[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Podocyte apoptosis is a potent mechanism of proteinuria in diabetic nephropathy. More detailed mechanistic insight into podocyte apoptosis is needed to better understand the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. An elevated level of serum free fatty acid (FFA), as well as hyperglycemia, is a clinical characteristic in diabetes, although its causal role in podocyte apoptosis remains unclear. This study examined the effect of three types of FFAs, saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated FFAs, on podocyte apoptosis. Palmitate, a saturated FFA, induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-dependent apoptosis in podocytes. Oleate, a monounsaturated FFA, and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), an ω-3 polyunsaturated FFA did not induce apoptosis; rather, they antagonized palmitate-induced apoptosis. Palmitate activated mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1 (mTORC1), a nutrient-sensing kinase regulating a wide range of cell biology. Furthermore, inhibition of mTORC1 activity by rapamycin or siRNA for Raptor, a component of mTORC1, ameliorated palmitate-induced ER stress and apoptosis in podocytes. Activity of mTORC1 is regulated by upstream kinases and Rag/Ragulator-dependent recruitment of mTOR onto lysosomal membranes. Palmitate activated mTORC1 by enhancing recruitment of mTOR onto lysosomal membranes, which was inhibited by co-incubation with oleate or EPA. Inhibition of mTOR translocation onto lysosomes by transfection with dominant-negative forms of Rag ameliorated palmitate-induced apoptosis. This study suggests that saturated and unsaturated FFAs have opposite effects on podocyte apoptosis by regulating mTORC1 activity via its translocation onto lysosomal membranes, and the results provide a better understanding of the pathogenesis in diabetic nephropathy and a novel role of mTORC1 in cell apoptosis.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 04/2014; · 4.66 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is an important therapeutic object of diabetes care. This study assessed whether an index based on plasma free amino acid (PFAA) profiles could predict the onset of CVD in diabetic patients. The baseline concentrations of 31 PFAAs were measured with high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry in 385 Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes registered in 2001 for our prospective observational follow-up study. During 10 years of follow-up, 63 patients developed cardiovascular composite endpoints (myocardial infarction, angina pectoris, worsening of heart failure and stroke). Using the PFAA profiles and clinical information, an index (CVD-AI) consisting of six amino acids to predict the onset of any endpoints was retrospectively constructed. CVD-AI levels were significantly higher in patients who did than did not develop CVD. The area under the receiver-operator characteristic curve of CVD-AI (0.72 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.64-0.79]) showed equal or slightly better discriminatory capacity than urinary albumin excretion rate (0.69 [95% CI: 0.62-0.77]) on predicting endpoints. A multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analysis showed that the high level of CVD-AI was identified as an independent risk factor for CVD (adjusted hazard ratio: 2.86 [95% CI: 1.57-5.19]). This predictive effect of CVD-AI was observed even in patients with normoalbuminuria, as well as those with albuminuria. In conclusion, these results suggest that CVD-AI based on PFAA profiles is useful for identifying diabetic patients at risk for CVD regardless of the degree of albuminuria, or for improving the discriminative capability by combining it with albuminuria.
PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(6):e101219. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aims/IntroductionIn Japan, liraglutide was recently approved for patients with type 2 diabetes. To our knowledge, there are no markers predicting successful switching from insulin therapy to liraglutide monotherapy in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes and renal impairment. We therefore assessed clinical characteristics predicting successful switching. Materials and Methods
We analyzed 21 patients with type 2 diabetes and estimated glomerular filtration rates <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 receiving long-term insulin in Shiga University of Medical Science Hospital, Otsu, Shiga, Japan. Their β-cell function was assessed by measuring urinary C-peptide and C-peptide immunoreactivity (CPR) index, along with glucagon loading and oral glucose tolerance tests. Blood glucose concentration and blood pressure were measured daily before and after switching from insulin to liraglutide, and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c; National Glycohemoglobin Standardization Program) was assessed 12 weeks after switching to liraglutide. ResultsBaseline HbA1c was significantly lower in successfully switched than in unsuccessfully switched patients. CPR index, urinary C-peptide concentration and 6-min post-glucagon increment in CPR (ΔCPR) did not differ significantly in the two groups. ΔCPR 120 min after 75 g oral glucose was significantly higher in successfully than unsuccessfully switched patients. Mean blood glucose concentrations before breakfast, after breakfast, before lunch and after dinner were significantly lower in successfully switched patients. HbA1c did not change significantly in either group. Conclusions
Measurement of oral glucose-stimulated ΔCPR120 min is recommended when considering switching Japanese type 2 diabetes patients with renal impairment from insulin to liraglutide monotherapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The number of patients suffering from diabetic nephropathy resulting in end-stage kidney disease is increasing worldwide. In clinical settings, there are limited data regarding the impact of the urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) and reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) on renal and cardiovascular outcomes and all-cause mortality.
We performed a historical cohort study of 4328 Japanese participants with type 2 diabetes from 10 centers. Risks for renal events (requirement for dialysis or transplantation, or half reduction in eGFR), cardiovascular events (cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke), and all-cause mortality were assessed according to UACR and eGFR levels.
During follow-up (median 7.0 years, interquartile range 3.0-8.0 years), 419 renal events, 605 cardiovascular events and 236 deaths occurred. The UACR levels increased the risk and the adjusted hazard ratios for these three events. In addition to the effects of UACR levels, eGFR stages significantly increased the adjusted hazard ratios for renal events and all-cause mortality, especially in patients with macroalbuminuria. Diabetic nephropathy score, based on the prognostic factors, well predicted incidence rates per 1000 patient/year for each event.
Increased UACR levels were closely related to the increase in risks for renal, cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes, whereas the association between high levels of UACR and reduced eGFR was a strong predictor for renal events.
Clinical and Experimental Nephrology 10/2013; · 1.25 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Obesity is an independent risk factor for renal dysfunction in patients with CKDs, including diabetic nephropathy, but the mechanism underlying this connection remains unclear. Autophagy is an intracellular degradation system that maintains intracellular homeostasis by removing damaged proteins and organelles, and autophagy insufficiency is associated with the pathogenesis of obesity-related diseases. We therefore examined the role of autophagy in obesity-mediated exacerbation of proteinuria-induced proximal tubular epithelial cell damage in mice and in human renal biopsy specimens. In nonobese mice, overt proteinuria, induced by intraperitoneal free fatty acid-albumin overload, led to mild tubular damage and apoptosis, and activated autophagy in proximal tubules reabsorbing urinary albumin. In contrast, diet-induced obesity suppressed proteinuria-induced autophagy and exacerbated proteinuria-induced tubular cell damage. Proximal tubule-specific autophagy-deficient mice, resulting from an Atg5 gene deletion, subjected to intraperitoneal free fatty acid-albumin overload developed severe proteinuria-induced tubular damage, suggesting that proteinuria-induced autophagy is renoprotective. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a potent suppressor of autophagy, was activated in proximal tubules of obese mice, and treatment with an mTOR inhibitor ameliorated obesity-mediated autophagy insufficiency. Furthermore, both mTOR hyperactivation and autophagy suppression were observed in tubular cells of specimens obtained from obese patients with proteinuria. Thus, in addition to enhancing the understanding of obesity-related cell vulnerability in the kidneys, these results suggest that restoring the renoprotective action of autophagy in proximal tubules may improve renal outcomes in obese patients.
Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 10/2013; · 8.99 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epidemiological studies suggest the existence of a genetic susceptibility to the development of diabetic nephropathy. The apolipoprotein E gene (APOE), which is well known to have a polymorphism (ε2, ε3, and ε4) in exon 4, has been considered a candidate gene susceptible to this complication, because this variation was reportedly involved in lipid metabolism. To date, numerous case-control studies in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes have been reported. Although the ε2 allele of the APOE polymorphism tends to be associated with an increased risk for diabetic nephropathy, the results of these case-control comparisons are conflicting. However, a family-based study (the transmission/disequilibrium test) provided strong evidence that the ε2 allele was preferentially transmitted to patients with diabetic nephropathy but not transmitted to those without it. Several prospective follow-up studies also reported an increased risk for progression to higher stages of diabetic nephropathy for the ε2 carriers. Furthermore, two recent meta-analyses reported that the ε2 allele is associated with a risk for diabetic nephropathy. Based on the results of these studies, the ε2 allele of the APOE polymorphism seems to be a genetic risk factor for diabetic nephropathy susceptibility. However, this genetic effect only accounts for a small proportion of this complication, and the mechanism remains unclear at present. Further studies are needed to explore whether genotyping of the APOE polymorphism in patients with diabetes is of value for better management in clinical practice.
Clinical and Experimental Nephrology 09/2013; · 1.25 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Because oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have adverse effects on kidney function, patients with kidney diseases are administered these drugs as transdermal patches. Little is known about the effects of NSAID patches on renal function. We therefore assessed the effects of topical loxoprofen sodium on kidney function in type 2 diabetic patients with overt nephropathy.
Twenty patients with type 2 diabetes and overt proteinuria and with knee and/or low back pain were treated with skin patches containing 100 mg loxoprofen on the knee or back for 24 h per day for 5 consecutive days. The degree of pain was assessed using a visual analogue scale (VAS). Blood and 24-h urine samples were obtained at baseline and at the end of the study. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was estimated from serum creatinine and cystatin C concentrations.
The 20 patients consisted of 11 males and 9 females, of mean age 61.6 ± 13.9 years. Loxoprofen-containing patches significantly reduced VAS pain without affecting blood pressure, GFR or urinary prostaglandin E2 concentration. Serum concentrations of loxoprofen and its active trans-OH metabolite did not correlate with GFR.
Loxoprofen-containing patches do not affect renal function in type 2 diabetic patients with overt nephropathy over a short-term period. Long-term studies are needed to clarify the safety of loxoprofen-containing patches in patients with chronic kidney diseases.
Clinical and Experimental Nephrology 08/2013; · 1.25 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aging is a dominant risk factor for end-stage renal disease. We analyzed the mechanism involved in age-related exacerbation of proteinuria-induced proximal tubular cell (PTC) damage by focusing on endoplasmic reticulum-related unfolded protein response (UPR). After equal-degree induction of proteinuria in 24-month-old (aged) and 3-month-old (young) mice by intraperitoneal free fatty acid-bound albumin overload, tubulointerstitial lesions were more severe in aged than in young mice. In aged PTCs, proteinuria-induced cell-adaptive UPR resulting from induction of the molecular chaperone BiP was significantly suppressed, whereas proapoptotic UPR with CHOP overexpression was enhanced. Treatment with the exogenous molecular chaperone tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) ameliorated proteinuria-induced tubulointerstitial lesions and PTC apoptosis in aged mice. Among the three UPR branches, alterations in the inositol-requiring 1α (IRE1α) pathway, but not the activating transcription factor 6 or PERK pathway, were associated with impaired BiP induction in aged kidneys. Moreover, siRNA-mediated suppression of BiP and IRE1α exacerbated free fatty acid-bound albumin-induced apoptosis in cultured PTCs, whereas siRNA-mediated CHOP suppression ameliorated apoptosis. Finally, proteinuria-induced BiP induction in PTCs was altered in kidney specimens from elderly patients. These results indicate that maladaptive UPRs are involved in proteinuria-induced tubulointerstitial lesions exacerbation in aged kidneys, and that supplementation of chaperones may be used to treat elderly patients with persistent proteinuria. These results should improve understanding of cell vulnerability in aged kidneys.
