[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is a highly angiogenic disease; thus, antiangiogenic therapy should result in a clinical response. However, clinical trials have demonstrated only modest responses, and the reasons for these outcomes remain unknown. Therefore, the purpose of this retrospective study was to determine the prognostic value of protein levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A), one of the main targets of antiangiogenic therapy, and its receptors (VEGF-R1 and -R2) in IBC tumor specimens.
Specimens from IBC and normal breast tissues were obtained from Algerian patients. Tumor epithelial and stromal staining of VEGF-A, VEGF-R1, and VEGF-R2 was evaluated by immunohistochemical analysis in tumors and normal breast tissues; this expression was correlated with clinicopathological variables and breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS) and disease-free survival (DFS) duration.
From a set of 117 IBC samples, we evaluated 103 ductal IBC tissues and 25 normal specimens. Significantly lower epithelial VEGF-A immunostaining was found in IBC tumor cells than in normal breast tissues (P <0.01), cytoplasmic VEGF-R1 and nuclear VEGF-R2 levels were slightly higher, and cytoplasmic VEGF-R2 levels were significantly higher (P = 0.04). Sixty-two percent of IBC tumors had high stromal VEGF-A expression. In univariate analysis, stromal VEGF-A levels predicted BCSS and DFS in IBC patients with estrogen receptor-positive (P <0.01 for both), progesterone receptor-positive (P = 0.04 and P = 0.03), HER2+ (P = 0.04 and P = 0.03), and lymph node involvement (P <0.01 for both). Strikingly, in a multivariate analysis, tumor stromal VEGF-A was identified as an independent predictor of poor BCSS (hazard ratio [HR]: 5.0; 95% CI: 2.0-12.3; P <0.01) and DFS (HR: 4.2; 95% CI: 1.7-10.3; P <0.01).
To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that tumor stromal VEGF-A expression is a valuable prognostic indicator of BCSS and DFS at diagnosis and can therefore be used to stratify IBC patients into low-risk and high-risk groups for death and relapses. High levels of tumor stromal VEGF-A may be useful for identifying IBC patients who will benefit from anti-angiogenic treatment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We retrospectively reviewed 25 fine-needle aspiration cases of sclerosing adenosis of the breast in conjunction with histologic features of the paired core-needle biopsy and radiologic findings. The original cytologic diagnoses were benign (n = 19), focally atypical (n = 3), and suspicious for carcinoma (n = 3). The frequent features, although not specific, were low-to-moderate cellularity, bland epithelial cells that focally formed cohesive groups/tubules or occasionally discohesive clusters or individual cells, and fragments of dense fibrous stroma. Some tubules had an angulated configuration. Myoepithelial cells were present in all cases but were scant or absent in small epithelial groups. These cytologic features closely reflected the histologic appearances (ie, compressed and attenuated tubules and sclerotic stroma), but may cause overinterpretation on cytologic smears, especially when angulated tubules, discohesive or individual epithelial cells, scanty myoepithelial cells, and nuclear atypia are noted concurrently. Familiarity with its cytologic features may prevent false-positive diagnosis. Histologic confirmation is recommended for difficult cases.
