R William Vandivier

National Jewish Health, Denver, Colorado, United States

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Publications (36)264.54 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Rationale: Studies evaluating corticosteroid (CS) dosing for patients hospitalized with an acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD) have largely excluded patients admitted directly to the intensive care unit (ICU), and none have evaluated the effect of CS dosing regimens on mortality. Objectives: Examine the effectiveness and safety of lower-dose versus high-dose CS in patients admitted to the ICU with an AECOPD. Methods: This pharmacoepidemiological cohort study evaluated ICU patients with AECOPD admitted to one of 473 hospitals and treated with CS within the first 2 days between January 1, 2003 and December 31, 2008. Patients were grouped into lower-dose (methylprednisolone ≤240mg/day) or high-dose (methylprednisolone>240mg/day) groups based on CS dosage on hospital day 1 or 2. The primary outcome was hospital mortality. Measurements and Main Results: 17,239 patients were included, 6,156 (36%) were in the lower-dose and 11,083 (64%) in the high-dose CS group. After propensity score matching and adjustment for unbalanced covariates, lower-dose CS was not associated with a significant reduction in mortality (OR 0.85; 95% CI 0.71- 1.01; p = 0.06), but it was associated with reduced hospital (-0.44 days; 95% CI -0.67, -0.21; p < 0.01) and ICU (-0.31 days; 95% CI -0.46, -0.16; p<0.01) length-of-stay, hospital costs (-$2,559; 95% CI -$4,508, -$609; p=0.01), length of invasive ventilation (-0.29 days; 95% CI -0.52 to -0.06; p=0.01), need for insulin therapy (22.7% vs. 25.1%, p<0.01) and fungal infections (3.3% vs. 4.4%, p<0.01). Conclusions: Two thirds of patients admitted to the ICU with an AECOPD are treated with high doses of corticosteroids that are associated with worse outcomes and more frequent adverse effects. Lower dosage strategies should be encouraged for patients admitted to the ICU and the optimum dose should be determined through clinical trials.
    American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 03/2014; · 11.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) is a CNS neurotransmitter increasingly recognized to exert immunomodulatory effects outside the CNS that contribute to the pathogenesis of autoimmune and chronic inflammatory diseases. 5-HT signals to activate the RhoA/Rho kinase (ROCK) pathway, a pathway known for its ability to regulate phagocytosis. The clearance of apoptotic cells (i.e. efferocytosis) is a key modulator of the immune response that is inhibited by the RhoA/ROCK pathway. Because efferocytosis is defective in many of the same illnesses where 5-HT has been implicated in disease pathogenesis, we hypothesized that 5-HT would suppress efferocytosis via activation of RhoA/ROCK. The effect of 5-HT on efferocytosis was examined in murine peritoneal and human alveolar macrophages, and its mechanisms were investigated using pharmacologic blockade and genetic deletion. 5-HT impaired efferocytosis by murine peritoneal macrophages and human alveolar macrophages. 5-HT increased phosphorylation of myosin phosphatase subunit 1 (Mypt-1), a known ROCK target, and inhibitors of RhoA and ROCK reversed the suppressive effect of 5-HT on efferocytosis. Peritoneal macrophages expressed the 5-HT transporter and 5-HT receptors (R) 2a, 2b, but not 2c. Inhibition of 5-HTR2a and 5-HTR2b had no effect on efferocytosis, but blockade of the 5-HT transporter prevented 5-HT-impaired efferocytosis. Genetic deletion of the 5-HT transporter inhibited 5-HT uptake into peritoneal macrophages, prevented 5-HT-induced phosphorylation of Mypt-1, reversed the inhibitory effect of 5-HT on efferocytosis and decreased cellular peritoneal inflammation. These results suggest a novel mechanism by which 5-HT might disrupt efferocytosis and contribute to the pathogenesis of autoimmune and chronic inflammatory diseases.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 02/2014; · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The pathogenic mechanisms underlying pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) due to schistosomiasis, one of the most common causes of pulmonary hypertension (PH) worldwide, remains unknown. We hypothesized that TGF-β signaling as a consequence of Th2 inflammation is critical for the pathogenesis of this disease. Mice sensitized and subsequently challenged with S. mansoni eggs developed PH associated with an increase in right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP), thickening of the pulmonary artery media, and right ventricular hypertrophy. Rho-kinase dependent vasoconstriction accounted for about 60% of the increase in RVSP. The pulmonary vascular remodeling and PH were dependent on increased TGF-β signaling, as pharmacological blockade of the TGF-β ligand and receptor, and mice lacking Smad3 were significantly protected from Schistosoma-induced PH. Blockade of TGF-β signaling also led to a decrease in IL4 and IL13 concentrations, which drive the Th2 responses characteristic of schistosomiasis lung pathology. Lungs of patients with schistosomiasis-associated PAH have evidence of TGF-β signaling in their remodeled pulmonary arteries. Experimental S. mansoni-induced pulmonary vascular disease relies on canonical TGF-β signaling.