American Journal Of Pathology 07/2013; · 4.60 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE
Studies on the rate of remission of macroalbuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and the effects of reduction in albuminuria on renal prognosis in a primary care setting are absolutely lacking.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODSA total of 211 T2DM patients with albuminuria ≥300 mg/g were enrolled in a prospective observational study (mean of 4.5 years). The incidence of patients with remission of macroalbuminuria at every 1-year study time point after starting intensified diabetes treatment and the factors associated with remission were evaluated. The association of reduction in albuminuria with renal events (doubling of serum creatinine and end-stage renal disease) was also investigated.RESULTSDuring the 5-year study period, remission to microalbuminuria occurred in 116 patients and the 5-year cumulative incidence was 58.3%. Notably, most cases (82.8%) obtained remission at the 1-year study time point. The remission rate increased with achieving therapeutic targets for blood pressure and blood glucose. Remission and reduction in albuminuria of ≥50% were associated with preservation of renal function. In particular, patients who obtained both remission and 50% reduction at the 1-year study time point exhibited a significantly reduced risk for renal events as compared with those with no remission and no reduction (adjusted hazard ratio 0.30 [95% CI 0.12-0.76]).CONCLUSIONS
Remission of macroalbuminuria occurs frequently and is associated with the preservation of renal function in T2DM patients. The initial adequate diabetes treatment aimed at reducing albuminuria may lead to improved renal prognosis in the primary care setting.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several linkage analyses have mapped a susceptibility locus for diabetic nephropathy to chromosome 18q22-23, and polymorphisms within the carnosine dipeptidase 1 gene (CNDP1), located on 18q22.3, have been shown to be associated with diabetic nephropathy in European subjects with type 2 diabetes. However, the association of this locus with diabetic nephropathy has not been evaluated in the Japanese population. In this study, we examined the association of polymorphisms within the CNDP1/CNDP 2 locus with diabetic nephropathy in Japanese subjects with type 2 diabetes.
We genotyped a leucine repeat polymorphism (D18S880) that is within CNDP1 along with 29 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the CNDP1/CNDP2 locus for 2,740 Japanese subjects with type 2 diabetes (1,205 nephropathy cases with overt nephropathy or with end-stage renal disease [ESRD], and 1,535 controls with normoalbuminuria). The association of each polymorphism with diabetic nephropathy was analysed by performing logistic regression analysis. We did not observe any association between D18S880 and diabetic nephropathy in Japanese subjects with type 2 diabetes. None of the 29 SNPs within the CNDP1/CNDP2 locus were associated with diabetic nephropathy, but a subsequent sex-stratified analysis revealed that 1 SNP in CNDP1 was nominally associated with diabetic nephropathy in women (rs12604675-A; p = 0.005, odds ratio [OR] = 1.76, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.19-2.61). Rs12604675 was associated with overt proteinuria (p = 0.002, OR = 2.18, 95% CI, 1.32-3.60), but not with ESRD in Japanese women with type 2 diabetes.
