[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adenovirus (Ad) cell entry involves sequential interactions with host cell receptors that mediate attachment (CAR), internalization (alphavbeta3 and alphavbeta5), and penetration (alphavbeta5) of the endosomal membrane. These events allow the virus to deliver its genome to the nucleus. While integrins alphavbeta3 and alphavbeta5 both promote Ad internalization into cells, integrin alphavbeta5 selectively facilitates Ad-mediated membrane permeabilization and endosome rupture. In the experiments reported herein, we demonstrate that the intracellular domain of the integrin beta5 subunit specifically regulates Ad-mediated membrane permeabilization and gene delivery. CS-1 melanoma cells expressing a truncated integrin beta5 or a chimeric (beta5-beta3) cytoplasmic tail (CT) supported normal levels of Ad endocytosis but had reduced Ad-mediated gene delivery and membrane permeabilization relative to cells expressing a wild-type integrin beta5. Thin-section electron microscopy revealed that virion particles were capable of being endocytosed into cells expressing a truncated beta5CT, but they failed to escape cytoplasmic vesicles and translocate to the nucleus. Site-specific mutagenesis studies suggest that a C-terminal TVD motif in the beta5CT plays a major role in Ad membrane penetration.
Journal of Virology 04/2000; 74(6):2731-9. · 5.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Integrin receptors mediate several functions including prevention of matrix detachment-induced apoptosis (anoikis) of several adherent cell types. We report here that antagonists of beta1 integrins trigger an apoptotic signaling pathway in adherent differentiated LAN-5 human neuroblastoma cells, a cell line which represents a model system for the study of human neurons. The pathway is characterized by cytochrome c release into the cytoplasm, and activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3, 4-6h after treatment; cleavage products of caspase-8 and caspase-2 were not detectable in the cells. Coordinate inactivation of cell survival pathways, including cleavage of focal adhesion kinase, decreased expression of protein kinase B, and reduced phosphorylation of the pro-apoptotic protein, Bad, also characterized the signaling pathway. These events occurred in adherent cells; DNA fragmentation and detachment followed as late events 18-24h after addition of beta1 integrin antagonists. zDEVD-fmk, an irreversible inhibitor of caspase-3-like enzymes, and cytochalasin D, an actin depolymerizing agent, blocked caspase-3 cleavage and delayed cell death. In contrast to these results, undifferentiated, adherent and dividing LAN-5 cells did not die in response to beta1 integrin antagonists. These studies identify a distinct apoptotic pathway which is triggered by antagonists of beta1 integrins on differentiated adherent neuronal cells.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Src kinase activity was found to protect endothelial cells from apoptosis during vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-, but not basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF)-, mediated angiogenesis in chick embryos and mice. In fact, retroviral targeting of kinase-deleted Src to tumor-associated blood vessels suppressed angiogenesis and the growth of a VEGF-producing tumor. Although mice lacking individual Src family kinases (SFKs) showed normal angiogenesis, mice deficient in pp60c-src or pp62c-yes showed no VEGF-induced vascular permeability (VP), yet fyn-/- mice displayed normal VP. In contrast, inflammation-mediated VP appeared normal in Src-deficient mice. Therefore, VEGF-, but not bFGF-, mediated angiogenesis requires SFK activity in general, whereas the VP activity of VEGF specifically depends on the SFKs, Src, or Yes.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The small GTPase Rac is thought to regulate cell movement by influencing actin cytoskeletal organization and membrane ruffling. However, cell migration also depends on the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), which can regulate myosin motor function, an event critical for cell contraction. Evidence is provided that, during active cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix, Rac potentiates the MAPK pathway and influences cell migration by selectively synergizing with Raf kinase but not with Ras or MAPK kinase. In fact, the synergy between Rac and Raf kinase increases the chemotactic sensitivity of cells to epidermal growth factor by 1000-fold. Therefore, the role of Rac in cell migration not only depends on its ability to regulate actin cytoskeletal organization but also on its capacity to potentiate chemokine activation of MAPK in a manner that depends on active cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 12/1999; 274(53):37855-61. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cytokines and extracellular matrix proteins initiate signaling cascades that regulate cell migration and proliferation. Evidence is provided that the adaptor protein Shc can differentially regulate these processes. Specifically, under growth factor-limiting conditions, Shc stimulates haptotactic cell migration without affecting anchorage-dependent proliferation. However, when growth factors are present, Shc no longer influences cell migration; rather, Shc is crucial for DNA synthesis. Mutational analysis of Shc demonstrates that, while tyrosine phosphorylation is required for both DNA synthesis and cell migration, the switch in Shc signaling is associated with differential use of Shc's phosphotyrosine interacting domains; the PTB domain regulates haptotaxis, while the SH2 domain is selectively required for proliferation.