    Circulation 08/2013; · 15.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Serum and bronchoalveolar fluid IL-6 are increased in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and predict prolonged mechanical ventilation and poor outcomes, although the role of intra-alveolar IL-6 in indirect lung injury is unknown. We investigated the role of endogenous and exogenous intra-alveolar IL-6 in AKI-mediated lung injury (indirect lung injury), intraperitoneal (IP) endotoxin administration (indirect lung injury) and, for comparison, intratracheal (IT) endotoxin administration (direct lung injury) with the hypothesis that IL-6 would exert a pro-inflammatory effect in these causes of acute lung inflammation. Bronchoalveolar cytokines (IL-6, CXCL1, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-10), BAL fluid neutrophils, lung inflammation (lung cytokines, MPO activity [a biochemical marker of neutrophil infiltration]), and serum cytokines were determined in adult male C57Bl/6 mice with no intervention or 4 hours after ischemic AKI (22 minutes of renal pedicle clamping), IP endotoxin (10 µg), or IT endotoxin (80 µg) with and without intratracheal (IT) IL-6 (25 ng or 200 ng) treatment. Lung inflammation was similar after AKI, IP endotoxin, and IT endotoxin. BAL fluid IL-6 was markedly increased after IT endotoxin, and not increased after AKI or IP endotoxin. Unexpectedly, IT IL-6 exerted an anti-inflammatory effect in healthy mice characterized by reduced BAL fluid cytokines. IT IL-6 also exerted an anti-inflammatory effect in IT endotoxin characterized by reduced BAL fluid cytokines and lung inflammation; IT IL-6 had no effect on lung inflammation in AKI or IP endotoxin. IL-6 exerts an anti-inflammatory effect in direct lung injury from IT endotoxin, yet has no role in the pathogenesis or treatment of indirect lung injury from AKI or IP endotoxin. Since intra-alveolar inflammation is important in the pathogenesis of direct, but not indirect, causes of lung inflammation, IT anti-inflammatory treatments may have a role in direct, but not indirect, causes of ARDS.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(5):e61405. · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • R William Vandivier, Derek J Linderman, Patricia B Koff
    Annals of internal medicine 10/2012; 157(7):530. · 13.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Efficient clearance of apoptotic cells from the lung by alveolar macrophages is important for the maintenance of tissue structure and function. Lung tissue from humans with emphysema contains increased numbers of apoptotic cells and decreased levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Mice treated with VEGF receptor inhibitors have increased numbers of apoptotic cells and develop emphysema. We hypothesized that VEGF regulates apoptotic cell clearance by alveolar macrophages (AM) via its interaction with VEGF receptor 1 (VEGF R1). Our data show that the uptake of apoptotic cells by murine AMs and human monocyte-derived macrophages is inhibited by depletion of VEGF and that VEGF activates Rac1. Antibody blockade or pharmacological inhibition of VEGF R1 activity also decreased apoptotic cell uptake ex vivo. Conversely, overexpression of VEGF significantly enhanced apoptotic cell uptake by AMs in vivo. These results indicate that VEGF serves a positive regulatory role via its interaction with VEGF R1 to activate Rac1 and enhance AM apoptotic cell clearance.
    AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology 02/2012; 302(7):L711-8. · 3.52 Impact Factor
  • Archives of internal medicine 12/2011; 171(22):2059-61. · 11.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) are associated with an increased susceptibility to a variety of common and devastating pulmonary diseases including community- and hospital-acquired pneumonias, as well as the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Alveolar macrophages play an important role in preventing the development of these disorders through maintaining lung sterility and resolving lung inflammation. Although alcohol exposure has been associated with aberrant alveolar macrophage function in animal models, the clinical relevance of these observations in humans is not established. Therefore, we sought to determine the effects of AUDs on human alveolar macrophage gene expression. Whole genome microarray analysis was performed on alveolar macrophages obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage from a test cohort of subjects with AUDs (n = 7), and controls (n = 7) who were pair-matched on age, gender, and smoking. Probe set expression differences in this cohort were validated by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT RT-PCR). Functional analysis with web-based bioinformatics tools was utilized with microarray data to assess differentially expressed candidate genes (p < 0.01) based on alcohol consumption. Alveolar macrophage mRNA samples from a second cohort of subjects with AUDs (n = 7) and controls (n = 7) were used to confirm gene expression differences related to AUDs. In both the test and the confirmatory cohorts, AUDs were associated with upregulation of alveolar macrophage gene expression related to apoptosis, including perforin-1, granzyme A, and CXCR4 (fusin). Pathways governing the regulation of progression through cell cycle and immune response were also affected, as was upregulation of gene expression for mitochondrial superoxide dismutase. Overall, 12 genes' expression was affected by AUDs independent of smoking. Alcohol use disorders are associated with unique changes in human alveolar macrophage gene expression. Novel therapies targeting alveolar macrophage gene expression in the setting of AUDs may prove to be clinically useful in limiting susceptibility for pulmonary disorders in these individuals.
    Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research 02/2011; 35(2):284-94. · 3.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Absence of a functional nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase predisposes chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) patients to infection, and also to unexplained, exaggerated inflammation. The impaired recognition and removal (efferocytosis) of apoptotic neutrophils by CGD macrophages may contribute to this effect. We hypothesized that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) activation during CGD inflammation is deficient, leading to altered macrophage programming and decreased efferocytosis, and that PPARγ agonism would enhance resolution. using the gp91(phox-/-) murine model of X-linked CGD in a well-characterized model of sterile, zymosan-induced peritonitis, it was demonstrated that PPARγ expression and activation in CGD macrophages were significantly deficient at baseline, and acquisition was delayed over the course of inflammation relative to that of wild-type. Efferocytosis by macrophages reflected PPARγ activation during peritonitis and was impaired in CGD mice (versus wild-type), leading to accumulation of apoptotic neutrophils. Importantly, provision of the PPARγ agonist, pioglitazone, either prophylactically or during inflammation, significantly enhanced macrophage PPARγ-mediated programming and efferocytosis, reduced accumulation of apoptotic neutrophils, and normalized the course of peritonitis in CGD mice. As such, PPARγ may be a therapeutic target for CGD, and possibly other inflammatory conditions where aberrant macrophage programming and impaired efferocytosis delay resolution of inflammation.
