P E Fraser

University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

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Publications (241)1375.18 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The presenilin genes were first identified as the site of missense mutations causing early onset autosomal dominant familial Alzheimer's disease. Subsequent work has shown that the presenilin proteins are the catalytic subunits of a hetero-tetrameric complex containing APH1, nicastrin and PEN-2. This complex (variously termed presenilin complex or gamma-secretase complex) performs an unusual type of proteolysis in which the transmembrane domains of Type I proteins are cleaved within the hydrophobic compartment of the membrane. This review describes some of the molecular and structural biology of this unusual enzyme complex. The presenilin complex is a bilobed structure. The head domain contains the ectodomain of nicastrin. The base domain contains a central cavity with a lateral cleft that likely provides the route for access of the substrate to the catalytic cavity within the centre of the base domain. There are reciprocal allosteric interactions between various sites in the complex that affect its function. For instance, binding of Compound E, a peptidomimetic inhibitor to the PS1 N-terminus, induces significant conformational changes that reduces substrate binding at the initial substrate docking site, and thus inhibits substrate cleavage. However, there is a reciprocal allosteric interaction between these sites such that prior binding of the substrate to the initial docking site paradoxically increases the binding of the Compound E peptidomimetic inhibitor. Such reciprocal interactions are likely to form the basis of a gating mechanism that underlies access of substrate to the catalytic site. An increasingly detailed understanding of the structural biology of the presenilin complex is an essential step towards rational design of substrate- and/or cleavage site-specific modulators of presenilin complex function.
    Molecular Neurodegeneration 12/2014; 9(1):59. · 4.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD) is characterized by the aggregation of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides leading to deposition of senile plaques and a progressive decline of cognitive functions, which currently remains the main criterion for its diagnosis. Robust biomarkers for AD do not yet exist, although changes in the cerebrospinal fluid levels of tau and Aβ represent promising candidates in addition to brain imaging and genetic risk profiling. Although concentrations of soluble Aβ42 correlate with symptoms of AD, less is known about the biological activities of Aβ peptides which are generated from the amyloid-β protein precursor. An unbiased DNA microarray study showed that Aβ42, at sub-lethal concentrations, specifically increases expression of several genes in neuroblastoma cells, notably the insulin-like growth factor binding proteins 3 and 5 (IGFBP3/5), the transcription regulator inhibitor of DNA binding, and the transcription factor Lim only domain protein 4. Using qRT-PCR, we confirmed that mRNA levels of the identified candidate genes were exclusively increased by the potentially neurotoxic Aβ42 wild-type peptide, as both the less toxic Aβ40 and a non-toxic substitution peptide Aβ42 G33A did not affect mRNA levels. In vivo immunohistochemistry revealed a corresponding increase in both hippocampal and cortical IGFBP5 expression in an AD mouse model. Proteomic analyses of human AD cerebrospinal fluid displayed increased in vivo concentrations of IGFBPs. IGFBPs and transcription factors, as identified here, are modulated by soluble Aβ42 and may represent useful early biomarkers.
    Journal of Alzheimer's disease: JAD 10/2014; · 4.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We demonstrate a role of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) in reducing cerebral soluble and insoluble amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides. Short-term treatment of two human amyloid precursor protein-expressing models, Tg2576 and TgCRND8 mice, with 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3], the endogenous active ligand of VDR, resulted in higher brain P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and lower soluble Aβ levels, effects negated with coadministration of elacridar, a P-gp inhibitor. Long-term treatment of TgCRND8 mice with 1,25(OH)2D3 during the period of plaque formation reduced soluble and insoluble plaque-associated Aβ, particularly in the hippocampus in which the VDR is abundant and P-gp induction is greatest after 1,25(OH)2D3 treatment, and this led to improved conditioned fear memory. In mice fed a vitamin D-deficient diet, lower cerebral P-gp expression was observed, but levels were restored on replenishment with VDR ligands. The composite data suggest that the VDR is an important therapeutic target in the prevention and treatment of Alzheimer's disease.
    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience. 05/2014; 34(21):7091-101.
