[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The bone marrow (BM) has been identified as a possible organ for T cell priming, yet the fundamental mechanisms of a polyclonal immune response in the BM remain unknown. We found that after intradermal injection of modified vaccinia Ankara virus, unexpected sources of newly primed polyclonal virus-specific CD8(+), but not CD4(+), T cells were localized in the BM and the draining lymph nodes (dLNs) prior to blood circulation. We identified neutrophils as the virus-carrier cells from the dermis to the BM. In both neutrophil-depleted and Ccr1(-/-) mice, virus-specific BM CD8(+) responses were lost. Myeloid antigen-presenting cells were required for BM CD8(+) T cell priming. A systems biology analysis of dLN and BM virus-specific CD8(+) T cells revealed distinct transcriptional and multifunctional profiles for cells primed in each organ. We provide direct evidence for how antigen is transported to the BM, providing a source of virus-specific memory CD8(+) T cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Early immune response to the largely used Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) intradermal vaccine remains ill defined. Three days after BCG inoculation into the mouse ear, in addition to neutrophils infiltrating skin, we observed CD11b(+)Ly-6C(int)Ly-6G(-) myeloid cells. Neutrophil depletion markedly enhanced their recruitment. These cells differed from inflammatory monocytes and required MyD88-dependent BCG-specific signals to invade skin, whereas neutrophil influx was MyD88 independent. Upon BCG phagocytosis, CD11b(+)Ly-6C(int)Ly-6G(-) cells produced NO, which required the IL-1 receptor. Despite NO production, they were unable to kill BCG or the nonpathogenic Mycobacterium smegmatis. However, they markedly impaired T cell priming in the draining lymph node. Their elimination by all-trans retinoid acid treatment increased the number of IFN-gamma-producing CD4 T cells. Thus, BCG vaccination recruits innate myeloid-derived suppressor cells, akin to mouse tumor-infiltrating cells. These propathogenic cells dampen the early T cell response and might facilitate BCG persistence.
The Journal of Immunology 02/2010; 184(4):2038-47. DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.0903348 · 4.92 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Obtaining a certain multi-functionality of cellular immunity for the control of infectious diseases is a burning question in immunology and in vaccine design. Early events, including antigen shuttling to secondary lymphoid organs and recruitment of innate immune cells for adaptive immune response, determine host responsiveness to antigens. However, the sequence of these events and their impact on the quality of the immune response remain to be elucidated. Here, we chose to study Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) which is now replacing live Smallpox vaccines and is proposed as an attenuated vector for vaccination strategies against infectious diseases.
We analyzed in vivo mechanisms triggered following intradermal (i.d.) and intramuscular (i.m.) Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) administration. We demonstrated significant differences in the antigen shuttling to lymphoid organs by macrophages (MPhis), myeloid dendritic cells (DCs), and neutrophils (PMNs). MVA i.d. administration resulted in better antigen distribution and more sustained antigen-presenting cells (APCs) recruitment into draining lymph nodes than with i.m. administration. These APCs, which comprise both DCs and MPhis, were differentially involved in T cell priming and shaped remarkably the quality of cytokine-producing virus-specific T cells according to the entry route of MVA.
This study improves our understanding of the mechanisms of antigen delivery and their consequences on the quality of immune responses and provides new insights for vaccine development.
PLoS ONE 12/2009; 4(12):e8159. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0008159 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Particle-based drug delivery systems target active compounds to the hair follicle and may result in a better penetration and higher efficiency of compound uptake by skin resident cells. As previously proposed, such delivery systems could be important tools for vaccine delivery. In this study, we investigated the penetration of solid fluorescent 40 or 200 nm polystyrene nanoparticles (NPs) as well as virus particles in murine skin to further investigate the efficacy of transcutaneously (TC) applied particulate vaccine delivery route. We demonstrated that 40 and 200 nm NPs and modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) expressing the green-fluorescent protein penetrated deeply into hair follicles and were internalized by perifollicular antigen-presenting cells (APCs). Fibered-based confocal microscopy analyses allowed visualizing in vivo particle penetration along the follicular duct, diffusion into the surrounding tissue, uptake by APCs and transport to the draining lymph nodes. The application of small particles, such as ovalbumin coding DNA or MVA, induced both humoral and cellular immune responses. Furthermore, TC applied MVA induced protection against vaccinia virus challenge. Our results strengthen the concept of TC targeting of cutaneous APCs by hair follicles and will contribute to the development of advanced vaccination protocols using NPs or viral vectors.