[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate whether weekly schedules of docetaxel-based chemotherapy were superior to 3-weekly ones in terms of quality of life in locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer.
Patients with locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer, aged ≤ 70 years, performance status 0-2, chemotherapy-naive for metastatic disease, were eligible. They were randomized to weekly or 3-weekly combination of docetaxel and epirubicin, if they were not treated with adjuvant anthracyclines, or docetaxel and capecitabine, if treated with adjuvant anthracyclines. Primary end-point was global quality of life change at 6-weeks, measured by EORTC QLQ-C30. With two-sided alpha 0.05 and 80% power for 35% effect size, 130 patients per arm were needed.
From February 2004 to March 2008, 139 patients were randomized, 70 to weekly and 69 to 3-weekly arm; 129 and 89 patients filled baseline and 6-week questionnaires, respectively. Global quality of life was better in the 3-weekly arm (p = 0.03); patients treated with weekly schedules presented a significantly worsening in role functioning and financial scores (p = 0.02 and p < 0.001). Neutropenia and stomatitis were worse in the 3-weekly arm, where two toxic deaths were observed. Overall response rate was 39.1% and 33.3% in 3-weekly and weekly arms; hazard ratio of progression was 1.29 (95% CI: 0.84-1.97) and hazard ratio of death was 1.38 (95% CI: 0.82-2.30) in the weekly arm.
In this trial, the weekly schedules of docetaxel-based chemotherapy appear to be inferior to the 3-weekly one in terms of quality of life in patients with locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PURPOSE We compared the endocrine effects of 6 and 12 months of adjuvant letrozole versus tamoxifen in postmenopausal patients with hormone-responsive early breast cancer within an ongoing phase III trial. PATIENTS AND METHODS Patients were randomly assigned to receive tamoxifen, letrozole, or letrozole plus zoledronic acid. Serum values of estradiol, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone-sulphate (DHEA-S), progesterone, and cortisol were measured at baseline and after 6 and 12 months of treatment. For each hormone, changes from baseline at 6 and 12 months were compared between treatment groups, and differences over time for each group were analyzed. Results Hormonal data were available for 139 postmenopausal patients with a median age of 62 years, with 43 patients assigned to tamoxifen and 96 patients assigned to letrozole alone or combined with zoledronic acid. Baseline values were similar between the two groups for all hormones. Many significant changes were observed between drugs and for each drug over time. Namely, three hormones seemed significantly affected by one drug only: estradiol that decreased and progesterone that increased with letrozole and cortisol that increased with tamoxifen. Both drugs affected FSH (decreasing with tamoxifen and slightly increasing with letrozole), LH (decreasing more with tamoxifen than with letrozole), testosterone (slightly increasing with letrozole but not enough to differ from tamoxifen), and DHEA-S (increasing with both drugs but not differently between them). Zoledronic acid did not have significant impact on hormonal levels. CONCLUSION Adjuvant letrozole and tamoxifen result in significantly distinct endocrine effects. Such differences can explain the higher efficacy of letrozole as compared with tamoxifen.
Journal of Clinical Oncology 05/2009; 27(19):3192-7. · 18.04 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Within an ongoing multicentre phase 3 randomised trial (ELDA, cancertrials.gov ID: NCT00331097), early breast cancer patients, 65-79 years old, with average to high risk of recurrence, are randomly assigned to receive CMF (cyclophosphamide 600 mg/m2, methotrexate 40 mg/m2, fluorouracil 600 mg/m2, days 1-8) or docetaxel (35 mg/m2 days 1-8-15), every 4 weeks. Here we report an unplanned safety analysis prompted by an amendment introducing creatinine clearance as a tool to adjust methotrexate dose. Before such change, 101 patients with a median age of 70 were randomly assigned CMF (53 patients) or docetaxel (48 patients). At least one grades 3-4 toxic event of any type was reported in 40 (75.5%) and 19 (39.6%) patients with CMF and docetaxel, respectively (p=0.0002). Grades 3-4 hematological events were observed in 37 (69.8%) vs. 4 (8.3%) cases (p<0.0001) and grades 3-4 non-hematological toxicity in 12 (22.6%) vs. 15 (31.2%) patients (p=0.11), with CMF and docetaxel, respectively. A higher incidence of anemia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia and febrile neutropenia was reported with CMF. Constipation, mucositis, nausea and vomiting were more common with CMF; diarrhoea, abdominal pain, dysgeusia, neuropathy and liver toxicity were more frequent with docetaxel. No significant interaction was found between the occurrence of severe toxicity and baseline variables, including creatinine clearance and geriatric activity scales. In conclusion, weekly docetaxel appears to be less toxic than CMF in terms of hematological toxicity.