Rs12604675-A in CNDP1 may confer susceptibility to overt proteinuria in Japanese women with type 2 diabetes.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(1):e54064. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE
To improve prognosis, it is important to predict the incidence of renal failure and cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetic patients before the progression to advanced nephropathy. We investigated the predictive effects of urinary liver-type fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP), which is associated with renal tubulointerstitial damage, in renal and cardiovascular prognosis.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
Japanese type 2 diabetic patients (n = 618) with serum creatinine ≤1.0 mg/dL and without overt proteinuria were enrolled between 1996 and 2000, and followed up until 2011. Baseline urinary L-FABP was measured with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The primary end points were renal and cardiovascular composites (hemodialysis, myocardial infarction, angina pectoris, stroke, cerebral hemorrhage, and peripheral vascular disease). The secondary renal outcomes were the incidence of a 50% decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), progression to an eGFR <30 mL/min/1.73 m(2), and the annual decline rate in eGFR.RESULTSDuring a 12-year median follow-up, 103 primary end points occurred. The incidence rate of the primary end point increased in a stepwise manner with increases in urinary L-FABP. In Cox proportional hazards analysis, the adjusted hazard ratio in patients with the highest tertile of urinary L-FBAP was 1.93 (95% CI 1.13-3.29). This relationship was observed even when analyzed separately in normoalbuminuria and microalbuminuria. Patients with the highest tertile of urinary L-FABP also demonstrated a higher incidence of the secondary renal outcomes.CONCLUSIONS
Our results indicate that urinary L-FABP may be a predictive marker for renal and cardiovascular prognosis in type 2 diabetic patients without advanced nephropathy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Knowledge regarding the association between dietary sodium intake and the incidence of masked hypertension is limited.MethodsA total of 193 Japanese type 2 diabetic outpatients who had been treated with antihypertensive agents and with office blood pressures <140/90 mm Hg were recruited. Masked hypertension was defined as having office blood pressure <140/90 mm Hg and 24-h mean ambulatory blood pressure ≥130/80 mm Hg. The dietary sodium intake was estimated by measuring the 24-h urinary sodium excretion.ResultsMasked hypertension was found in 128 (66.3%) patients. An age- and sex-adjusted univariate logistic regression analysis showed that urinary albumin excretion, renin-angiotensin system inhibitor use, office systolic blood pressure, and amount of dietary sodium intake were significantly associated with masked hypertension. A multivariate logistic regression analysis also identified an older age, renin-angiotensin system inhibitor use, an office elevated systolic blood pressure, and high dietary sodium intake to be independently associated with masked hypertension. When compared with those who consumed a low salt diet (sodium <120 mEq/day), the odds ratio for the risk of exhibiting masked hypertension in patients who consumed a medium salt diet (sodium 120 to <200 mEq/day) or a high salt diet (sodium ≥200 mEq/day) were 5.3 (P < 0.001) and 12.6 (P < 0.001), respectively.Conclusions
Masked hypertension is a common feature in type 2 diabetic patients being treated for hypertension. The observed association with sodium intake raised the hypothesis that excessive sodium intake may play a part in the genesis of masked hypertension in these patients.American Journal of Hypertension 2012; doi:10.1038/ajh.2012.102.
American Journal of Hypertension 07/2012; 25(11):1170-4. · 3.67 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Anti-diabetic agent-related hypoglycemia is a serious complication in type 2 diabetic patients on hemodialysis. Therefore, we assessed the efficacy and tolerability of 24 weeks of monotherapy with vildagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase four inhibitor, which is a new class of antidiabetic agent. This open-label, single-arm clinical trial was performed on 26 patients on hemodialysis. The primary assessments were changes in postprandial glucose level and glycated albumin (GA). During the study, three patients dropped out, and data from 23 patients were analyzed. Significant reductions were seen in postprandial glucose (-2.60 ± 3.80 mmol/L, P < 0.001) and GA (-2.59 ± 2.33%, P < 0.001) levels. No serious drug-related adverse events were observed. Vildagliptin monotherapy can be recommended for glycemic control in type 2 diabetic patients on hemodialysis. This trial was registered with the University Hospital Medical Information Network (no. UMIN000003661). (J Diabetes Invest, doi: 10.1111/j.2040-1124.2011.00169.x, 2011).