The Journal of Cell Biology 12/1999; 147(7):1561-8. · 10.82 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cell migration and wound contraction requires assembly of actin into a functional myosin motor unit capable of generating force. However, cell migration also involves formation of actin-containing membrane ruffles. Evidence is provided that actin-myosin assembly and membrane ruffling are regulated by distinct signaling pathways in the migratory cell. Interaction of cells with extracellular matrix proteins or cytokines promote cell migration through activation of the MAP kinases ERK1 and ERK2 as well as the molecular coupling of the adaptor proteins p130CAS and c-CrkII. ERK signaling is independent of CAS/Crk coupling and regulates myosin light chain phosphorylation leading to actin-myosin assembly during cell migration and cell-mediated contraction of a collagen matrix. In contrast, membrane ruffling, but not cell contraction, requires Rac GTPase activity and the formation of a CAS/Crk complex that functions in the context of the Rac activating protein DOCK180. Thus, during cell migration ERK and CAS/Crk coupling operate as components of distinct signaling pathways that control actin assembly into myosin motors and membrane ruffles, respectively.
The Journal of Cell Biology 10/1999; 146(5):1107-16. · 10.82 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Integrin αVβ3mediates diverse responses in vascular cells, ranging from cell adhesion, migration, and proliferation to uptake of adenoviruses.
However, the extent to which αVβ3 is regulated by changes in receptor conformation (affinity), receptor diffusion/clustering (avidity), or post-receptor events
is unknown. Affinity regulation of the related integrin, αIIbβ3, has been established using a monovalent ligand-mimetic antibody, PAC1 Fab. To determine the role of affinity modulation
of αVβ3, a novel monovalent ligand-mimetic antibody (WOW-1) was created by replacing the heavy chain hypervariable region 3 of PAC1
Fab with a single αV integrin-binding domain from multivalent adenovirus penton base. Both WOW-1 Fab and penton base bound selectively to activated
αVβ3, but not to αIIbβ3, in receptor and cell binding assays. αVβ3 affinity varied with the cell type. Unstimulated B-lymphoblastoid cells bound WOW-1 Fab poorly (apparent K
d = 2.4 μm), but acute stimulation with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate increased receptor affinity >30-fold (K
d = 80 nm), with no change in receptor number. In contrast, αVβ3 in melanoma cells was constitutively active, but ligand binding could be suppressed by overexpression of β3 cytoplasmic tails. Up-regulation of αVβ3 affinity had functional consequences in that it increased cell adhesion and spreading and promoted adenovirus-mediated gene
transfer. These studies establish that αVβ3 is subject to rapid regulated changes in affinity that influence the biological functions of this integrin.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 07/1999; 274(31):21609-21616. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Integrin alpha(V)beta(3) mediates diverse responses in vascular cells, ranging from cell adhesion, migration, and proliferation to uptake of adenoviruses. However, the extent to which alpha(V)beta(3) is regulated by changes in receptor conformation (affinity), receptor diffusion/clustering (avidity), or post-receptor events is unknown. Affinity regulation of the related integrin, alpha(IIb)beta(3), has been established using a monovalent ligand-mimetic antibody, PAC1 Fab. To determine the role of affinity modulation of alpha(V)beta(3), a novel monovalent ligand-mimetic antibody (WOW-1) was created by replacing the heavy chain hypervariable region 3 of PAC1 Fab with a single alpha(V) integrin-binding domain from multivalent adenovirus penton base. Both WOW-1 Fab and penton base bound selectively to activated alpha(V)beta(3), but not to alpha(IIb)beta(3), in receptor and cell binding assays. alpha(V)beta(3) affinity varied with the cell type. Unstimulated B-lymphoblastoid cells bound WOW-1 Fab poorly (apparent K(d) = 2.4 microM), but acute stimulation with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate increased receptor affinity >30-fold (K(d) = 80 nM), with no change in receptor number. In contrast, alpha(V)beta(3) in melanoma cells was constitutively active, but ligand binding could be suppressed by overexpression of beta(3) cytoplasmic tails. Up-regulation of alpha(V)beta(3) affinity had functional consequences in that it increased cell adhesion and spreading and promoted adenovirus-mediated gene transfer. These studies establish that alpha(V)beta(3) is subject to rapid regulated changes in affinity that influence the biological functions of this integrin.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 07/1999; 274(31):21609-16. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Growth and dissemination of malignant melanoma has a profound impact on our population, and little is known concerning the mechanisms controlling this disease in humans. Evidence is provided that integrin alpha(v)beta3 plays a critical role in M21 melanoma tumor survival within human skin by a mechanism independent of its known role in angiogenesis. Antagonists of alpha(v)beta3 blocked melanoma growth by inducing tumor apoptosis. Moreover, M21 melanoma cell interactions with denatured collagen, a known ligand for alpha(v)beta3, caused a 5-fold increase in the relative Bcl-2:Bax ratio, an event thought to promote cell survival. Importantly, denatured collagen colocalized with alpha(v)beta3-expressing melanoma cells in human tumor biopsies, suggesting that alpha(v)beta3 interaction with denatured collagen may play a critical role in melanoma tumor survival in vivo.
