Sandra Diehl

Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main, Frankfurt, Hesse, Germany

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Publications (11)40.41 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The endothelial wall plays a crucial role in various diseases as it serves as the barrier between circulatory system and organ tissue. Inflammation-driven insulin resistance and subsequent endothelial dysfunction represent a pathomechanism in cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction. It was recently suggested that insulin resistance also contributes to the pathogenesis of psoriasis, a chronic inflammatory disease of the skin. However, it is not clear whether similar mechanisms at the endothelium contribute to the disease. In this study, we ask which endothelial cells are most suitable to address this question. We investigated the insulin response of four cell types (primary cells and cell lines) representing different vascular beds (micro- and macrovascular cells) in the presence of different pro-inflammatory cytokines. All four cell types used responded well to insulin; however, the ability to become resistant to insulin due to an inflammatory stimulus by cytokines involved in psoriasis (e.g. IL-1β, IL-12, IL-17, IL-23 and TNF-α) was very heterogeneous and could not be attributed to the differential expression of the cognate cytokine receptors. We conclude that this disparity is due to the different origins and properties of the endothelial cells used. Thus, endothelial cells should be carefully selected for the purpose of the respective study, particularly when it comes to analysing the pathogenesis of a disease and the search of new molecular targets for innovative therapies.
    Experimental Dermatology 11/2013; 22(11):714-8. · 3.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Response pathways of the metabolic and the immune system have been evolutionary conserved, resulting in a high degree of integrated regulation. Insulin is a central player in the metabolic system and potentially also in the homeostasis of the skin. Psoriasis is a frequent and often severe autoimmune skin disease, clinically characterized by altered epidermal homeostasis, of which the molecular pathomechanisms are only little understood. In this study, we have examined a potential role for insulin signaling in the pathogenesis of this disease. We show that IL-1β is present in high quantities in tissue fluid collected via microdialysis from patients with psoriasis; these levels are reduced under successful anti-psoriatic therapy. Our results suggest that IL-1β contributes to the disease by dual effects. First, it induces insulin resistance through p38MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase), which blocks insulin-dependent differentiation of keratinocytes, and at the same time IL-1β drives proliferation of keratinocytes, both being hallmarks of psoriasis. Taken together, our findings point toward insulin resistance as a contributing mechanism to the development of psoriasis; this not only drives cardiovascular comorbidities, but also its cutaneous phenotype. Key cytokines inducing insulin resistance in keratinocytes and kinases mediating their effects may represent attractive targets for novel anti-psoriatic therapies.
    Journal of Investigative Dermatology 04/2012; 132(9):2206-14. · 6.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Severe psoriasis is associated with significant cardiovascular mortality. We therefore investigated the effects of systemic therapy on the cardiovascular risk of psoriasis patients. Thirteen consecutive patients receiving fumaric acid esters were included and followed for 24 weeks both clinically and by means of laboratory monitoring, 10 completed the study. Eight of ten patients showed a PASI-50 response. Two of three patients with clinical insulin resistance (Homeostasis Model Assessment of insulin resistance >2.5) showed normal insulin responsiveness at the end of the study. Clinical improvement was paralleled by a reduction of high-sensitive CRP serum levels (median -25%). There was a trend toward reduced serum levels for the vascular endothelial growth factor (median -10%) and resistin (median -4%), while the potentially cardio-protective adiponectin showed a trend toward increased serum levels under therapy (median +19%). Systemic endothelial function assessed by venous occlusion plethysmography revealed an improvement of endothelial vasodilator function after 24 weeks of treatment (p < 0.02). This is the first prospective study documenting an amelioration of endothelial cell function in patients with moderate-to-severe plaque-type psoriasis under effective continuous systemic therapy. Future studies need to compare the cardioprotective effects of different treatment modalities, based on hard end points such as the rate of myocardial infarction.
    Archives for Dermatological Research 08/2011; 303(6):381-8. · 2.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Microdialysis is a novel technique suitable to analyse soluble mediators in the skin compartment. We applied this methodical approach to monitor changes in the micromilieu of psoriatic plaques under therapy. Tissue fluid was collected from lesional and non-lesional skin of three patients with severe plaque-type psoriasis prior to as well as after 12 weeks of continuous oral therapy with fumaric acid esters. Concentrations of a spectrum of cytokines and adipokines were measured using a commercial fluorescent bead immunoassay. The procedure was well tolerated even without local anaesthesia. Prior to initiation of therapy, we found elevated levels for IL-2, IL-6, IL-18, IL-23, and resistin in lesional versus non-lesional skin, whereas adiponectin levels were higher in non-lesional skin. All patients showed significant clinical improvement under treatment, paralleled by reduced concentrations of IL-6, IL-18, IL-23, and resistin, but not IL-2 and adiponectin in lesional skin. Thus, we were able to demonstrate through microdialysis a shift in the micromilieu of psoriatic plaques, characterized by reduced levels of pro-inflammatory mediators in three patients under effective systemic anti-inflammatory therapy with fumaric acid esters. Our observations need to be confirmed by larger studies. This approach is limited by practical aspects as it is very time-consuming, but suitable to directly explore pathomechanisms causing the psoriatic phenotype in general and insulin resistance in the skin compartment in particular.
