students were not determined. Children in nonurban areas of British Columbia are generally at low risk of HAV infection during the first decade of life regardless of the reported population rates, thereby permitting the consideration of school-based HAV immunization programs.
    The Canadian journal of infectious diseases & medical microbiology = Journal canadien des maladies infectieuses et de la microbiologie medicale / AMMI Canada 06/2005; 16(3):175-9. · 1.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hepatitis A vaccines provide consistent, long-lasting protection and have been available for almost 10 years in Canada, but their use remains limited. It is difficult to assess their optimal utilization given that our knowledge of hepatitis A epidemiology in Canada is fragmentary. Unlike the United States, no nationwide study of hepatitis A prevalence has ever been done in Canada. Consequently we do not know the incidence of infection in children and what would be the most appropriate age for hepatitis A vaccination. To estimate the proportion of 8- to 13-year-old children who have been infected with hepatitis A virus (HAV) and the risk factors for this infection on a nationwide scale. Children were sampled in 10 Canadian provinces, comprising 5 regions, using random digit dialing methodology with regional stratification. Demographic data and information about risk factors for hepatitis A were collected by the telephone interviewers. Oral fluid samples were self-collected and mailed to the laboratory, where they were tested for anti-HAV IgG. Of 6740 contacted families with a child of required age, 1688 (25%) agreed to participate and answered the questionnaire. From these, 1074 oral fluid samples were received, and 1057 could be analyzed. Anti-HAV IgG was detected in 2.7% of subjects, with variation by region from 0.8 to 3.4%. The parents of 54 subjects (5.1%) reported that their child had previously been vaccinated against HAV. Anti-HAV IgG was present in 2.0% of unvaccinated subjects, among whom antibody prevalence was 19.4% in children born in HAV-endemic countries, 6.1% in Native children and 4.2% in travelers to endemic countries. In multivariate analysis of all subjects, the presence of anti-HAV IgG was significantly associated with birth in an endemic country, travel to an endemic country, Native status (American Indian and Inuit population), female gender and vaccination against HAV. In nonvaccinated, non-Native children born in Canada who did not travel to endemic countries, anti-HAV prevalence was 1.1%. The risk for hepatitis A during childhood is low in Canada. Almost all teenagers (>97%) would be at risk for infection in case of contact with HAV. Changes in immunization policy against hepatitis A should be considered.
    The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 06/2005; 24(6):514-9. · 3.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In Canada--a low endemicity country, vaccines for hepatitis A virus (HAV) are currently recommended to individuals at increased risk for infection or its complications. Applying these recommendations is difficult because the epidemiology of HAV infection is poorly defined, complex, and changing. This systematic review aimed to 1) estimate age-specific prevalence of HAV antibody in Canada and 2) evaluate infection-associated risk factors. MEDLINE (1966-2005) and EMBASE (1980-2005) were searched to identify relevant studies for the systematic review. Archives for the Canada Diseases Weekly Report (1975-1991) and Canada Communicable Disease Report (1992-2005) were searched for relevant public health reports. Data were abstracted for study and participants' characteristics, age-specific prevalence, and risk factors. A total of 36 reports describing 34 unique studies were included.The seroprevalence in Canadian-born children was approximately 1% in ages 8-13, 1-6% in 20-24, 10% in 25-29, 17% in 30-39, and increased subsequently. In age groups below 20 and 20-29, age-specific seroprevalence generally remained constant for studies conducted across geographic areas and over time. Compared to Canadian-born individuals, subjects born outside Canada were approximately 6 times more likely to be seropositive (relative risk: 5.7 [95% CI 3.6, 9.0]). Travel to high risk areas in individuals aged 20-39 was associated with a significant increase in anti-HAV seropositivity (RR 2.8 [1.4, 5.5]). Compared to heterosexuals, men having sex with men were only at a marginally higher risk (adjusted odds ratio 2.4 [0.9, 6.1]). High risk for seropositivity was also observed for Canadian First Nations and Inuit populations. Results from the current systematic review show that in this low endemicity country, disease acquisition occurs in adulthood rather than childhood. The burden of disease is high; approximately 1 in 10 Canadians had been infected by ages 24-29. The increase in prevalence in young adults coincides with disease importation and increasing frequency of risk factors, most likely behavioral-related ones. Gaps in seroprevalence data were identified rendering the application of current immunization recommendations difficult. A nationwide prevalence survey for all Canadians is needed. This is essential to quantify the effectiveness of current recommendations and conduct cost-effectiveness evaluations of alternative immunization programs, if necessary.
    BMC Infectious Diseases 02/2005; 5:56. · 3.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Clusters of meningococcal disease caused by a hyperinvasive lineage of Neisseria meningitidis, the ST11 complex, bearing a serogroup C polysaccharide capsule, have been prominent in Europe and North America since the early 1990s. This situation has led to expensive public health measures for outbreak control and, finally, to the introduction of a serogroup C glyconjugate vaccine into the primary immunization schedule in the United Kingdom and elsewhere. ST11 complex meningococci may also express serogroup W135 polysaccharide capsules. We investigated the level of population immunity to this hyperinvasive clone in association with the appearance of outbreaks of meningococcal disease in southern British Columbia. We found that most adults and almost all children were apparently susceptible to infection with ST11 complex meningococci bearing both C and W135 polysaccharide capsules, which suggests that a vaccine program directed against only serogroup C meningococci may be insufficient to prevent hyperinvasive ST11 disease.