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    ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a complex and slowly progressing dementing disorder that results in neuronal and synaptic loss, deposition in brain of aberrantly folded proteins, and impairment of spatial and episodic memory. Most studies of mouse models of AD have employed analyses of cognitive status and assessment of amyloid burden, gliosis, and molecular pathology during disease progression. Here, we sought to understand the behavioral, cellular, ultrastructural, and molecular changes that occur at a pathological stage equivalent to early stages of human AD. We studied the TgCRND8 mouse, a model of aggressive AD amyloidosis, at an early stage of plaque pathology (3 months of age) in comparison to their wild-type littermates and assessed changes in cognition, neuron and spine structure, and expression of synaptic glutamate receptor proteins. We found that, at this age, TgCRND8 mice display substantial plaque deposition in the neocortex and hippocampus and impairment on cued and contextual memory tasks. Of particular interest, we also observed a significant decrease in the number of neurons in the hippocampus. Furthermore, analysis of CA1 neurons revealed significant changes in apical and basal dendritic spine types, as well as altered expression of GluN1 and GluA2 receptors. This change in molecular architecture within the hippocampus may reflect a rising representation of inherently less stable thin spine populations, which can cause cognitive decline. These changes, taken together with toxic insults from amyloid-β protein, may underlie the observed neuronal loss. J. Comp. Neurol., 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    The Journal of Comparative Neurology 01/2014; · 3.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The amyloid precursor protein (APP) and amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide play central roles in the pathology and etiology of Alzheimer's disease. Amyloid-induced impairments in neurogenesis have been investigated in several transgenic mouse models but the mechanism of action remains to be conclusively demonstrated. The changes in neurogenesis during this transition of increasing Aβ levels and plaque formation was investigated in the present study. We found that the proliferation of newborn cell in the dentate gyrus was enhanced prior to elevations in soluble Aβ production as well as amyloid deposition in 5 week-old TgCRND8 mice, which are well-established Alzheimer's disease models, compared to non-transgenic (Non-Tg) mice. The number of BrdU-positive cells remained higher in TgCRND8 vs Non-Tg mice for a period of 8 weeks. The numbers of BrdU/NeuN-positive cells were not significantly different in TgCRND8 compared to non-transgenic mice. A significant decrease in BrdU/GFAP but not in BrdU/S100β was found in Tg vs Non-Tg at 6 week-old age. In addition, a unique observation was made using isolated neuroprogenitor cells from TgCRND8 mice which were found to be less viable in culture and produced substantial amounts of secreted Aβ peptides. This suggests that the proliferation of neural progenitors in vivo may be modulated by high levels of APP expression and the resulting Aβ generated directly by the progenitor cells. These findings indicate that cell proliferation is increased prior to Aβ deposition and that cell viability is decreased in TgCRND8 mice over time.
    Neuroscience 12/2013; · 3.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive cognitive decline and is the most common cause of dementia in the elderly. Histopathologically, AD features insoluble aggregates of two proteins in the brain, amyloid-β (Aβ) and the microtubule-associated protein tau, both of which have been linked to the small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO). A large body of research has elucidated many of the molecular and cellular pathways that underlie AD, including those involving the abnormal Aβ and tau aggregates. However, a full understanding of the etiology and pathogenesis of the disease has remained elusive. Consequently, there are currently no effective therapeutic options that can modify the disease progression and slow or stop the decline of cognitive functioning. As part of the effort to address this lacking, there needs a better understanding of the signaling pathways that become impaired under AD pathology, including the regulatory mechanisms that normally control those networks. One such mechanism involves SUMOylation, which is a post-translational modification (PTM) that is involved in regulating many aspects of cell biology and has also been found to have several critical neuron-specific roles. Early studies have indicated that the SUMO system is likely altered with AD-type pathology, which may impact Aβ levels and tau aggregation. Although still a relatively unexplored topic, SUMOylation will likely emerge as a significant factor in AD pathogenesis in ways which may be somewhat analogous to other regulatory PTMs such as phosphorylation. Thus, in addition to the upstream effects on tau and Aβ processing, there may also be downstream effects mediated by Aβ aggregates or other AD-related factors on SUMO-regulated signaling pathways. Multiple proteins that have functions relevant to AD pathology have been identified as SUMO substrates, including those involved in synaptic physiology, mitochondrial dynamics, and inflammatory signaling. Ongoing studies will determine how these SUMO-regulated functions in neurons and glial cells may be impacted by Aβ and AD pathology. Here, we present a review of the current literature on the involvement of SUMO in AD, as well as an overview of the SUMOylated proteins and pathways that are potentially dysregulated with AD pathogenesis.
    NeuroMolecular Medicine 12/2013; 15(4). · 4.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Presenilin-mediated endoproteolysis of transmembrane proteins plays a key role in physiological signaling and in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease and some cancers. Numerous inhibitors have been found via library screens, but their structural mechanisms remain unknown. We used several biophysical techniques to investigate the structure of human presenilin complexes and the effects of peptidomimetic γ-secretase inhibitors. The complexes are bilobed. The head contains nicastrin ectodomain. The membrane-embedded base has a central channel and a lateral cleft, which may represent the initial substrate docking site. Inhibitor binding induces widespread structural changes, including rotation of the head and closure of the lateral cleft. These changes block substrate access to the catalytic pocket and inhibit the enzyme. Intriguingly, peptide substrate docking has reciprocal effects on the inhibitor binding site. Similar reciprocal shifts may underlie the mechanisms of other inhibitors and of the "lateral gate" through which substrates access to the catalytic site.