    Experimental Dermatology 02/2011; 20(2):130-3. · 3.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Severe psoriasis is associated with significant cardiovascular mortality. We investigated the effects of continuous systemic therapy on the cardiovascular risk of patients with severe plaque-type psoriasis. A total of 42 consecutive patients receiving systemic treatment for their severe plaque-type psoriasis were included. The clinical course was monitored over 24 weeks. Initially as well as after 12 and 24 weeks, oral glucose tolerance tests were performed along with comprehensive laboratory monitoring. Responding patients, defined as a Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI)-50 response, showed correlations between the PASI and high-sensitive C-reactive protein (r = 0.45, P = 0.03) as well as with vascular endothelial growth factor (r = 0.76, P = 0.007). The adipokine resistin was positively and the potentially cardio-protective adiponectin was negatively correlated with the PASI (r = 0.50, P = 0.02 and r = -0.56, P = 0.007, respectively). Oral glucose tolerance tests yielded a correlation between the PASI and plasma levels for C-peptide (r = 0.73, P = 0.02) at t = 120 min in patients with a pathological Homeostasis Model Assessment (>2.5), indicating that the state of peripheral insulin resistance is driven at least in part by the severity of the psoriatic inflammation. Correlations between the change of adipokine levels and change in PASI were more pronounced among patients with better clinical improvement (PASI-75 vs. PASI-50). We document an amelioration of biomarkers of cardiovascular risk in patients with severe plaque-type psoriasis responding to continuous systemic therapy. The impact on the patients'metabolic state was found to be better if the psoriatic inflammation was controlled for longer. Future studies need to compare the cardioprotective effects of different treatment modalities, based on hard clinical endpoints.
    Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology 01/2011; 25(10):1187-93. · 2.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Haemostasis-maintaining platelets are also recognized as important modulators in the regulation of immune response. Activated platelets expressing P-selectin (CD62P) are involved in the extravasation of leucocytes. This study evaluated platelet P-selectin expression as a biomarker for cutaneous inflammation. P-selectin expression was assessed by flow cytometry in 147 successive patients suffering from an inflammatory or infectious skin condition at the day of admission for in-patient treatment as well as a day prior to demission. Forty-one patients admitted for allergy testing served as controls. A commercially available ELISA was used in 17 patients to determine soluble P-selectin in the plasma. In patients with psoriasis, the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) was documented as a measure for disease severity. We observed a significant increase in platelet P-selectin expression in patients with inflammatory or infectious disorders, when compared to the control group (3,01% vs. 1,46%; P < 0.000001). Successful treatment resulted in a significant decrease in P-selectin expression to the level of the control group. In the case of psoriasis (n = 47), we found highly significant correlation between P-selectin and PASI (r = 0.51; P < 0.000001), as well as between the change in the PASI and the change in P-selectin expression (r = 0.4; P = 0.006). Platelet P-selectin expression as determined by flow cytometry correlated well with the results of soluble P-selectin, determined by ELISA (r = 0.63; P < 0.01). Thus, platelet P-selectin expression may be used as an efficacy biomarker to monitor treatment success in psoriasis. As platelet P-selectin correlates with soluble P-selectin in patient plasma, which can be measured by ELISA, the latter is feasible also for routine use.
    Experimental Dermatology 08/2010; 19(8):736-41. · 3.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Leukocyte extravasation is a prerequisite for host defense and autoimmunity alike. Detailed understanding of the tightly controlled and overlapping sequences of leukocyte extravasation might aid development of novel therapeutic strategies. Leukocyte extravasation is initiated by interaction of selectins with appropriate carbohydrate ligands. Lack of P-selectin expression leads to decreased contact hypersensitivity responses. Yet, it remains unclear if this is due to inhibition of leukocyte extravasation to the skin or due to interference with initial immune activation in lymph nodes. In line with previous data, we here report a decreased contact hypersensitivity response, induced by 2,4,-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB), in P-selectin-deficient mice. Eliciting an immune reaction towards DNFB in wild-type mice, followed by adoptive transfer to P-selectin-deficient mice, had no impact on inflammatory response in recipients. This was significantly reduced in wild-type recipient mice adoptively transferred with DNFB immunity generated in P-selectin-deficient mice. To investigate if platelet or endothelial P-selectin was involved, mice solely lacking platelet P-selectin expression generated by bone marrow transplantation were used. Adoptive transfer of immunity from wild-type mice reconstituted with P-selectin-deficient bone marrow led to a decrease of inflammatory response. Comparing this decrease to the one observed using P-selectin-deficient mice, no differences were observed. Our observations indicate that platelet, not endothelial, P-selectin contributes to generation of immunity in DNFB-induced contact hypersensitivity.