Journal of Diabetes Investigstion 06/2012; 3(3):298-301. · 1.77 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: AIMS/INTRODUCTION: Activation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in the kidney plays an important role in renal function. The aim of this study was to investigate whether plasma and urinary angiotensinogen levels were associated with renal and cardiovascular prognosis in type 2 diabetic patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We measured plasma and urinary angiotensinogen levels in the observational follow-up cohort of 234 Japanese type 2 diabetic patients (144 with normoalbuminuria, 90 with albuminuria) enrolled between 1998 and 1999 and followed them up until the end of 2008. The associations of these markers with the annual decline in the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and incidence of renal and cardiovascular composite endpoints (chronic hemodialysis, myocardial infarction, angina pectoris, stroke and cerebral hemorrhage) were evaluated. RESULTS: At baseline, urinary angiotensinogen levels correlated with urinary albumin-creatinine ratio, urinary β(2)-microglobulin and inversely with eGFR. In contrast, plasma angiotensinogen levels correlated neither with these renal factors nor with urinary angiotensinogen levels. In the follow-up study (median duration: 9 years), urinary angiotensinogen, but not plasma angiotensinogen, correlated inversely with the annual change in eGFR (r = -0.51, P < 0.001).When patients were divided into four subgroups according to albuminuria and urinary angiotensinogen levels, patients with albuminuria and high urinary angiotensinogen levels showed a progressive decline of eGFR and a higher incidence of renal and cardiovascular composite endpoints. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the higher level of urinary angiotensinogen in type 2 diabetic patients with albuminuria is a high risk factor for worsening renal and cardiovascular complications.
Journal of diabetes investigation. 06/2012; 3(3):318-324.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In type 2 diabetic patients at low risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD), the relationship between the clinical course of nephropathy by stage of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and onset of CVD remains unclear. Clarification of this relationship is important for clinical decision-making for both low- and high-risk diabetic patients.
This 4 year prospective study enrolled 2,954 type 2 diabetic patients with no prevalent CVD, and serum creatinine <176.8 μmol/l. The risk for CVD onset (non-fatal and fatal CVD and stroke, and peripheral arterial disease) was assessed according to CKD stage categorised by urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR; mg/mmol) and estimated GFR (eGFR; ml min(-1) 1.73 m(-2)). Association of progression from 'no CKD' stage (ACR <3.5 mg/mmol and eGFR ≥ 90 ml min(-1) 1.73 m(-2)) with risk for CVD onset was also evaluated.
During follow-up (median 3.8 years), 89 CVD events occurred. Compared with patients with 'no CKD' as reference, those with ACR ≥ 35.0 mg/mmol with co-existing eGFR 60-89 ml min(-1) 1.73 m(-2) or <60 ml min(-1) 1.73 m(-2) showed increased risk for CVD onset, whereas those with eGFR ≥ 90 ml min(-1) 1.73 m(-2) did not. Those with ACR <3.5 mg/mmol and eGFR <60 ml min(-1) 1.73 m(-2) did not show any increased risk. Among patients with 'no CKD' stage at baseline, those who progressed to ACR ≥ 3.5 mg/mmol during follow-up showed an increased risk compared with those who did not, whereas those who progressed to eGFR <90 ml min(-1) 1.73 m(-2) did not have increased risk.
The risk for CVD was associated with progression of albuminuria stage rather than eGFR stage in type 2 diabetic patients at relatively low risk for CVD.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diabetic nephropathy is a serious complication in patients with type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to explore the factors associated with the progression of this complication in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes.
This retrospective study of a subgroup of patients registered with the Japanese Elderly Diabetes Intervention Trial included 621 Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (age ≥ 65 years, 346 with normoalbuminuria, 190 with microalbuminuria and 85 with overt proteinuria). Multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression model with a backward stepwise procedure was applied to select factors with significant effects on worsening of nephropathy stage and the doubling of serum creatinine.
During the follow up (median 52 months), 21% of patients progressed from normoalbuminuria and microalbuminuria to a worse nephropathy stage. Aging, female sex and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were identified as independent and significant factors that worsen nephropathy stage. Also, 6.1% of patients showed doubling of serum creatinine during follow up. A positive history of cardiovascular disease, hyperuricemia and conventional therapy were identified as significant factors involved in the doubling of serum creatinine. The cumulative incidence of the doubling of serum creatinine was significantly lower in the intensive therapy group than the conventional therapy group (P = 0.016), although that of progression of nephropathy stage was similar in the two groups.
We identified several factors associated with the progression of diabetic nephropathy in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes. The results suggest that multiple risk factor intervention seems important in preventing deterioration of renal dysfunction.