    Blood 11/2010; 116(22):4512-22. · 9.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A decreased clearance of apoptotic cells (efferocytosis) by alveolar macrophages (AM) may contribute to inflammation in emphysema. The up-regulation of ceramides in response to cigarette smoking (CS) has been linked to AM accumulation and increased detection of apoptotic alveolar epithelial and endothelial cells in lung parenchyma. We hypothesized that ceramides inhibit the AM phagocytosis of apoptotic cells. Release of endogenous ceramides via sphingomyelinase or exogenous ceramide treatments dose-dependently impaired apoptotic Jurkat cell phagocytosis by primary rat or human AM, irrespective of the molecular species of ceramide. Similarly, in vivo augmentation of lung ceramides via intratracheal instillation in rats significantly decreased the engulfment of instilled target apoptotic thymocytes by resident AM. The mechanism of ceramide-induced efferocytosis impairment was dependent on generation of sphingosine via ceramidase. Sphingosine treatment recapitulated the effects of ceramide, dose-dependently inhibiting apoptotic cell clearance. The effect of ceramide on efferocytosis was associated with decreased membrane ruffle formation and attenuated Rac1 plasma membrane recruitment. Constitutively active Rac1 overexpression rescued AM efferocytosis against the effects of ceramide. CS exposure significantly increased AM ceramides and recapitulated the effect of ceramides on Rac1 membrane recruitment in a sphingosine-dependent manner. Importantly, CS profoundly inhibited AM efferocytosis via ceramide-dependent sphingosine production. These results suggest that excessive lung ceramides may amplify lung injury in emphysema by causing both apoptosis of structural cells and inhibition of their clearance by AM.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 10/2010; 285(51):40322-32. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Alcohol abuse increases the risk for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Efferocytosis, the clearance of apoptotic cells, is important in the resolution of inflammation and is regulated by RhoA and rho kinase (ROCK) activation. The effects of alcohol on pulmonary Rho pathway activation and efferocytosis have not been determined. We hypothesize that acute and chronic alcohol exposure impair pulmonary efferocytosis, leading to heightened inflammation during ARDS. For in vivo experiments, C57BL/6 mice received either a single intraperitoneal injection of alcohol or chronic ethanol-in-water for 8 weeks prior to intratracheal instillation of apoptotic cells or lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed for cells counts, calculation of the phagocytic index (PI), and Rho activity measurements. For in vitro studies, primary alveolar macrophages were cultured in alcohol (25-100 mM) and then co-cultured with apoptotic cells. RhoA activity was determined following alcohol exposure, and the PI was determined before and after treatment with the ROCK inhibitor, Y27632. Acute alcohol exposure was associated with impaired efferocytosis. Following LPS exposure, acute alcohol exposure was also associated with increased BAL neutrophils. Chronic alcohol exposure alone did not alter efferocytosis. However, following exposure to LPS, chronic alcohol exposure was associated with both impaired efferocytosis and increased BAL neutrophils. In vitro alcohol exposure caused a dose-dependent decrease in efferocytosis. Despite the fact that RhoA activity was decreased by alcohol exposure and RhoA inhibition did not alter the effects of alcohol on efferocytosis, treatment with the Rho kinase inhibitor, Y27632, reversed the effects of alcohol on efferocytosis. Acute alcohol exposure impairs pulmonary efferocytosis, whereas exposure to chronic alcohol is only associated with impaired efferocytosis following LPS-induced lung injury. Both forms of alcohol exposure are associated with increased alveolar neutrophil numbers in response to LPS. The acute effects of alcohol on efferocytosis appear to be mediated, at least in part, by RhoA-independent activation of ROCK. Further studies are needed to dissect the differences between the effects of acute and chronic alcohol exposure on efferocytosis and to determine the effects of alcohol on alternative activators of ROCK.
    Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research 10/2010; 34(10):1723-32. · 3.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutated CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and is characterized by robust airway inflammation and accumulation of apoptotic cells. Phagocytosis of apoptotic cells (efferocytosis) is a pivotal regulator of inflammation, because it prevents postapoptotic necrosis and actively suppresses release of a variety of proinflammatory mediators, including IL-8. Because CF is associated with accumulation of apoptotic cells, inappropriate levels of IL-8, and robust inflammation, we sought to determine whether CFTR deficiency specifically impairs efferocytosis and its regulation of inflammatory mediator release. Here we show that CFTR deficiency directly interferes with efferocytosis by airway epithelium, an effect that is not due to altered binding of apoptotic cells to epithelial cells or altered expression of efferocytosis receptors. In contrast, expression of RhoA, a known negative regulator of efferocytosis, is substantially increased in CFTR-deficient cells, and inhibitors of RhoA or its downstream effector Rho kinase normalize efferocytosis in these cells. Impaired efferocytosis appears to be mediated through an amiloride-sensitive ion channel, because amiloride restores phagocytic competency in CFTR-deficient cells. Finally, ineffective efferocytosis in CFTR-deficient cells appears to have proinflammatory consequences, because apoptotic cells enhance IL-8 release by these cells, but not by wild-type controls. Therefore, in CF, dysregulated efferocytosis may lead to accumulation of apoptotic cells and impaired regulation of the inflammatory response and, ultimately, may suggest a new therapeutic target.
    AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology 08/2009; 297(4):L677-86. · 3.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Efficient removal of apoptotic cells is essential for resolution of inflammation. Failure to clear dying cells can exacerbate lung injury and lead to persistent inflammation and autoimmunity. Here we show that TNFalpha blocks apoptotic cell clearance by alveolar macrophages and leads to proinflammatory responses in the lung. Compared with mice treated with intratracheal TNFalpha or exogenous apoptotic cells, mice treated with the combination of TNFalpha plus apoptotic cells demonstrated reduced apoptotic cell clearance from the lungs and increased recruitment of inflammatory leukocytes to the air spaces. Treatment with intratracheal TNFalpha had no effect on the removal of exogenous apoptotic cells from the lungs of TNFalpha receptor-1 (p55) and -2 (p75) double mutant mice and no effect on leukocyte recruitment. Bronchoalveolar lavage from mice treated with TNFalpha plus apoptotic cells contained increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines IL-6, KC, and MCP-1, but exhibited no change in levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-10 and TGF-beta. Administration of TNFalpha plus apoptotic cells during LPS-induced lung injury augmented neutrophil accumulation and proinflammatory cytokine production. These findings suggest that the presence of TNFalpha in the lung can alter the response of phagocytes to apoptotic cells leading to inflammatory cell recruitment and proinflammatory mediator production.
    AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology 08/2009; 297(4):L586-95. · 3.52 Impact Factor
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    Darren M Boé, R William Vandivier, Ellen L Burnham, Marc Moss
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    ABSTRACT: ARDS is a severe form of lung injury characterized by increased permeability of the alveolar capillary membrane, diffuse alveolar damage, the accumulation of proteinaceous interstitial and intra-alveolar edema, and the presence of hyaline membranes. These pathological changes are accompanied by physiological alterations, including severe hypoxemia, an increase in pulmonary dead space, and decreased pulmonary compliance. Approximately 200,000 individuals develop ARDS in the United States each year, and nearly 50% of these patients have a history of alcohol abuse. We have identified alcohol abuse as an independent risk factor for the development of ARDS, and more recent studies have validated these findings in patients following lung resection and blood transfusion. In ARDS survivors, alcohol abuse is also associated with an increased duration of mechanical ventilation and prolonged ICU length of stay. Despite studies aimed at improving outcomes in patients with ARDS, the mortality remains high at > 40%]. For those who abuse alcohol, the mortality is even higher, at 65%. In this review, we will discuss the relationship between alcohol abuse and ARDS, the effects of alcohol abuse on pulmonary function, and future directions and potential therapeutic targets for patients at risk for ARDS as a result of alcohol abuse, which impairs immune function, decreases pulmonary antioxidant capacity, decreases alveolar epithelial cell function, alters activation of the renin angiotensin system, and impairs GM-CSF signaling. These pathways represent potential therapeutic targets for patients at risk for ARDS as a result of alcohol abuse.