    American Journal Of Pathology 03/2010; 176(3):1339-45. · 4.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The gamma amino butyric acid B (GABA(B)) receptor is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) involved in synaptic transmission. Recent data indicate it to be also expressed on immune cells, along with chemokine receptors, which are also GPCRs. As GPCRs can undergo heterologous desensitization, we have examined the ability of baclofen, a GABA(B) receptor selective agonist, to interfere with the function of pro-inflammatory chemokine receptors known to be upregulated in cutaneous inflammation. In vitro, baclofen reduces chemotaxis of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells towards CCL2, CCL5, CXCL10, CXCL2 and CX3CL1 in a dose-dependant manner. Protein kinase C inhibitors calphostin C and G0 6976 could reverse this effect, pointing towards the involvement of both calcium-dependent and -independent protein kinase C in baclofen-induced inhibition of chemokine receptors. In an in vivo model of contact hypersensitivity in C57BL/6 mice, intraperitoneal injection of baclofen markedly alleviated signs of inflammation as well as recruitment of neutrophils, monocytes and lymphocytes into the skin. This study demonstrates a new role for the GABA(B) receptor in inflammation, making it a potential new therapeutic target to treat inflammatory skin diseases.
    Experimental Dermatology 02/2010; 19(7):661-6. · 3.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Junctional adhesion molecule-A (JAM-A), JAM-B and JAM-C have been implicated in leucocyte transmigration. As JAM-B binds to very late activation antigen (VLA)-4, a leucocyte integrin that contributes to rolling and firm adhesion of lymphocytes to endothelial cells through binding to vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1, we hypothesized that JAM-B is also involved in leucocyte rolling and firm adhesion. To test this hypothesis, intravital microscopy of murine skin microvasculature was performed. Rolling interactions of murine leucocytes were significantly affected by blockade of JAM-B [which reduced rolling interactions from 9.1 +/- 2.6% to 3.2 +/- 1.2% (mean +/- standard deviation)]. To identify putative ligands, T lymphocytes were perfused over JAM-B-coated slides in a dynamic flow chamber system. JAM-B-dependent rolling and sticking interactions were observed at low shear stress [0.3 dyn/cm(2): 220 +/- 71 (mean +/- standard deviation) versus 165 +/- 88 rolling (P < 0.001; Mann-Whitney rank sum test) and 2.6 +/- 1.3 versus 1.0 +/- 0.7 sticking cells/mm(2)/min (P = 0.026; Mann-Whitney rank sum test) on JAM-B- compared with baseline], but not at higher shear forces (1.0 dyn/cm(2)). As demonstrated by antibody blocking experiments, JAM-B-mediated rolling and sticking of T lymphocytes was dependent on alpha4 and beta1 integrin, but not JAM-C expression. To investigate whether JAM-B-mediated leucocyte-endothelium interactions are involved in a disease-relevant in vivo model, adoptive transfer experiments in 2,4,-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB)-induced contact hypersensitivity reactions were performed in mice in the absence or in the presence of a function-blocking JAM-B antibody. In this model, JAM-B blockade during the sensitization phase impaired the generation of the immune response to DNFB, which was assessed as the increase in ear swelling in untreated, DNFB-challenged mice, by close to 40% [P = 0.037; analysis of variance (anova)]. Overall, JAM-B appears to contribute to leucocyte extravasation by facilitating not only transmigration but also rolling and adhesion.
    Immunology 10/2009; 128(2):196-205. · 3.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Esters of fumaric acid have a long tradition in the treatment of psoriasis. Dimethylfumarate (DMF) is perceived as the main active substance. However, the molecular mechanisms of DMF action are not completely understood. Here, we investigate the effects of DMF on lymphocyte adhesion molecule expression in vitro and interactions with endothelial cells in vivo. DMF dose-dependently reduced superantigen-induced expression of CD25, human leukocyte antigen-DR, and cutaneous lymphocyte antigen by 27, 22, and 48% on CD3-positive cells, respectively. No change was observed for CD54, VLA-4, and P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1. An enhancement of CD69 expression was noted (22%). DMF led to a significant reduction in binding of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to E-selectin (72%), P-selectin (36%), and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (33%) in vitro. Intravital microscopy of PBMCs in ear vasculature of wild-type and knockout mice showed that rolling was mainly P-selectin-dependent and could be reduced by 61% through DMF incubation. We provide early evidence that DMF affects adhesion molecule expression on human leukocytes and their rolling behavior in vivo, indicating that DMF directly affects the initial step of leukocyte extravasation.
    Journal of Investigative Dermatology 03/2008; 128(2):326-31. · 6.19 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Dermatological Science - J DERMATOLOGICAL SCI. 01/1998; 16.