Kyungmoo Yea

ShanghaiTech University, Shanghai, Shanghai Shi, China

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Publications (28)131.36 Total impact

  • Kyungmoo Yea · Jia Xie · Hongkai Zhang · Wei Zhang · Richard A Lerner
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    ABSTRACT: The main purpose of this perspective is to build on the unexpected outcomes of previous laboratory experiments using antibody agonists to raise questions concerning how activation of a given receptor can be involved in inducing differentiation of cells along different pathways some of which may even derive from different lineages. While not yet answered, the question illustrates how the advent of agonists not present in nature may give a different dimension to the important problem of signal transduction. Thus, if one studies a natural agonist-receptor system one can learn details about its signal transduction pathway. However, if one has a set of orthogonal agonists, one may learn about the yet undiscovered potential of the system that, in the end, may necessitate refinements to the currently used models. Thus, we wonder why receptors conventionally linked to a given pathway induce a different pattern of differentiation when agonized in another way. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Current Opinion in Chemical Biology 06/2015; 26. DOI:10.1016/j.cbpa.2015.01.002 · 7.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Apolipoprotein a1, which is a major lipoprotein component of high-density lipoprotein (HDL), was reported to decrease plasma glucose in type 2 diabetes. Although recent studies also have shown that apolipoprotein a1 is involved in triglyceride (TG) metabolism, the mechanisms by which apolipoprotein a1 modulates TG levels remain largely unexplored. Here we demonstrated that apolipoprotein a1 increased mitochondrial DNA and mitochondria contents through sustained AMPK activation in myotubes. This resulted in enhanced fatty acid oxidation and attenuation of free fatty acid-induced insulin resistance features in skeletal muscle. The increment of mitochondria was mediated through induction of transcription factors, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α) and nuclear transcription factor 1 (NRF-1). The inhibition of AMPK by a pharmacological agent inhibited the induction of mitochondrial biogenesis. Increase of AMPK phosphorylation by apolipoprotein a1 occurs through activation of upstream kinase LKB1. Finally, we confirmed that scavenger receptor Class B, type 1 (SR-B1) is an important receptor for apolipoprotein a1 in stimulating AMPK pathway and mitochondrial biogenesis. Our study suggests that apolipoprotein a1 can alleviate obesity related metabolic disease by inducing AMPK dependent mitochondrial biogenesis. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Cellular Signalling 05/2015; 27(9). DOI:10.1016/j.cellsig.2015.05.003 · 4.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Obesity-induced inflammation is initiated by the recruitment of macrophages into adipose tissue. The recruited macrophages, called adipose tissue macrophages, secrete several proinflammatory cytokines that cause low-grade systemic inflammation and insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to find macrophage-recruiting factors that are thought to provide a crucial connection between obesity and insulin resistance. We used chemotaxis assay, reverse phase HPLC and tandem MS analysis to find chemotactic factors from adipocytes. The expression of chemokines and macrophage markers was evaluated by quantitative RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and FACS analysis. We report our finding that the chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 12 (CXCL12, also known as stromal cell-derived factor 1), identified from 3T3-L1 adipocyte conditioned medium, induces monocyte migration via its receptor chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 4 (CXCR4). Diet-induced obese mice demonstrated a robust increase of CXCL12 expression in white adipose tissue (WAT). Treatment of obese mice with a CXCR4 antagonist reduced macrophage accumulation and production of proinflammatory cytokines in WAT, and improved systemic insulin sensitivity. In this study we found that CXCL12 is an adipocyte-derived chemotactic factor that recruits macrophages, and that it is a required factor for the establishment of obesity-induced adipose tissue inflammation and systemic insulin resistance.
    Diabetologia 04/2014; 57(7). DOI:10.1007/s00125-014-3237-5 · 6.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: One of the most important phenotypes in biology is cell death. One way to probe the mechanism(s) of cell death is to select molecules that prevent it and learn how this was accomplished. Here, intracellular combinatorial antibody libraries were used to select antibodies that protected cells from killing by rhinovirus infection. These rare antibodies functioned by inhibiting the virus-encoded protease that is necessary for viral maturation. Snapshots of the selection process after each round could be obtained by deep sequencing the ever-enriching populations. This detailed analysis of the enrichment process allowed an interesting look at a "test tube" selection process that pitted two replicating systems against each other. Thus, initially a minority of cells containing protective antibodies must compete against a majority of unprotected cells that continue to produce large amounts of virus.