Cancer Research 07/1999; 59(11):2724-30. · 8.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic debilitating disease characterized by distinct autoimmune, inflammatory and fibrovascular components which lead to synovial proliferation and joint destruction. However, existing treatments specifically target only autoimmune and inflammatory components despite the fact that neovascularization of the inflamed synovium is a hallmark of rheumatoid arthritis. Angiogenesis may contribute to synovial growth, leukocyte recruitment and tissue remodeling, thus potentiating disease progression. Although no therapies currently target angiogenesis, several existing therapies have anti-angiogenic activity. Recent advances in anti-angiogenic strategies in oncology, including the identification of integrin alpha v beta 3 as a crucial effector of angiogenesis, suggest a means to assess the role of angiogenesis in rheumatoid arthritis. Synovial endothelial cells have been shown to express integrin alpha v beta 3, suggesting that these cells may be targeted for angiogenesis inhibition. Prior studies in rat arthritis models have shown benefit after the addition of broad spectrum integrin antagonists. However, formal assessment of integrin-targeted anti-angiogenic activity is now underway. These controlled studies will be important in assessing the efficacy of therapies which target angiogenesis in RA.
Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research 06/1999; 32(5):573-81. · 1.14 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lymphocytes accumulate within the extracellular matrix (ECM) of tumor, wound, or inflammatory tissues. These tissues are largely comprised of polymerized adhesion proteins such as fibrin and fibronectin or their fragments. Nonactivated lymphoid cells attach preferentially to polymerized ECM proteins yet are unable to attach to monomeric forms or fragments of these proteins without previous activation. This adhesion event depends on the appropriate spacing of integrin adhesion sites. Adhesion of nonactivated lymphoid cells to polymeric ECM components results in activation of the antigen receptor-associated Syk kinase that accumulates in adhesion-promoting podosomes. In fact, activation of Syk by antigen or agonists, as well as expression of an activated Syk mutant in lymphoid cells, facilitates their adhesion to monomeric ECM proteins or their fragments. These results reveal a cooperative interaction between signals emanating from integrins and antigen receptors that can serve to regulate stable lymphoid cell adhesion and retention within a remodeling ECM.