    Structure 11/2013; · 5.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: γ-Secretase plays a pivotal role in the production of neurotoxic amyloid β-peptides (Aβ) in Alzheimer disease (AD) and consists of a heterotetrameric core complex that includes the aspartyl intramembrane protease presenilin (PS). The human genome codes for two presenilin paralogs. To understand the causes for distinct phenotypes of PS paralog deficient mice and elucidate whether PS mutations associated with early-onset AD affect the molecular environment of mature γ-secretase complexes, quantitative interactome comparisons were undertaken. Brains of mice engineered to express wild-type or mutant PS1, or HEK293 cells stably expressing PS paralogs with N-terminal tandem-affinity purification (TAP) tags served as biological source materials. The analyses revealed novel interactions of the γ-secretase core complex with a molecular machinery that targets and fuses synaptic vesicles to cellular membranes and with the H+-transporting lysosomal ATPase macro-complex but uncovered no differences in the interactomes of wild-type and mutant PS1. The catenin/cadherin network was almost exclusively found associated with PS1. Another intramembrane protease, signal peptide peptidase (SPP), predominantly co-purified with PS2-containing γ-secretase complexes and was observed to influence Aβ production.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 04/2013; · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: P73 belongs to the p53 family of cell survival regulators with the corresponding locus Trp73 producing the N-terminally distinct isoforms, TAp73 and DeltaNp73. Recently, two studies have implicated the murine Trp73 in the modulation in phospho-tau accumulation in aged wild type mice and in young mice modeling Alzheimer's disease (AD) suggesting that Trp73, particularly the DeltaNp73 isoform, links the accumulation of amyloid peptides to the creation of neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs). Here, we reevaluated tau pathologies in the same TgCRND8 mouse model as the previous studies. RESULTS: Despite the use of the same animal models, our in vivo studies failed to demonstrate biochemical or histological evidence for misprocessing of tau in young compound Trp73+/- + TgCRND8 mice or in aged Trp73+/- mice analyzed at the ages reported previously, or older. Secondly, we analyzed an additional mouse model where the DeltaNp73 was specifically deleted and confirmed a lack of impact of the DeltaNp73 allele, either in heterozygous or homozygous form, upon tau pathology in aged mice. Lastly, we also examined human TP73 for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and/or copy number variants in a meta-analysis of 10 AD genome-wide association datasets. No SNPs reached significance after correction for multiple testing and no duplications/deletions in TP73 were found in 549 cases of AD and 544 non-demented controls. CONCLUSION: Our results fail to support P73 as a contributor to AD pathogenesis.
    Molecular Neurodegeneration 02/2013; 8(1):10. · 4.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: α-Synuclein is an abundant presynaptic protein and a primary component of Lewy bodies in Parkinson disease. Although its pathogenic role remains unclear, in healthy nerve terminals α-synuclein undergoes a cycle of membrane binding and dissociation. An α-synuclein binding assay was used to screen for vesicle proteins involved in α-synuclein membrane interactions and showed that antibodies directed to Ras-related GTPase Rab3a and its chaperone RabGDI abrogated α-synuclein membrane binding. Biochemical analyses including density gradient sedimentation and co-immunoprecipitation suggested that α-synuclein interacts with membrane associated GTP-bound Rab3a, but not to cytosolic GDP-Rab3a. Accumulation of membrane-bound α-synuclein was induced by the expression of a GTPase-deficient Rab3a mutant, by a dominant-negative GDI mutant unable to recycle Rab3a off membranes, and by Hsp90 inhibitors, radicicol and geldanamycin, which are known to inhibit Rab3a dissociation from membranes. Thus, all treatments that inhibited Rab3a recycling also increased α-synuclein sequestration on intracellular membranes. Our results suggest that membrane-bound GTP-Rab3a stabilizes α-synuclein on synaptic vesicles and that the GDI/Hsp90 complex that controls Rab3a membrane dissociation also regulates α-synuclein dissociation during synaptic activity.