    Chemistry & biology 01/2014; 21(2). DOI:10.1016/j.chembiol.2013.12.006 · 6.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: When combinatorial antibody libraries are rendered infectious for eukaryotic cells, the integrated antibody genotype and cellular phenotype become permanently linked and each cell becomes a selection system unto itself. These systems should be ideal for the identification of proteins and pathways that regulate differentiation so long as selection systems can be devised. Here we use a selection system based on the ability of secreted antibodies to alter the morphology of colonies expressing them when grown in soft agar. Importantly, this approach is different from all previous studies in that it used a pure discovery format where unbiased libraries that were not preselected against any known protein were used as probes. As such, the strategy is analogous to classical forward genetic approaches except that it operates directly at the protein level. This approach led to the identification of integrin-binding agonist antibodies that efficiently converted human stem cells to dendritic cells.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 08/2013; 110(37). DOI:10.1073/pnas.1313671110 · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We describe a system for direct selection of antibodies that are receptor agonists. Combinatorial antibody libraries in lentiviruses are used to infect eukaryotic cells that contain a fluorescent reporter system coupled to the receptor for which receptor agonist antibodies are sought. In this embodiment of the method, very large numbers of candidate antibodies expressing lentivirus and eukaryotic reporter cells are packaged together in a format where each is capable of replication, thereby forging a direct link between genotype and phenotype. Following infection, cells that fluoresce are sorted and the integrated genes encoding the agonist antibodies recovered. We validated the system by illustrating its ability to generate rapidly potent antibody agonists that are complete thrombopoietin phenocopies. The system should be generalizable to any pathway where its activation can be linked to production of a selectable phenotype.
    Chemistry & biology 05/2013; 20(5):734-741. DOI:10.1016/j.chembiol.2013.04.012 · 6.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Afamin was recently identified as a novel osteoclast-derived coupling factor that can stimulate the in vitro and in vivo migration of preosteoblasts. Aim: In order to understand in more detail the biological roles of afamin in bone metabolism, we investigated its effects on osteoclastic differentiation and bone resorption. Methods: Osteoclasts were differentiated from mouse bone marrow cells. Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive multinucleated cells were considered as osteoclasts, and the resorption area was determined by incubating the cells on dentine discs. The intracellular cAMP level was determined using a direct enzyme immunoassay. Signaling pathways were investigated using western blot and RT-PCR. Recombinant afamin was administered exogenously to bone cell cultures. Results: Afamin stimulated both osteoclastogenesis and in vitro bone resorption. Consistently, the expressions of osteoclast differentiation markers were significantly increased by afamin. Although afamin mainly affected the late-differentiation stages of osteoclastogenesis, the expression levels of receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL)-dependent signals were not changed. Afamin markedly decreased the levels of intracellular cAMP with reversal by pretreatment with pertussis toxin (PTX), a specific inhibitor of Gi-coupled receptor signaling. In addition, PTX almost completely blocked afamin-stimulated osteoclastogenesis. Furthermore, pretreatment with KN93 and STO609-Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMK) and CaMK kinase inhibitors, respectively-significantly prevented decreases in the intracellular cAMP level by afamin while attenuating afamin-stimulated osteoclastogenesis. Conclusion: Afamin enhances osteoclastogenesis by decreasing intracellular cAMP levels via Gi-coupled receptor and CaMK pathways.