    Journal of leukocyte biology 07/2009; 86(5):1097-104. · 4.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cigarette smoke (CS) is the primary cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), an effect that is, in part, due to intense oxidant stress. Clearance of apoptotic cells (efferocytosis) is a critical regulator of lung homeostasis, which is defective in smokers and in patients with COPD, suggesting a role in disease pathogenesis. We hypothesized that CS would impair efferocytosis through oxidant-dependent activation of RhoA, a known inhibitor of this process. We investigated the effect of CS on efferocytosis in vivo and ex vivo, using acute, subacute, and long-term mouse exposure models. Acute and subacute CS exposure suppressed efferocytosis by alveolar macrophages in a dose-dependent, reversible, and cell type-independent manner, whereas more intense CS exposure had an irreversible effect. In contrast, CS did not alter ingestion through the Fc gamma receptor. The inhibitory effect of CS on apoptotic cell clearance depended on oxidants, because the effect was blunted in oxidant-resistant ICR mice, and was prevented by either genetic or pharmacologic antioxidant strategies in vivo and ex vivo. CS inhibited efferocytosis through oxidant-dependent activation of the RhoA-Rho kinase pathway because (1) CS activated RhoA, (2) antioxidants prevented RhoA activation by CS, and (3) inhibitors of the RhoA-Rho kinase pathway reversed the suppressive effect of CS on apoptotic cell clearance in vivo and ex vivo. These findings advance the hypothesis that impaired efferocytosis may contribute to the pathogenesis of COPD and suggest the therapeutic potential of drugs targeting the RhoA-Rho kinase pathway.
    American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 04/2009; 179(11):1011-21. · 11.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is characterized by overexuberant inflammation and autoimmunity that are attributed to deficient anti-inflammatory signaling. Although regulation of these processes is complex, phosphatidylserine (PS)-dependent recognition and removal of apoptotic cells (efferocytosis) by phagocytes are potently anti-inflammatory. Since macrophage phenotype also plays a beneficial role in resolution of inflammation, we hypothesized that impaired efferocytosis in CGD due to macrophage skewing contributes to enhanced inflammation. Here we demonstrate that efferocytosis by macrophages from CGD (gp91(phox)(-/-)) mice was suppressed ex vivo and in vivo. Alternative activation with interleukin 4 (IL-4) normalized CGD macrophage efferocytosis, whereas classical activation by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) plus interferon gamma (IFNgamma) had no effect. Importantly, neutralization of IL-4 in wild-type macrophages reduced macrophage efferocytosis, demonstrating a central role for IL-4. This effect was shown to involve 12/15 lipoxygenase and activation of peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma). Finally, injection of PS (whose exposure is lacking on CGD apoptotic neutrophils) in vivo restored IL-4-dependent macrophage reprogramming and efferocytosis via a similar mechanism. Taken together, these findings support the hypothesis that impaired PS exposure on dying cells results in defective macrophage programming, with consequent efferocytic impairment and has important implications in understanding the underlying cause of enhanced inflammation in CGD.
    Blood 11/2008; 113(9):2047-55. · 9.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Interaction between apoptotic cells and phagocytes through phosphatidylserine recognition structures results in the production of TGF-beta, which has been shown to play pivotal roles in the anti-inflammatory and anti-immunogenic responses to apoptotic cell clearance. Using 3T3-TbetaRII and RAWTbetaRII cells in which a truncated dominant-negative TGF-beta receptor II was stably transfected to avoid autofeedback induction of TGF-beta, we investigate the mechanisms by which TGF-beta was produced through PSRS engagement. We show, in the present study, that TGF-beta was regulated at both transcriptional and translational steps. P38 MAPK, ERK, and JNK were involved in TGF-beta transcription, whereas translation required activation of Rho GTPase, PI3K, Akt, and mammalian target of rapamycin with subsequent phosphorylation of translation initiation factor eukaryotic initiation factor 4E. Strikingly, these induction pathways for TGF-beta production were different from those initiated in the same cells responding to LPS or PMA.