American Journal of Clinical Pathology 07/2012; 138(1):96-102. · 2.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Huo L, Zhang J, Gilcrease M Z, Gong Y, Wu Y, Zhang H, Resetkova E, Hunt K K & Deavers M T (2012) Histopathology Gross cystic disease fluid protein-15 and mammaglobin A expression determined by immunohistochemistry is of limited utility in triple-negative breast cancer Aims: In addition to oestrogen and progesterone receptors, gross cystic disease fluid protein-15 (GCDFP-15) and mammaglobin A (MAM) are the most common markers used to identify breast origin by immunohistochemistry. GCDFP-15 expression has been reported in approximately 60% of breast carcinomas and MAM expression in approximately 80%. Data on their expression in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) are very limited. The aim of this study was to examine the expression of these markers in TNBC to determine their utility in pathological diagnosis. Methods and results: We studied the immunohistochemical (IHC) expression of GCDFP-15 and MAM in 63 primary and 118 metastatic TNBCs. GCDFP-15 staining was present in 14% of primary and 21% of metastatic TNBCs. MAM staining was present in 25% of primary and 41% of metastatic TNBCs. The frequency of expression of GCDFP-15 and/or MAM was 30% in primary and 43% in metastatic TNBCs, and many positive tumours had only focal staining. Conclusions: Staining for GCDFP-15 and/or MAM in triple-negative carcinomas helps to confirm breast origin, but most tumours in this subgroup of breast carcinomas lack expression of either marker.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Invasive ductal and lobular breast carcinomas often have different preferred metastasis sites and distinct histomorphologic characteristics. Their metastatic cytomorphologic cell features in body cavity fluids are generally readily recognized, but the single-cell/mesothelial-like pattern and its relationship to the primary tumor type have not been well studied, nor whether metastases have a propensity for certain body cavity sites on the basis of the primary tumor type. To further assess the tumor type and single-cell pattern of breast carcinoma metastases in pleural and peritoneal effusions, we retrospectively studied 853 pleural and peritoneal effusions and correlated the findings with the primary tumor type. When necessary, the single- cell/mesothelial-like pattern was documented immunohistochemically. Metastatic breast carcinomas represented 249 (50.8%) of 490 pleural and 51 (14.0%) of 363 peritoneal effusions. Most metastases in pleural and peritoneal effusions were ductal carcinomas (92.4% and 62.7%, respectively). Lobular carcinoma accounted for only 2 (0.8%) of 249 pleural and 11 (21.6%) of 51 peritoneal effusions. The single-cell/mesothelial-like cell pattern was found in all lobular carcinomas but also in 11 (6.0%) of 184 reviewed ductal carcinomas (nine pleural and two peritoneal). Awareness of these findings and the use of immunohistochemical analyses are necessary for accurately diagnosing metastatic breast carcinoma, especially lobular type.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Estrogen receptor-alpha 36 (ER-α36) is a variant of ER-α that has been found to be expressed in conventional ER (ER-α66)-negative breast cancer cell lines and human breast cancer samples. In this study, we found that, using immunohistochemical study, ER-α36 expression was significantly higher in ER-negative tumors than in ER-positive tumors although the expression was not associated with other clinicopathological characteristics. We then constructed an ER-α36-specific microRNA hairpin vector and established stable ER-α36 knockdown cells, and found that the knockdown cells were more sensitive to paclitaxel; the c-Jun N-terminal kinase pathway appeared to be involved in the mechanism. Downregulation of ER-α36 also resulted in decreased migration and invasion. These changes were estrogen independent. Our findings indicated that target ER-α36 may be a strategy for treating ER-negative breast cancers.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We evaluated the detection rates of PAX8 and WT1 immunostaining in 68 (45 as cell blocks, 23 as smears) serous effusion specimens that had a cytologic diagnosis of metastatic carcinoma of ovarian origin. Of the cases, 58 (85%) were positive for PAX8, 56 (82%) were positive for WT1, and 64 (94%) were immunoreactive with either or both markers. Detection rates of PAX8 and WT1 were 85% (44/52) and 92% (48/52), respectively, for metastatic serous carcinoma and 100% (5/5) and 20% (1/5), respectively, for metastatic clear cell carcinoma. Detection rates using cell blocks and smears were 91% and 78%, respectively, with PAX8 and 82% and 83%, respectively, with WT1. We concluded that PAX8 and WT1 had comparable overall detection rates in confirming ovarian origin of malignant effusion. The combination of both markers substantially improved the detection rate. Cell blocks and smears can be used for staining, but a cell block is preferred for PAX8 staining.
American Journal of Clinical Pathology 02/2012; 137(2):304-9. · 2.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Information on hormone receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is important for making optimal therapeutic decisions for breast cancer patients. Discordance in these biomarkers between primary breast carcinomas and corresponding metastases is well documented and may lead to changes in management option. The underlying mechanisms of biomarker discordance are complicated and multifactorial. Whereas biologic evolution, intratumoral heterogeneity, and subclonal selection may account for discordance, variations in sampling, processing, staining procedure and interpretation are the important contributory yet controllable factors. This article reviews the effects of different factors on the biomarker discordance, the clinical significance and the importance of standardizing methodology and interpretation criteria.