    Journal of endocrinological investigation 05/2013; 36(10). DOI:10.3275/8975 · 1.55 Impact Factor
  • Jia Xie · Hongkai Zhang · Kyungmoo Yea · Richard A Lerner
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    ABSTRACT: We report here the generation of antibody agonists from intracellular combinatorial libraries that transdifferentiate human stem cells. Antibodies that are agonists for the granulocyte colony stimulating factor receptor were selected from intracellular libraries on the basis of their ability to activate signaling pathways in reporter cells. We used a specialized "near neighbor" approach in which the entire antibody library and its target receptor are cointegrated into the plasma membranes of a population of reporter cells. This format favors unusual interactions between receptors and their protein ligands and ensures that the antibody acts in an autocrine manner on the cells that produce it. Unlike the natural granulocyte-colony stimulating factor that activates cells to differentiate along a predetermined pathway, the isolated agonist antibodies transdifferentiated human myeloid lineage CD34+ bone marrow cells into neural progenitors. This transdifferentiation by agonist antibodies is different from more commonly used methods because initiation is agenetic. Antibodies that act at the plasma membrane may have therapeutic potential as agents that transdifferentiate autologous cells.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 04/2013; DOI:10.1073/pnas.1306263110 · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Wedelolactone is an herbal medicine that is used to treat septic shock, hepatitis and venom poisoning. Although in differentiated and cancer cells, wedelolactone has been identified as anti-inflammatory, growth inhibitory, and pro-apoptotic, the effects of wedelolactone on stem cell differentiation remain largely unknown. Here, we report that wedelolactone inhibits the adipogenic differentiation of human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAMSCs). Wedelolactone reduced the formation of lipid droplets and the expression of adipogenesis-related proteins, such as CCAAT enhancer-binding protein-α (C/EBP-α), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), and adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein aP2 (aP2). Wedelolactone mediated this process by sustaining ERK activity. In addition, inhibition of ERK activity with PD98059 resulted in reversion of the wedelolactone-mediated inhibition of adipogenic differentiation. Taken together, these results indicate that wedelolactone inhibits adipogenic differentiation through ERK pathway and suggest a novel inhibitory effect of wedelolactone on adipogenic differentiation in hAMSCs. J. Cell. Biochem. 113: 3436-3445, 2012. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 11/2012; 113(11):3436-45. DOI:10.1002/jcb.24220 · 3.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although it is well known that osteoclastic bone resorption is followed by osteoblastic bone formation, questions remain as to when coupling factors are produced during bone resorption and which stages of bone formation are affected by these factors. To clarify these mechanisms, we established an in vitro system to investigate the coupling phenomenon. We obtained conditioned media (CM) from osteoclasts in the early and late stages of differentiation and from bone resorption stages. The collected CM was used to treat primary mouse calvarial osteoblasts and preosteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells and to evaluate its influence on the migration, viability, proliferation, and differentiation of osteoblasts. We found that CM from osteoclasts in the early stage of differentiation predominantly stimulated the migration of osteoblastic lineages. By further performing fractional analyses of the CM with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, we identified afamin, which has binding activity with vitamin E, as a possible coupling factor. The CM collected from afamin siRNA-transfected osteoclasts significantly suppressed preosteoblast migration. Afamin activated Akt in preosteoblasts, and pretreatment with Akt inhibitor significantly blocked afamin-stimulated preosteoblast migration. In conclusion, these results indicate that osteoclasts themselves play a central role in the coupling of bone resorption and formation by stimulating preosteoblast migration. In addition, we identified afamin as one of osteoclast-derived chemokines that affect preosteoblasts through the activation of the Akt-signaling pathway.
    Bone 06/2012; 51(3):431-40. DOI:10.1016/j.bone.2012.06.015 · 4.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There is a strong possibility that skeletal muscle can respond to irregular metabolic states by secreting specific cytokines. Obesity-related chronic inflammation, mediated by pro-inflammatory cytokines, is believed to be one of the causes of insulin resistance that results in type 2 diabetes. Here, we attempted to identify and characterize the members of the skeletal muscle secretome in response to tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α)-induced insulin resistance. To conduct this study, we comparatively analyzed the media levels of proteins released from L6 skeletal muscle cells. We found 28 TNF-α modulated secretory proteins by using separate filtering methods: Gene Ontology, SignalP, and SecretomeP, as well as the normalized Spectral Index for label-free quantification. Ten of these secretory proteins were increased and 18 secretory proteins were decreased by TNF-α treatment. Using microarray analysis of Zuker diabetic rat skeletal muscle combined with bioinformatics and Q-PCR, we found a correlation between TNF-α-mediated insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. This novel approach combining analysis of the conditioned secretome and transcriptome has identified several previously unknown, TNF-α-dependent secretory proteins, which establish a foothold for research on the different causes of insulin resistance and their relationships with each other.