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chemokine receptors are promising targets for enhancing T-cell immunity and anti-cancer therapy. CCL5 is a potential adjuvant for DNA vaccination. We postulated that CCR5 superagonists could be even more effective. A CCR5 superagonist derived from natural CCL5 by directed in vitro evolution, namely 1P7, is used as a DNA vaccine adjuvant and expressed as fused chemokine-Ig (1P7-Ig). We show that OVA+1P7-Ig DNA co-inoculation induced higher frequencies of OVA-specific CD8 lymphocytes than OVA+CCL5-Ig or controls and gave an even better protection against tumor growth in a CCR5-dependant manner. Our results indicate that CCR5-superagonists may provide potent adjuvants for vaccines.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neutrophils are increasingly thought to modulate dendritic cell (DC) functions. We investigated the role of the neutrophil-DC partnership in the response to Mycobacterium bovis BCG-the vaccine used against tuberculosis. We compared neutrophil-DC crosstalk in humans and mice, searching for functional differences. In both species, neutrophils captured fluorescent BCG-enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) and were more phagocytic than DC. Non-apoptotic BCG-infected neutrophils clustered with immature DC, establishing intimate contacts with dendrites, at which fluorescent intact bacilli were observed. Physical interactions between neutrophils and DC were required for DC activation. Human BCG-infected DC produced interleukin (IL)-10, an inhibitory cytokine, whereas DC exposed to BCG-infected neutrophils produced low to undetectable amounts of the cytokine. Mouse BCG-infected neutrophils induced sustained IL-2 production by DC. Human DC exposed to BCG-infected neutrophils stimulated recall T cell reactivity from vaccinated donors. Mouse DC infected with recombinant ovalbumin (OVA)-producing BCG (rBCG(ova)) elicited proliferation of TCR-OVA-transgenic CD4 and CD8 T cells. Moreover, exposing DC to rBCG(ova)-infected neutrophils enhanced OVA presentation. Thus, in mice and humans, neutrophils help DC to cross-present BCG antigens to T cells. Our results suggest that this "ménage à trois" involving neutrophils, DC and T cells plays a major role in the immune response to BCG.
European Journal of Immunology 03/2008; 38(2):437-47. DOI:10.1002/eji.200737905 · 4.03 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mycobacteriophage Ms6 integrates into Mycobacterium smegmatis and M. bovis BCG chromosome at the 3' end of tRNAala genes. Homologous recombination occurs between the phage attP core and the attB site located in the T-loop. Integration-proficient vectors derived from Ms6 are useful genetic tools, but their insertion sites in the BCG chromosome remain poorly defined. The primary objective of this study was to identify Ms6 target genes in M. smegmatis and BCG. We then aimed to modify the attP site in Ms6-derived vectors, to switch integration to other tRNAala loci. This provided the basis for the development of recombinant M. bovis BCG strains expressing several reporter genes inserted into different tRNAala genes.
The three tRNAala genes are highly conserved in M. smegmatis and BCG. However, in the T-loop of tRNAalaU and tRNAalaV containing the attB site, a single base difference was observed between the two species. We observed that the tRNAalaU gene was the only site into which Ms6-derived integration-proficient vectors integrated in M. smegmatis, whereas in BCG, the tRNAalaV gene was used as the target. No integration occurred in the BCG tRNAalaU T-loop, despite a difference of only one base from the 26-base Ms6 attP core. We mutated the attP core to give a perfect match with the other tRNAala T-loops from M. smegmatis and BCG. Modification of the seven-base T-loop decreased integration efficiency, identifying this site as a possible site of strand exchange. Finally, two Ms6 vectors were constructed to integrate two reporter genes into the tRNAalaU and tRNAalaV T-loops of the same BCG chromosome.
Small changes in the 7 bp T-loop attP site of Ms6 made it possible to use another attB site, albeit with a lower integration efficiency. These molecular studies on BCG tRNAala genes made it possible to create valuable tools for the site-directed insertion of several genes in the same BCG strain. These tools will be useful for the development of novel multivalent vaccines and genetic studies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The early innate response after Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination is poorly characterized but probably decisive for subsequent protective immunity against tuberculosis. Therefore, we vaccinated mice with fluorescent BCG strains in the ear dorsum, as a surrogate of intradermal vaccination in humans. During the first 3 days, we tracked BCG host cells migrating out of the dermis to the auricular draining lymph nodes (ADLNs). Resident skin dendritic cells (DCs) or macrophages did not play a predominant role in early BCG capture and transport to ADLNs. The main BCG host cells rapidly recruited both in the dermis and ADLNs were neutrophils. Fluorescent green or red BCG strains injected into nonoverlapping sites were essentially sheltered by distinct neutrophils in the ADLN capsule, indicating that neutrophils had captured bacilli in peripheral tissue and transported them to the lymphoid organ. Strikingly, we observed BCG-infected neutrophils in the lumen of lymphatic vessels by confocal microscopy on ear dermis. Fluorescence-labeled neutrophils injected into the ears accumulated exclusively into the ipsilateral ADLN capsule after BCG vaccination. Thus, we provide in vivo evidence that neutrophils, like DCs or inflammatory monocytes, migrate via afferent lymphatics to lymphoid tissue and can shuttle live microorganisms.