    Emerging infectious diseases 11/2004; 10(10):1812-5. · 5.99 Impact Factor
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    David W Scheifele, Jan Ochnio
    Canadian Medical Association Journal 08/2002; 167(1):44-5. · 6.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In Canada, inactivated hepatitis A vaccines are targeted selectively at those at increased risk for infection or its complications. In order to evaluate the need for routine hepatitis A vaccination programs in Vancouver for street youth, injection drug users (IDUs) and men who have sex with men (MSM), we determined the prevalence of antibodies against hepatitis A virus (HAV) and risk factors for HAV in these groups. The frequency of past HAV infection was measured in a sample of Vancouver street youth, IDUs and MSM attending outreach and STD clinics and needle exchange facilities by testing their saliva for anti-HAV immunoglobulin G. A self-administered, structured questionnaire was used to gather sociodemographic data. Stepwise logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between presumed risk factors and groups and past HAV infection. Of 494 study participants, 235 self-reported injection drug use, 51 were self-identified as MSM and 111 met street youth criteria. Positive test results for anti-HAV were found in 6.3% of street youth (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.6%-12.6%), 42.6% (95% CI 36.2%-48.9%) of IDUs and 14.7% (95% CI 10.4%-19.1%) of individuals who denied injection drug use. Among men who denied injection drug use, the prevalence was 26.3% (10/38) for MSM and 12% (21/175) for heterosexuals. Logistic regression showed that past HAV infection was associated with increased age and birth in a country with high rates of hepatitis infection. Injection drug use among young adults (25-34 years old) was a significant risk factor for a positive anti-HAV test (p = 0.009). MSM were also at higher risk for past HAV infection, although this association was nominally significant (p = 0.07). Low rates of past HAV infection among Vancouver street youth indicate a low rate of virus circulation in this population, which is vulnerable to hepatitis A outbreaks. An increased risk for HAV infection in IDUs and MSM supports the need to develop routine vaccination programs for these groups also.
    Canadian Medical Association Journal 09/2001; 165(3):293-7. · 6.47 Impact Factor
  • Canada communicable disease report = Relevé des maladies transmissibles au Canada 11/2000; 26(19):157-61.
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    ABSTRACT: Tetanus-diphtheria toxoids (Td) booster immunization is generally recommended for Grade 9 students (14- to 16-year-olds) but targeting younger students may enhance vaccine uptake or facilitate simultaneous vaccinations. However, earlier vaccination might cause greater side effects. This study was undertaken to compare the safety of Td vaccinations in students in Grade 6 (11 to 12 years old) and Grade 9. A controlled, sequential assessment of Td vaccine, adsorbed, was conducted in one urban school district, starting with Grade 9 students. Grade 6 students were given Td concurrently with Dose 3 of hepatitis B vaccine. Adverse effects were assessed during visits 2 days after vaccination. Participation criteria, immunization technique and assessment procedures were standardized. Of 410 students vaccinated, 204 in Grade 9 and 206 in Grade 6, 391 (95.4%) were assessed in person. Nineteen missed follow-up visits but telephone interviewers established that none missed school because of vaccine side effects. At follow-up Grade 6 students more often reported deltoid pain with arm movement (35.2% vs. 10.8%, P < 0.001). Injection site redness > or = 50 mm in diameter was present in 12.2% of Grade 6 and 3.6% of Grade 9 students (P < 0.001) whereas swelling > or = 50 mm diameter was present in 22.4 and 10.8%, respectively (P < 0.01). Fewer than 10% of subjects took analgesics for injection site pain. Only 5 students (1.3%) rated Td site morbidity as severe/unacceptable. Hepatitis B site morbidity was minimal in comparison. Td boosters were moderately reactogenic in adolescents. Younger students more often experienced injection site morbidity but considered it bearable. Booster immunizations can reasonably be offered within the age range of 11 to 16 years.
    The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 01/1999; 17(12):1121-6. · 3.57 Impact Factor
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    J J Ochnio, D W Scheifele, M Ho
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the prevalence of hepatitis A virus (HAV) infections in children in a large urban center, a point prevalence survey was conducted using a novel, ultrasensitive assay for HAV-specific IgG in saliva. A structured sample of 224 grade-six students (5.8% of grade registrants) was obtained from 23 schools throughout Vancouver. All students provided saliva samples adequate for testing. The anti-HAV prevalence rate was 7.1% (95% confidence interval, 4.1%-11.3%). Among 167 Canadian-born students, only 5 (3%) were positive, whereas among 57 students born elsewhere, 11 (19.3%) were positive (P < .001), with circumstances in the latter group supporting infection prior to emigration. No clustering of positive persons was evident. The cumulative risk of HAV infection in Canadian-born children was low through age 11-12 years even in less affluent parts of the city, speaking against a need for routine use of HAV vaccine in this setting.