Geriatrics & Gerontology International 04/2012; 12 Suppl 1:127-33.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Salt-sensitive hypertension is a characteristic of the metabolic syndrome. Given the links to cardiovascular events, the mechanisms underlying sodium metabolism may represent an important therapeutic target for this disorder. Angiotensin II (AII) is a key peptide underlying sodium retention. However, 5'AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has also been reported to participate in the regulation of ion transport. In this study we examined the relationship between AII and AMPK on the development of hypertension in two salt-sensitive mouse models. In the first model, the mice were maintained on a high-fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks, in order to develop features similar to the metabolic syndrome, including salt-sensitive hypertension. HFD-induced obese mice showed elevated systolic blood pressure and lower sodium excretion in response to salt loading, along with an increase in AII contents and inactivation of AMPK in the kidney, which were significantly improved by the treatment of an angiotensin II antagonist, losartan, for 2 weeks. To clarify the effects of AII, a second group of mice was infused with AII via an osmotic pump, which led to higher systolic blood pressure, and decreases in urinary sodium excretion and the expression of AMPK, in a manner similar to those observed in the HFD mice. However, treatment with an AMPK activator, metformin, improved the changes induced by the AII, suggesting that AII induced sodium retention works by acting on AMPK activity. Finally, we evaluated the changes in salt-sensitivity by performing 2-week salt loading experiments with or without metformin. AII infusion elevated blood pressure by salt loading but metformin prevented it. These findings indicate that AII suppresses AMPK activity in the kidney, leading to sodium retention and enhanced salt-sensitivity, and that AMPK activation may represent a new therapeutic target for obesity-related salt-sensitive hypertension.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 02/2012; 418(3):559-64. · 2.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fructose induces several kinds of human metabolic disorders; however, information regarding fructose-induced kidney injury is still limited. This study examined fructose-induced kidney injury in mice and clarified the differential susceptibility of three mouse strains: C57Bl/6J, CBA/JN and DBA/2N. In this study all mice were fed with an equal calorie count for sixteen weeks to remove the influence of total energy intake from metabolic effects by fructose-feeding. Only DBA/2N mice, but not C57Bl/6J and CBA/JN mice, fed with fructose displayed tubulointerstitial fibrosis localized on the outer cortex of the kidney together with the increase of mRNA expression of Kim1 and Ngal in the absence of distinct glomerular lesions and albuminuria - decidedly different from diabetic nephropathy. In time-course study of DBA/2N mice fed with fructose diet, the inflammation and fibrosis in the outer cortex of the kidney were enhancing after eight weeks, in parallel with the accumulation of oxidative stress. This progression of renal damage in DBA/2N mice was accompanied with increasing mRNA expression of GLUT5. These results suggest that the responsiveness of GLUT5 expression to fructose at the kidney is one of pivotal roles for the progression of fructose-induced kidney injury.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 02/2012; 419(2):244-9. · 2.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is little evidence regarding the target blood pressure level in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus without overt proteinuria.
We followed 608 Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes without apparent cardiovascular disease and overt proteinuria who underwent cerebral magnetic resonance imaging for a mean of 7.5 years. The patients were categorized according to their mean systolic blood pressure during the follow-up period (strict: <130 mm Hg, moderate: ≥130 and <140 mm Hg, poor: ≥ 140 mm Hg). The risks for the primary composite outcome of death or end-stage renal disease were not different among the three groups. The renal risk of the doubling of serum creatinine for the poor group was significantly higher than those in other groups. In addition, among the patients without silent cerebral infarction (SCI), the renal risk was significantly lower in the strict group than in the moderate group. Further, in both the SCI and non-SCI groups, strict blood pressure control slowed the progression of albuminuria.
In nonproteinuric diabetic patients without SCI, strict blood pressure control was associated with improved renal outcomes. There may be different effects of intensive blood pressure control on the renoprotection of diabetic patients according to their complications.
Journal of the American Society of Hypertension (JASH) 12/2011; 6(2):124-31.