    Journal of Proteome Research 12/2011; 10(12):5315-25. DOI:10.1021/pr200573b · 5.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We previously demonstrated a cardiac mitochondrial biogenic response in insulin resistant mice that requires the nuclear receptor transcription factor PPARα. We hypothesized that the PPARα coactivator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1α) is necessary for mitochondrial biogenesis in insulin resistant hearts and that this response was adaptive. Mitochondrial phenotype was assessed in insulin resistant mouse models in wild-type (WT) versus PGC-1α deficient (PGC-1α(-/-)) backgrounds. Both high fat-fed (HFD) WT and 6 week-old Ob/Ob animals exhibited a significant increase in myocardial mitochondrial volume density compared to standard chow fed or WT controls. In contrast, HFD PGC-1α(-/-) and Ob/Ob-PGC-1α(-/-) hearts lacked a mitochondrial biogenic response. PGC-1α gene expression was increased in 6 week-old Ob/Ob animals, followed by a decline in 8 week-old Ob/Ob animals with more severe glucose intolerance. Mitochondrial respiratory function was increased in 6 week-old Ob/Ob animals, but not in Ob/Ob-PGC-1α(-/-) mice and not in 8 week-old Ob/Ob animals, suggesting a loss of the early adaptive response, consistent with the loss of PGC-1α upregulation. Animals that were deficient for PGC-1α and heterozygous for the related coactivator PGC-1β (PGC-1α(-/-)β(+/-)) were bred to the Ob/Ob mice. Ob/Ob-PGC-1α(-/-)β(+/-) hearts exhibited dramatically reduced mitochondrial respiratory capacity. Finally, the mitochondrial biogenic response was triggered in H9C2 myotubes by exposure to oleate, an effect that was blunted with shRNA-mediated PGC-1 "knockdown". We conclude that PGC-1 signaling is important for the adaptive cardiac mitochondrial biogenic response that occurs during the early stages of insulin resistance. This response occurs in a cell autonomous manner and likely involves exposure to high levels of free fatty acids.
    Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology 10/2011; 52(3):701-10. DOI:10.1016/j.yjmcc.2011.10.010 · 5.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a ubiquitous fungal metabolite with nephrotoxic, carcinogenic, and apoptotic potential. Although the toxic effects of OTA in various cell types are well characterized, it is not known whether OTA has an effect on stem cell differentiation. In this study, we demonstrate that OTA inhibits adipogenesis in human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells, as indicated by decreased accumulation of intracellular lipid droplets. Further, OTA significantly reduces expression of adipocyte-specific markers, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ), CCAAT enhancer binding protein-α (C/EBP-α), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), and adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (aP2). At the molecular level, OTA phosphorylates PPAR-γ2 through extracellular signal-related kinase activation and inhibits PPAR-γ activity. We also found that treatment with the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase inhibitor, PD98059, significantly blocked the OTA-induced inhibition of adipogenesis. These results indicate that OTA suppresses adipogenesis in an extracellular signal-related kinase-dependent manner. Taken together, our results suggest a novel effect of OTA on adipocyte differentiation in human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells and the possibility that OTA might affect the differentiation of other types of stem cells.
    Stem cells and development 03/2011; 20(3):415-26. DOI:10.1089/scd.2010.0071 · 4.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Interleukin 6 (IL6) is a pleiotropic cytokine that not only affects the immune system, but also plays an active role in many physiological events in various organs. Notably, 35% of systemic IL6 originates from adipose tissues under noninflammatory conditions. Here, we describe a previously unknown function of melanocortins in regulating Il6 gene expression and production in 3T3-L1 adipocytes through membrane receptors which are called melanocortin receptors (MCRs). Of the five MCRs that have been cloned, MC2R and MC5R are expressed during adipocyte differentiation. alpha-Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) or ACTH treatment of 3T3-L1 adipocytes induces Il6 gene expression and production in a time- and concentration-dependent manner via various signaling pathways including the protein kinase A, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, cJun N-terminal kinase, and IkappaB kinase pathways. Specific inhibition of MC2R and MC5R expression with short interfering Mc2r and Mc5r RNAs significantly attenuated the alpha-MSH-induced increase of intracellular cAMP and both the level of Il6 mRNA and secretion of IL6 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Finally, when injected into mouse tail vein, alpha-MSH dramatically increased the Il6 transcript levels in epididymal fat pads. These results suggest that alpha-MSH in addition to ACTH may function as a regulator of inflammation by regulating cytokine production.