Cancer biomarkers: section A of Disease markers 01/2012; 12(6):207-18. · 0.97 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Numerous studies have demonstrated that expression of estrogen/progesterone receptor (ER/PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER)-2 is important for predicting overall survival (OS), distant relapse (DR), and locoregional relapse (LRR) in early and advanced breast cancer patients. However, these findings have not been confirmed for inflammatory breast cancer (IBC), which has different biological features than non-IBC.
We retrospectively analyzed the records of 316 women who presented to MD Anderson Cancer Center in 1989-2008 with newly diagnosed IBC without distant metastases. Most patients received neoadjuvant chemotherapy, mastectomy, and postmastectomy radiation. Patients were grouped according to receptor status: ER(+) (ER(+)/PR(+) and HER-2-; n = 105), ER(+)HER-2(+) (ER(+)/PR(+) and HER-2(+); n = 37), HER-2(+) (ER(-)/PR(-) and HER-2(+); n = 83), or triple-negative (TN) (ER(-)PR(-)HER-2(-); n = 91). Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards methods were used to assess LRR, DR, and OS rates and their associations with prognostic factors.
The median age was 50 years (range, 24-83 years). The median follow-up time and median OS time for all patients were both 33 months. The 5-year actuarial OS rates were 58.7% for the entire cohort, 69.7% for ER(+) patients, 73.5% for ER(+)HER-2(+) patients, 54.0% for HER=2(+) patients, and 42.7% for TN patients (p < .0001); 5-year LRR rates were 20.3%, 8.0%, 12.6%, 22.6%, and 38.6%, respectively, for the four subgroups (p < .0001); and 5-year DR rates were 45.5%, 28.8%, 50.1%, 52.1%, and 56.7%, respectively (p < .001). OS and LRR rates were worse for TN patients than for any other subgroup (p < .0001-.03).
TN disease is associated with worse OS, DR, and LRR outcomes in IBC patients, indicating the need for developing new locoregional and systemic treatment strategies for patients with this aggressive subtype.
The Oncologist 12/2011; 16(12):1675-83. · 4.10 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We evaluated whether patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) -positive primary breast tumors had metastatic tumors that were HER2 positive (concordant) or HER2 negative (discordant). We then evaluated whether treatment with trastuzumab or chemotherapy before biopsy of the metastasis had any effect on the rate of HER2 discordance. We also compared the overall survival durations of patients with HER2-concordant and -discordant tumors.
We retrospectively identified all patients who initially had been diagnosed with HER2-positive (immunohistochemistry 3+ and/or fluorescent in situ hybridization positive) primary breast cancer between 1997 and 2008 at MD Anderson Cancer Center who also had metastatic tumor biopsy results available for review.
We included 182 patients who met our criteria. Forty-three (24%) of the 182 patients with HER2-positive primary tumors had HER2-negative metastatic tumors. The HER2 discordance rates differed significantly on the basis of whether patients received chemotherapy (P = .022) but not on the basis of whether patients received trastuzumab (P = .296). Patients with discordant HER2 status had shorter overall survival than did patients with concordant HER2 status (hazard ratio [HR], 0.43; P = .003). A survival difference remained among the 67 patients who received trastuzumab (HR, 0.56; P = .083) and 101 patients who did not (HR, 0.53; P = .033) before their metastasis biopsies.
We confirmed that loss of HER2-positive status in metastatic tumors can occur in patients with primary HER2-positive breast cancer. Our data strongly support the need for biopsies of metastatic lesions to accurately determine patient prognosis and appropriate use of targeted therapy.
Journal of Clinical Oncology 11/2011; 30(6):593-9. · 18.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) who received neoadjuvant therapy and pancreatectomy, pathologic complete response (pCR) is rarely observed and the prognostic significance of pCR is not clear. In this study, we identified 11 patients with pCR (2.5%) from 442 patients with PDA who received neoadjuvant treatment and pancreatectomy from 1995 to 2010. There were 6 men and 5 women, with a median age of 61 years. Four patients had either synchronous or history of extrapancreatic cancer. Five patients received neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by chemoradiation, and 6 received chemoradiation alone. Ten patients had pancreaticoduodenectomy, and 1 had distal pancreatectomy. Scar and chronic pancreatitis consistent with therapy effect were present in all cases (100%). Pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) 3/carcinoma in situ was present in 5 cases, and PanIN1 and PanIN2 in 5 cases. However, no residual invasive carcinoma or lymph node metastasis was identified in all cases. Follow-up information was available in 10 patients. Follow-up time ranges from 6 to 194 months (median, 63 months). During the follow-up, 3 patients died of other causes, and 1 developed a second primary PDA in the tail of the pancreas at 84 months after the initial pancreaticoduodenectomy and died at 105 months after the initial diagnosis of PDA. The other 6 patients were alive with no evidence of disease. Patients with pCR had a better survival than did those who had posttherapy stage I or IIA disease (P < .001). Patients with PDA who received neoadjuvant therapy and had pCR in pancreatectomy are rare but have a better prognosis.