Critical Reviews in Oncology/Hematology 06/2008; 66(2):171-80. · 4.64 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare the endocrine effects of 6 months of adjuvant treatment with letrozole + triptorelin or tamoxifen + triptorelin in premenopausal patients with early breast cancer within an ongoing phase 3 trial (Hormonal Adjuvant Treatment Bone Effects study).
Prospectively collected hormonal data were available for 81 premenopausal women, of whom 30 were assigned to receive tamoxifen + triptorelin and 51 were assigned letrozole + triptorelin +/- zoledronate. Serum 17-beta-estradiol (E2), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), Delta4-androstenedione, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate, progesterone, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and cortisol were measured at baseline and after 6 months of treatment. For each hormone, 6-month values were compared between treatment groups by the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney exact test.
Median age was 44 years for both groups of patients. Letrozole + triptorelin (+/- zoledronate) induced a stronger suppression of median E2 serum levels (P = .0008), LH levels (P = .0005), and cortisol serum levels (P < .0001) compared with tamoxifen + triptorelin. Median FSH serum levels were suppressed in both groups, but such suppression was lower among patients receiving letrozole, who showed significantly higher median FSH serum levels (P < .0001). No significant differences were observed for testosterone, progesterone, ACTH, androstenedione, and dehydroepiandrosterone between the two groups of patients.
Letrozole in combination with triptorelin induces a more intense estrogen suppression than tamoxifen + triptorelin in premenopausal patients with early breast cancer.
Journal of Clinical Oncology 01/2008; 26(2):264-70. · 18.04 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: After two studies reporting response rates higher than 70% in HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer with weekly trastuzumab and vinorelbine, we planned a phase 2 study to test activity of the same combination, with trastuzumab given every 3 weeks.
Patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer (3+ at immunohistochemistry or positive at fluorescence in situ hybridization), PS < or =2, normal left-ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and no more than one chemotherapy line for metastatic disease were eligible. Vinorelbine (30 mg/m2) was given on days 1 & 8 every 21 and trastuzumab (8 mg/kg day 1, then 6 mg/kg) every 21 days). A single-stage phase 2 design, with p0 = 0.45, p1 = 0.65, type I and II error = 0.10, was applied; 22 objective responses were required in 39 patients.
From Nov 2002 to May 2005, 50 patients were enrolled, with a median age of 54 years (range 31-81). Among 40 patients eligible for response assessment, there were 7 complete and 13 partial responses (overall response rate 50%; 95% exact CI 33.8-66.2); 11 patients had disease stabilization, lasting more than 6 months in 10 cases. Response rate did not vary according to patients and tumor characteristics, type and amount of previous chemotherapy. Within the whole series, median progression-free survival was 9.6 months (95% CI 7.3-12.3), median overall survival 22.7 months (95% CI 19.5-NA). Fifteen patients (30%) developed brain metastases at a median time of 12 months (range 1-25). There was one toxic death due to renal failure in a patient receiving concomitant pamidronate. Twenty-three patients (46%) had grade 3-4 neutropenia, 2 (4%) grade 3 anemia, 4 (8%) febrile neutropenia. Two patients stopped treatment because of grade 2 decline of LVEF and one patient because of grade 2 liver toxicity concomitant with a grade 1 decline of LVEF. One patient stopped trastuzumab after 50 cycles because of grade 1 decline of LVEF.