    Journal of Molecular Endocrinology 04/2010; 44(4):225-36. DOI:10.1677/JME-09-0161 · 3.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Glucose homeostasis is maintained by a balance between hepatic glucose production and peripheral glucose utilization. In skeletal muscle cells, glucose utilization is primarily regulated by glucose uptake. Deprivation of cellular energy induces the activation of regulatory proteins and thus glucose uptake. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is known to play a significant role in the regulation of energy balances. However, the mechanisms related to the AMPK-mediated control of glucose uptake have yet to be elucidated. Here, we found that AMPK-induced phospholipase D1 (PLD1) activation is required for (14)C-glucose uptake in muscle cells under glucose deprivation conditions. PLD1 activity rather than PLD2 activity is significantly enhanced by glucose deprivation. AMPK-wild type (WT) stimulates PLD activity, while AMPK-dominant negative (DN) inhibits it. AMPK regulates PLD1 activity through phosphorylation of the Ser-505 and this phosphorylation is increased by the presence of AMP. Furthermore, PLD1-S505Q, a phosphorylation-deficient mutant, shows no changes in activity in response to glucose deprivation and does not show a significant increase in (14)C-glucose uptake when compared to PLD1-WT. Taken together, these results suggest that phosphorylation of PLD1 is important for the regulation of (14)C-glucose uptake. In addition, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) is stimulated by AMPK-induced PLD1 activation through the formation of phosphatidic acid (PA), which is a product of PLD. An ERK pharmacological inhibitor, PD98059, and the PLD inhibitor, 1-BtOH, both attenuate (14)C-glucose uptake in muscle cells. Finally, the extracellular stresses caused by glucose deprivation or aminoimidazole carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR; AMPK activator) regulate (14)C-glucose uptake and cell surface glucose transport (GLUT) 4 through ERK stimulation by AMPK-mediated PLD1 activation. These results suggest that AMPK-mediated PLD1 activation is required for (14)C-glucose uptake through ERK stimulation. We propose that the AMPK-mediated PLD1 pathway may provide crucial clues to understanding the mechanisms involved in glucose uptake.
    PLoS ONE 03/2010; 5(3):e9600. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0009600 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Adipocytes are well known to release regulation factors associated with metabolic disorders. In particular, increased oxidative stress in adipocytes contributes to dysregulation of adipokine production. In this study, we applied relative quantitative proteomic analysis based on label-free multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) to discover biological changes of adipokines under oxidative stress. Among a total of 194 identified proteins, 8 proteins were selected and quantified between control and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))-treated groups by label-free MRM quantification. The secretion levels of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1, CXCL12), resistin, and complement factor D (CFD, adipsin) decreased, whereas the secretion levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) and aldolase A increased. Here we suggest that our study with label-free quantitative analysis will contribute to the efficient quantitative analysis of targeted proteins in complex mixtures and specifically to a better understanding of changes of adipokines under oxidative stress.
    Analytical Biochemistry 03/2010; 401(2):196-202. DOI:10.1016/j.ab.2010.03.006 · 2.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Adipogenesis is a complex process that is accompanied by a number of molecular events. In this study, a proteomic approach was adopted to identify secretory factors associated with adipogenesis. A label-free shotgun proteomic strategy was implemented to analyze proteins secreted by human adipose stromal vascular fraction cells and differentiated adipocytes. A total of 474 proteins were finally identified and classified according to quantitative changes and statistical significances. Briefly, 177 proteins were significantly upregulated during adipogenesis (Class I), whereas 60 proteins were significantly downregulated (Class II). Changes in the expressions of several proteins were confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR and immunoblotting. One obvious finding based on proteomic data was that the amounts of several extracellular modulators of Wnt and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) signaling changed during adipogenesis. The expressions of secreted frizzled-related proteins, dickkopf-related proteins, and latent TGF-beta-binding proteins were found to be altered during adipogenesis, which suggests that they participate in the fine regulation of Wnt and TGF-beta signaling. This study provides useful tools and important clues regarding the roles of secretory factors during adipogenic differentiation, and provides information related to obesity and obesity-related metabolic diseases.