    The Journal of Infectious Diseases 12/1997; 176(6):1610-3. · 5.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although detection of disease-induced hepatitis A virus (HAV)-specific antibodies in saliva has been successfully utilized in a few epidemiological studies, available assays fail to detect lower salivary anti-HAV levels associated with vaccine-induced immunity. We present a new capture enzyme immunoassay which employs a three-layer antibody recognition system. Evaluation of paired saliva-serum specimens from 1,025 international travellers, 134 other volunteers, and 91 hepatitis A vaccine recipients demonstrated 99.6% (95% confidence interval, 98.4 to 99.9) specificity and 98.7% (95% confidence interval, 97.7 to 99.4) sensitivity of this salivary assay in differentiating between immune and susceptible individuals, compared with serum-based methods. We conclude that this assay is sufficiently sensitive for reliable detection of both vaccine- and infection-induced HAV-specific immunoglobulin G in saliva, even when corresponding anti-HAV levels in serum are very low (< 1 IU/ml).
    Journal of Clinical Microbiology 01/1997; 35(1):98-101. · 4.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The effects of age, sex, and possible prior exposure to serogroup C meningococci on group C-specific antibody levels (total and functional) were examined in 2- to 19-year-olds just before and 1 and 12 months after immunization with divalent (groups A + C) meningococcal capsular polysaccharide vaccine. Only age was found to have a significant effect on antibody levels. At 1 month, only 50% of 2- to 6-year-olds had detectable serum bactericidal antibody, in contrast to 84.1% and 96.3% of 9- to 12- and 13- to 19-year-olds respectively. By 12 months, only 20%, 40.9%, and 53.8% of subjects in these age groups had serum bactericidal antibody, suggesting that current meningococcal C polysaccharide vaccines provide only short-term protection. However, the drop in total specific antibody levels (by EIA) was less pronounced. Persistence of antibodies detectable by EIA (but not serum bactericidal antibodies) suggests that this vaccine may also give rise to antibodies of low affinity or directed to nonfunctional (nonprotective) epitopes (or both).
    The Journal of Infectious Diseases 05/1996; 173(4):1009-13. · 5.85 Impact Factor
  • Canada communicable disease report = Relevé des maladies transmissibles au Canada 04/1994; 20(5):37-9.
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    ABSTRACT: The immunogenicity of Haemophilus influenzae type b polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccines in congenitally asplenic children is unknown. The short-term immunogenicity of the H. influenzae type b polysaccharide-diphtheria toxoid conjugate vaccine was therefore assessed in 10 children with congenital asplenia by measuring antipolyribosyl-ribitol phosphate antibody titers. An excellent antibody response was seen in 9 children (mean geometric titer in responders after immunization 44.7 micrograms/mL; range, 2.59-402). The remaining child responded to a booster dose. Further studies are required to assess whether H. influenzae type b conjugate vaccines are immunogenic in infancy in the presence of congenital asplenia.
    The Journal of Infectious Diseases 06/1993; 167(5):1210-2. · 5.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although population-based serosurveys offer an optimal measure of cumulative infection rates, they are seldom performed due to high cost and complex logistics. Use of participant self-collected oral fluid as a diagnostic specimen and mail for specimen delivery has the potential of generating reliable, population-representative data at limited cost. A survey of oral fluid HAV-specific immunoglobulin G (an indicator of past HAV infection) was undertaken in a provincially representative sample of 20-39 year olds as a pilot study. A provincial administrative database served as the sampling frame. Potential participants were invited by mail to collect oral fluid and complete a questionnaire at home and return both by mail. Additional telephone prompting was directed at slow responders. Oral fluid was tested using a validated ELISA. From among 2,448 potential participants, contact by mail or telephone was made with 1,009 eligible subjects; 59% (585) participated. Materials withstood mailing and the quality of self-collected specimens was excellent. A positive test result was found in 22.1% overall and in 15.7% of self-reported non-vaccinated subjects. Among Canadian-born, non-vaccinated individuals, the positive test rate increased progressively from 1.2% (95% CI: 0-6.3) in 20-24 year olds to 16.4% (95% CI: 9.5-23.3) in 35-39 year olds. Antibody prevalence was higher among Canadian-born non-immunized 20-29 year olds who reported travel to developing countries (33.3%, 95% CI: 11.6-55.1) than in non-travellers (2.5%, 95% CI: 0.7-6.2). Mail-based population surveys of infection markers in oral fluid are feasible provided an appropriate sampling frame is used. This survey revealed a high anti-HAV antibody prevalence in young Canadian adults, increasing with age and travel to developing countries.
    Canadian journal of public health. Revue canadienne de santé publique 98(1):37-40. · 1.02 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

227 Citations
70.70 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1997–2010
    • University of British Columbia - Vancouver
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
    • BC Children's Hospital
      Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
  • 2001
    • University of British Columbia - Okanagan
      Kelowna, British Columbia, Canada