    The Journal of Immunology 10/2008; 181(5):3575-85. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Efficient removal of apoptotic cells is essential for the resolution of acute pulmonary inflammation. Alveolar macrophages ingest apoptotic cells less avidly than other professional phagocytes at rest but overcome this defect during acute inflammation. Surfactant protein (SP)-A and SP-D are potent modulators of macrophage function and may suppress clearance of apoptotic cells through activation of the transmembrane receptor signal inhibitory regulatory protein alpha (SIRP alpha). To investigate whether binding of SP-A and SP-D to SIRP alpha on alveolar macrophages suppresses apoptotic cell clearance. Phagocytosis of apoptotic cells was assessed using macrophages pretreated with SP-A, SP-D, or the collectin-like molecule C1q. Binding of SP-A and SP-D to SIRP alpha was confirmed in vitro using blocking antibodies and fibroblasts transfected with active and mutant SIRP alpha. The effects of downstream molecules SHP-1 and RhoA on phagocytosis were studied using SHP-1-deficient mice, sodium stibogluconate, and a Rho kinase inhibitor. Lipopolysaccharide was given to chimeric mice to study the effects of SP-A and SP-D binding on inflammatory macrophages. Preincubation of macrophages with SP-A or SP-D suppressed apoptotic cell clearance. Surfactant suppression of macrophage phagocytosis was reversed by blocking SIRP alpha and inhibiting downstream molecules SHP-1 and RhoA. Macrophages from inflamed lungs ingested apoptotic cells more efficiently than resting alveolar macrophages. Recruited mononuclear phagocytes with low levels of SP-A and SP-D mediated this effect. SP-A and SP-D tonically inhibit alveolar macrophage phagocytosis by binding SIRP alpha. During acute pulmonary inflammation, defects in apoptotic cell clearance are overcome by recruited mononuclear phagocytes.
    American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 08/2008; 178(2):158-67. · 11.04 Impact Factor
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    Peter M Henson, R William Vandivier, Ivor S Douglas
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    ABSTRACT: Apoptotic cells can be detected in the parenchyma and airways of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in greater numbers than seen in normal lungs or those from smokers without COPD. Implications include more apoptosis and/or decreased clearance of apoptotic cells. Both epithelial and endothelial cells become apoptotic. What role does the apoptosis play in the emphysema or small airway alterations seen in COPD? In simple terms, loss of cells by apoptosis would be expected to accompany, or perhaps initiate, the overall tissue destruction normally believed responsible. Indeed, direct induction of apoptosis in pulmonary endothelial or epithelial cells in rodents is accompanied by emphysematous changes. On the other hand, apoptotic cells are normally removed from tissues rapidly with minimal tissue response, to be followed by cell replacement to maintain homeostasis. The presence of detectable apoptotic cells, therefore, may imply defects in these clearance mechanisms, and, in keeping with this hypothesis, there is increasing evidence for such defects in patients with COPD. Mice with abnormalities in apoptotic cell removal also tend to develop spontaneous "emphysema." A reconciling hypothesis is that recognition of apoptotic cells not only leads to removal but also, normally, to signals for cell replacement. If this latter response is lacking in COPD-susceptible smokers, defects in normal alveolar or small airway repair could significantly contribute to the structural disruption. The concept puts emphasis on defective repair as well as initial injury (i.e., persistent alteration of dynamic tissue homeostasis, as a key contributor to COPD), with, it is hoped, additional approaches for mitigation.
    Proceedings of the American Thoracic Society 12/2006; 3(8):713-7.
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    Proceedings of the American Thoracic Society 09/2006; 3(6):516-7.

Publication Stats

2k Citations
264.54 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2012
    • National Jewish Health
      Denver, Colorado, United States
  • 2011
    • University of Colorado Hospital
      • Department of Medicine
      Denver, Colorado, United States
  • 2006–2010
    • University of Colorado
      • Division of Pulmonary Sciences and Critical Care Medicine
      Denver, CO, United States
    • Massachusetts General Hospital
      • Developmental Immunology Laboratory
      Boston, MA, United States