    Proteomics 02/2010; 10(3):394-405. DOI:10.1002/pmic.200900218 · 3.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate whether sulforaphane (SFN), an isothiocyanate derived from cruciferous vegetables such as broccoli, regulates synoviocyte hyperplasia and T cell activation in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Synoviocyte survival was assessed by MTT assay. The levels of Bcl-2, Bax, p53, and pAkt were determined by Western blot analysis. Cytokine concentrations in culture supernatants from mononuclear cells were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The in vivo effects of SFN were examined in mice with experimentally induced arthritis. SFN induced synoviocyte apoptosis by modulating the expression of Bcl-2/Bax, p53, and pAkt. In addition, nonapoptotic doses of SFN inhibited T cell proliferation and the production of interleukin-17 (IL-17) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) by RA CD4+ T cells stimulated with anti-CD3 antibody. Anti-CD3 antibody-induced increases in the expression of retinoic acid-related orphan receptor gammat and T-bet were also repressed by SFN. Moreover, the intraperitoneal administration of SFN to mice suppressed the clinical severity of arthritis induced by injection of type II collagen (CII), the anti-CII antibody levels, and the T cell responses to CII. The production of IL-17, TNFalpha, IL-6, and interferon-gamma by lymph node cells and spleen cells from these mice was markedly reduced by treatment with SFN. Anti-CII antibody-induced arthritis in mice was also alleviated by SFN injection. SFN was found to inhibit synovial hyperplasia, activated T cell proliferation, and the production of IL-17 and TNFalpha by rheumatoid T cells in vitro. The antiarthritic and immune regulatory effects of SFN, which were confirmed in vivo, suggest that SFN may offer a possible treatment option for RA.
    Arthritis & Rheumatology 01/2010; 62(1):159-70. DOI:10.1002/art.25017 · 7.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Glucose homeostasis is maintained by the orchestration of peripheral glucose utilization and hepatic glucose production, mainly by insulin. In this study, we found by utilizing a combined parallel chromatography mass profiling approach that lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) regulates glucose levels. LPC was found to stimulate glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes dose- and time-dependently, and this activity was found to be sensitive to variations in acyl chain lengths and to polar head group types in LPC. Treatment with LPC resulted in a significant increase in the level of GLUT4 at the plasma membranes of 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Moreover, LPC did not affect IRS-1 and AKT2 phosphorylations, and LPC-induced glucose uptake was not influenced by pretreatment with the PI 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002. However, glucose uptake stimulation by LPC was abrogated both by rottlerin (a protein kinase Cδ inhibitor) and by the adenoviral expression of dominant negative protein kinase Cδ. In line with its determined cellular functions, LPC was found to lower blood glucose levels in normal mice. Furthermore, LPC improved blood glucose levels in mouse models of type 1 and 2 diabetes. These results suggest that an understanding of the mode of action of LPC may provide a new perspective of glucose homeostasis.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 12/2009; 284(49):33833-33840. · 4.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Glucose homeostasis is maintained by the orchestration of peripheral glucose utilization and hepatic glucose production, mainly by insulin. In this study, we found by utilizing a combined parallel chromatography mass profiling approach that lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) regulates glucose levels. LPC was found to stimulate glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes dose- and time-dependently, and this activity was found to be sensitive to variations in acyl chain lengths and to polar head group types in LPC. Treatment with LPC resulted in a significant increase in the level of GLUT4 at the plasma membranes of 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Moreover, LPC did not affect IRS-1 and AKT2 phosphorylations, and LPC-induced glucose uptake was not influenced by pretreatment with the PI 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002. However, glucose uptake stimulation by LPC was abrogated both by rottlerin (a protein kinase Cδ inhibitor) and by the adenoviral expression of dominant negative protein kinase Cδ. In line with its determined cellular functions, LPC was found to lower blood glucose levels in normal mice. Furthermore, LPC improved blood glucose levels in mouse models of type 1 and 2 diabetes. These results suggest that an understanding of the mode of action of LPC may provide a new perspective of glucose homeostasis.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 10/2009; 284(49):33833-40. DOI:10.1074/jbc.M109.024869 · 4.57 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

316 Citations
131.36 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2014–2015
    • ShanghaiTech University
      Shanghai, Shanghai Shi, China
  • 2006–2015
    • Pohang University of Science and Technology
      • • Department of Life Sciences
      • • Division of Molecular and Life Sciences
      Geijitsu, Gyeongsangbuk-do, South Korea
  • 2012–2013
    • Scripps Korea Antibody Institute
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2010–2011
    • Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute
      لا هویا, California, United States