The Journal of Cell Biology 03/1999; 144(4):777-88. · 10.82 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The suppression and eradication of primary tumors and distant metastases is a major goal of alternative treatment strategies for cancer, such as inhibition of angiogenesis and targeted immunotherapy. We report here a synergy between two novel monotherapies directed against vascular and tumor compartments, respectively, a tumor vasculature-specific antiangiogenic integrin alphav antagonist and tumor-specific antibody-interleukin 2 (IL-2) fusion proteins. Simultaneous and sequential combination of these monotherapies effectively eradicated spontaneous liver metastases in a poorly immunogenic syngeneic model of neuroblastoma. This was in contrast to controls subjected to monotherapies with either an antiangiogenic integrin alphav antagonist or antibody-IL-2 fusion proteins, which were only partially effective at the dose levels applied. Furthermore, simultaneous treatments with the integrin alphav antagonist and tumor-specific antibody-IL-2 fusion proteins induced dramatic primary tumor regressions in three syngeneic murine tumor models, i.e., melanoma, colon carcinoma, and neuroblastoma. However, each agent used as monotherapy induced only a delay in tumor growth. A mechanism for this synergism was suggested because the antitumor response was accompanied by a simultaneous 50% reduction in tumor vessel density and a 5-fold increase in inflammatory cells in the tumor microenvironment. Subsequently, tumor necrosis was demonstrated only in animals receiving the combination therapy, but not when each agent was applied as monotherapy. The results suggest that these synergistic treatment modalities may provide a novel and effective tool for future therapies of metastatic cancer.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 03/1999; 96(4):1591-6. · 9.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an inflammatory disease associated with intense angiogenesis and vascular expression of integrin alphavbeta3. Intra-articular administration of a cyclic peptide antagonist of integrin alphavbeta3 to rabbits with antigen-induced arthritis early in disease resulted in inhibition of synovial angiogenesis and reduced synovial cell infiltrate, pannus formation, and cartilage erosions. These effects were not associated with lymphopenia or impairment of leukocyte function. Furthermore, when administered in chronic, preexisting disease, the alphavbeta3 antagonist effectively diminished arthritis severity and was associated with a quantitative increase in apoptosis of the angiogenic blood vessels. Therefore, angiogenesis appears to be a central factor in the initiation and persistence of arthritic disease, and antagonists of integrin alphavbeta3 may represent a novel therapeutic strategy for RA.
Journal of Clinical Investigation 02/1999; 103(1):47-54. · 12.81 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The development of new vessels plays a critical role in a number of physiological and pathological events such as embryonic
development, wound healing, arthritis, and tumor growth and metastasis (1–4). One area that has received considerable attention is determining the role that integrins play in angiogenesis. Recently,
we demonstrated that integrin αvβ3 was highly expressed on angiogenic blood vessels associated with a variety of solid tumors and during granulation tissue
formation (5,6). Importantly, little if any αvβ3 was detected on quiescent vessels (5,6). In addition, antagonists of αvβ3 were shown to specifically inhibit angiogenesis in vivo. These findings suggest an important role for integrin αvβ3 during neovascularization. Thus, a great deal of attention has been focused on understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms
by which integrins regulate angiogenesis. Angiogenesis can be defined as the process by which new blood vessels form from
pre-existing vessels. This process is similar to, but not identical with vasculogenesis, in which new blood vessels arise
from blood islands and precursor cells called angioblasts (1–3). Thus, an in-depth understanding of the molecules that regulate this complex biological process is of fundamental importance
in both basic and clinical research. In fact, recent advances in our understanding of the molecular and biochemical events
that facilitate angiogenesis have provided insight into cellular invasion in general as well as the development of novel strategies
for the treatment of neovascular diseases (5,7–11).
Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) 02/1999; 129:257-69.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Blood vessel density is a prognostic indicator of multiple tumor types. Recently, it has been established that tumor-associated blood vessels express elevated levels of integrin alpha(v)beta3. In fact, there is evidence that integrin alpha(v)beta3 identifies the most proliferative endothelial cells within human breast carcinomas. Therefore, we evaluated breast cancer tissue in terms of both blood vessel density and alpha(v)beta3 expression. We found that the antibody LM609 to integrin alpha(v)beta3 preferentially stains the blood vessels of small caliber. Furthermore, comparative studies between LM609 and anti-CD31 antibodies on normal breast indicate that very low and weak expression of integrin alpha(v)beta3 was found on vessels within normal tissue, whereas CD31 antigen was expressed in almost all vasculature. Indeed, expression of integrin alpha(v)beta3 was significantly higher in tumors of patients with metastasis than in those without metastasis. In a series of 197 consecutive patients with invasive breast cancer and long follow-up, vascular expression of integrin alpha(v)beta3 in tumor vascular "hot spots" was found to be the most significant prognostic factor predictive of relapse-free survival in both node-negative and node-positive patients. These findings support the contention that angiogenesis plays a critical role in breast cancer progression and suggest that integrin alpha(v)beta3 is an endothelial cell marker with significant prognostic value and potential usefulness as a target for specific antiangiogenic therapy.
Clinical Cancer Research 12/1998; 4(11):2625-34. · 7.84 Impact Factor