Although lower than in initial studies, activity of 3-weekly trastuzumab plus vinorelbine fell within the range of results reported with weekly schedules. Toxicity was prevalently manageable. This combination is safe and active for metastatic breast cancer patients who received adjuvant taxanes with anthracyclines.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare the molecular, histological, and functional characteristics of growth hormone (GH)- and pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy, and their responses to ischemia-reperfusion and mechanical stretch.
Four groups of male Wistar rats were studied: aortic banding (n=24, AB) or sham (n=24, controls) for 10 weeks, and GH treatment (n=24; 3.5mg/kg/day, GH) or placebo (n=24, controls) for 4 weeks. At 13 weeks, the rats were randomly subjected to: (i) assessment of basal left ventricular mRNA expression of sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium-ATPase (SERCA-2), phospholamban (PLB), and Na(+)-Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX) and collagen volume fraction (CVF) (Protocol A, 8 rats in each group); (ii) left ventricular no-flow ischemia with simultaneous evaluation of intracellular Ca(2+) handling and ATP, phosphocreatine (PCr) and inorganic phosphate (Pi) content (Protocol B, 12 rats in each group); or (iii) left ventricular mechanical stretch for 40 min with assessment of tumor necrosis-alpha (TNF-alpha) mRNA (Protocol C, 4 rats in each group). Protocol B and C were carried out in a Langendorff apparatus.
In Protocol A, no difference was found as to myocardial mRNA content of Ca(2+) regulating proteins and CVF in GH animals vs controls. In contrast, in the AB group, myocardial mRNA expression of SERCA-2 and PLB was downregulated while that of NCX and CVF were increased vs. controls (p<0.05). In Protocol B, recovery of left ventricular function was significantly decreased in AB vs GH groups and controls and this was associated with 1.6-fold increase in intracellular Ca(2+) overload during reperfusion (p<0.05). Baseline ATP content was similar in the four study groups, whereas PCr and Pi was lower in AB vs GH rats and controls. However, the time courses of high-energy phosphate metabolic changes did not differ during ischemia and reperfusion in the four study groups. In Protocol C, no detectable TNF-alpha mRNA level was found in the left ventricular myocardium of GH treated rats and controls at baseline, while a modest expression was noted in AB animals. Mechanical stretch resulted in de novo myocardial TNF-alpha mRNA expression in GH group and controls, which was dramatically increased in AB animals ( approximately 5-fold above baseline, p<0.001).
The data show that cardiac hypertrophy activated by short-term GH treatment confers cardioprotection compared with pressure overload with regard to molecular and histological characteristics, and responses to ischemia-reperfusion and mechanical stretch.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An isovolumic normal rat heart Langendorff model was used to examine the effects of moderate (15 mmHg) and severe (35 mmHg) mechanical stretch on the time course (from 0 to 60 min) of myocardial expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-6, and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 and their cognate receptors. After 10 min of moderate stretch, TNF-alpha was de novo expressed, whereas constitutive IL-6 and IGF-1 levels were slightly upregulated; no further changes occurred up to 60 min. In comparison, severe stretch resulted in a higher and progressive increase in TNF-alpha, IL-6, and IGF-1 expression up to 20 min. After 20 min, whereas TNF-alpha expression further increased, IL-6 and IGF-1 levels progressively reduced to values lower than those observed under moderate stretch and in unstretched (5 mmHg) control myocardium (IL-6). Mechanical stretch did not significantly alter the expression of the cognate receptors. Indeed, the TNF-alpha receptor (p55) tended to be progressively upregulated under severe stretch over time. The current data provide the first demonstration that TNF-alpha, IL-6, and IGF-1 ligand-receptor systems are differentially expressed within the normal rat myocardium in response to graded mechanical stretch. Such findings may have potential implications with regard to compensatory hypertrophy and failure.