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 01/2013; · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: α-Synuclein is an abundant presynaptic protein and a primary component of Lewy bodies in Parkinson disease. Although its pathogenic role remains unclear, in healthy nerve terminals α-synuclein undergoes a cycle of membrane binding and dissociation. An α-synuclein binding assay was used to screen for vesicle proteins involved in α-synuclein membrane interactions and showed that antibodies directed to Ras-related GTPase Rab3a and its chaperone RabGDI abrogated α-synuclein membrane binding. Biochemical analyses including density gradient sedimentation and co-immunoprecipitation suggested that α-synuclein interacts with membrane associated GTP-bound Rab3a, but not to cytosolic GDP-Rab3a. Accumulation of membrane-bound α-synuclein was induced by the expression of a GTPase-deficient Rab3a mutant, by a dominant-negative GDI mutant unable to recycle Rab3a off membranes, and by Hsp90 inhibitors, radicicol and geldanamycin, which are known to inhibit Rab3a dissociation from membranes. Thus, all treatments that inhibited Rab3a recycling also increased α-synuclein sequestration on intracellular membranes. Our results suggest that membrane-bound GTP-Rab3a stabilizes α-synuclein on synaptic vesicles and that the GDI/Hsp90 complex that controls Rab3a membrane dissociation also regulates α-synuclein dissociation during synaptic activity.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 01/2013; · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The accumulation of amyloid beta (Abeta) oligomers or fibrils is thought to be one of the main causes of synaptic and neuron loss, believed to underlie cognitive dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Neuron loss has rarely been documented in amyloid precursor protein (APP) transgenic mouse models. We investigated whether two APP mouse models characterized by different folding states of amyloid showed different neuronal densities using an accurate method of cell counting. FINDINGS: We examined total cell and neuronal populations in Swedish/Indiana APP mutant mice (TgCRND8) with severe Abeta pathology that includes fibrils, plaques, and oligomers, and Dutch APP mutant mice with only Abeta oligomer pathology. Using the isotropic fractionator, we found no differences from control mice in regional total cell populations in either TgCRND8 or Dutch mice. However, there were 31.8% fewer hippocampal neurons in TgCRND8 compared to controls, while no such changes were observed in Dutch mice. CONCLUSIONS: We show that the isotropic fractionator is a convenient method for estimating neuronal content in milligram quantities of brain tissue and represents a useful tool to assess cell loss efficiently in transgenic models with different types of neuropathology. Our data support the hypothesis that TgCRND8 mice with a spectrum of Abeta plaque, fibril, and oligomer pathology exhibit neuronal loss whereas Dutch mice with only oligomers, showed no evidence for neuronal loss. This suggests that the combination of plaques, fibrils, and oligomers causes more damage to mouse hippocampal neurons than Abeta oligomers alone.
    Molecular Neurodegeneration 11/2012; 7(1):58. · 4.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Triple-transgenic mice (3xTgAD) overexpressing Swedish-mutated β-amyloid precursor protein (βAPP(swe)), P310L-Tau (Tau(P301L)), and physiological levels of M146V-presenilin-1 (PS1(M146V)) display extracellular amyloid-β peptides (Aβ) deposits and Tau tangles. More disputed is the observation that these mice accumulate intraneuronal Aβ that has been linked to synaptic dysfunction and cognitive deficits. Here, we provide immunohistological, genetic, and pharmacological evidences for early, age-dependent, and hippocampus-specific accumulation of the β-secretase-derived βAPP fragment C99 that is observed from 3 months of age and enhanced by pharmacological blockade of γ-secretase. Notably, intracellular Aβ is only detectable several months later and appears, as is the case of C99, in enlarged cathepsin B-positive structures, while extracellular Aβ deposits are detected ∼12 months of age and beyond. Early C99 production occurs mainly in the CA1/subicular interchange area of the hippocampus corresponding to the first region exhibiting plaques and tangles in old mice. Furthermore, the comparison of 3xTgAD mice with double-transgenic mice bearing the βAPP(swe) and Tau(P301L) mutations but expressing endogenous PS1 (2xTgAD) demonstrate that C99 accumulation is not accounted for by a loss of function triggered by PS1 mutation that would have prevented C99 secondary cleavage by γ-secretase. Together, our work identifies C99 as the earliest βAPP catabolite and main contributor to the intracellular βAPP-related immunoreactivity in 3xTgAD mice, suggesting its implication as an initiator of the neurodegenerative process and cognitive alterations taking place in this mouse model.
    Journal of Neuroscience 11/2012; 32(46):16243-16255. · 6.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Latrepirdine (Dimebon) is a pro-neurogenic, antihistaminic compound that has yielded mixed results in clinical trials of mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease, with a dramatically positive outcome in a Russian clinical trial that was unconfirmed in a replication trial in the United States. We sought to determine whether latrepirdine (LAT)-stimulated amyloid precursor protein (APP) catabolism is at least partially attributable to regulation of macroautophagy, a highly conserved protein catabolism pathway that is known to be impaired in brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). We utilized several mammalian cellular models to determine whether LAT regulates mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and Atg5-dependent autophagy. Male TgCRND8 mice were chronically administered LAT prior to behavior analysis in the cued and contextual fear conditioning paradigm, as well as immunohistological and biochemical analysis of AD-related neuropathology. Treatment of cultured mammalian cells with LAT led to enhanced mTOR- and Atg5-dependent autophagy. Latrepirdine treatment of TgCRND8 transgenic mice was associated with improved learning behavior and with a reduction in accumulation of Aβ42 and α-synuclein. We conclude that LAT possesses pro-autophagic properties in addition to the previously reported pro-neurogenic properties, both of which are potentially relevant to the treatment and/or prevention of neurodegenerative diseases. We suggest that elucidation of the molecular mechanism(s) underlying LAT effects on neurogenesis, autophagy and behavior might warranty the further study of LAT as a potentially viable lead compound that might yield more consistent clinical benefit following the optimization of its pro-neurogenic, pro-autophagic and/or pro-cognitive activities.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 31 July 2012; doi:10.1038/mp.2012.106.
    Molecular Psychiatry 07/2012; · 15.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Signal peptide peptidase (SPP), a member of the presenilin-like intra-membrane cleaving aspartyl protease family, migrates on Blue Native (BN) gels as 100 kDa, 200 kDa and 450 kDa species. SPP has recently been implicated in other non-proteolytic functions such as retro-translocation of MHC Class I molecules and binding of misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). These high molecular weight SPP complexes might contain additional proteins that regulate the proteolytic activity of SPP or support its non-catalytic functions. RESULTS: In this study, an unbiased iTRAQ-labeling mass spectrometry approach was used to identify SPP-interacting proteins. We found that vigilin, a ubiquitous multi-KH domain containing cytoplasmic protein involved in RNA binding and protein translation control, selectively enriched with SPP. Vigilin interacted with SPP and both proteins co-localized in restricted intracellular domains near the ER, biochemically co-fractionated and were part of the same 450 kDa complex on BN gels. However, vigilin does not alter the protease activity of SPP, suggesting that the SPP-vigilin interaction might be involved in the non-proteolytic functions of SPP. CONCLUSIONS: We have identified and validated vigilin as a novel interacting partner of SPP that could play an important role in the non-proteolytic functions of SPP. This data adds further weight to the idea that intramembrane-cleaving aspartyl proteases, such as presenilin and SPPs, could have other functions besides the proteolysis of short membrane stubs.
    Proteome Science 05/2012; 10(1):33. · 2.42 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

15k Citations
1,375.18 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1993–2014
    • University of Toronto
      • • Tanz Centre for Research in Neurodegenerative Diseases
      • • Department of Medical Biophysics
      • • Department of Medicine
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 2013
    • Columbia University
      • Department of Pathology & Cell Biology
      New York City, NY, United States
  • 2000–2013
    • University of Cambridge
      • • Department of Clinical Neurosciences
      • • MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology
      Cambridge, England, United Kingdom
    • University of Western Australia
      • School of Surgery
      Perth, Western Australia, Australia
    • Chestnut Hill College
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2010
    • Keele University
      • School of Life Sciences
      Newcastle-under-Lyme, England, United Kingdom
    • University of Alberta
      • Centre for Prions and Protein Folding Diseases
      Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
  • 2009–2010
    • Mount Sinai School of Medicine
      • Department of Neurology
      Manhattan, New York, United States
    • University of British Columbia - Vancouver
      • Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine
      Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
  • 2008
    • University of Nice-Sophia Antipolis
      • Institut de Pharmacologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire (IPMC/UMR6097 CNRS-UNS)
      Valbonne, Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur, France
  • 2007
    • University of Sussex
      Brighton, England, United Kingdom
  • 2006
    • Tokyo Metropolitan Institute
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 2001
    • University of Oxford
      • Chemical Research Laboratory
      Oxford, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 1996–1999
    • Queen's University
      Kingston, Ontario, Canada
  • 1997
    • Kingston General Hospital
      Kingston, Ontario, Canada
    • Cornell University
      • Department of Neurology and Neuroscience
      Ithaca, NY, United States
  • 1991–1993
    • Boston Children's Hospital
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
    • Harvard Medical School
      • Department of Neurology
      Boston, MA, United States