Annals of diagnostic pathology 11/2011; 16(1):29-37.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNET) are fairly uncommon. Recent data highlight the importance of EUS in diagnosis of PNET. With this background, we decided to review our experience from a tertiary cancer center with regard to the presentation and clinical features of PNET and the diagnostic utility of EUS-FNA in this scenario.
We identified patients who underwent EUS at our institution between January 1st 2001 and December 31st 2009 for a suspected PNET. Data on clinical features, cross-sectional imaging findings, EUS findings, and cytology results were collected.
A total of 81 patients were referred for EUS-FNA for a suspected PNET. Mean age was 58.1 years. There were 41 (50.6%) males. PNET was found incidentally in 38 (46.9%) patients. Computed tomography scanning identified a pancreatic mass in 72 out of 79 (91.1%) cases. Mean diameter of the largest lesion seen on EUS was 27.5 mm (range: 6.9-80 mm). The most common site (34; 42%) was the head of the pancreas. EUS-FNA correctly confirmed a PNET in 73 out of 81 cases with diagnostic accuracy of 90.1%. Seven (8.6%) out of 81 patients had functional lesions, including three gastrinomas and four insulinomas. Liver metastases were found in 31 out of 81 (38.3%) cases. Of the 31 patients with liver metastasis, the mean diameter of lesions on EUS was 33.9 mm compared with 23.5 mm in patients without liver metastasis (P = 0.005).
EUS-FNA is a reliable modality for further characterization of suspected lesions and for establishing a tissue diagnosis. The occurrence of complications of EUS-FNA in this setting is low. Non-functional PNET are more frequently encountered than functional PNET.
Digestive Diseases and Sciences 10/2011; 57(3):791-800. · 2.26 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2), a member of polycomb group proteins, is involved in the regulation of cell cycle progression and has been implicated in various human malignancies, including breast cancer, and also has been associated with aggressive tumor behavior. However, the clinical significance of EZH2 expression in inflammatory breast cancer (IBC), a rare but aggressive type of breast carcinoma, has not been explored. In this retrospective study, the authors examined EZH2 expression in IBC tumors and evaluated the relation between EZH2 expression and patient survival.
Tissue microarrays of 88 surgically resected IBC tumors were stained immunohistochemically for EZH2, and the authors evaluated the association of EZH2 expression status with clinicopathologic factors and clinical outcome.
The median follow-up for the entire cohort was 45.7 months, and the 5-year overall survival (OS) rate was 45%. EZH2 was expressed frequently in IBC tumors (75.7%) and was associated significantly with unfavorable prognostic factors, such as higher tumor grade, negative estrogen receptor status, and triple-negative status (ie, negative for the estrogen, progesterone, and human epidermal growth factor 2 receptors). Univariate survival analysis indicated that patients who had EZH2-positive IBC had a significantly lower 5-year OS rate than patients who had EZH2-negative IBC (P = .01). In multivariate analysis, only positive EZH2 status remained an independent predictor of worse OS.
EZH2 was expressed frequently in IBC tumors. The current results indicated that EZH2 expression status may be used to identify a subset of patients with IBC who have a relatively worse prognosis. Targeting EZH2 also may provide a novel strategy for improving the clinical outcome of patients with IBC.
Cancer 06/2011; 117(24):5476-84. · 5.20 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prediction of high probability of survival from standard cancer treatments is fundamental for individualized cancer treatment strategies.
To develop a predictor of response and survival from chemotherapy for newly diagnosed invasive breast cancer.
Prospective multicenter study conducted from June 2000 to March 2010 at the M. D. Anderson Cancer Center to develop and test genomic predictors for neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Patients were those with newly diagnosed ERBB2 (HER2 or HER2/neu)-negative breast cancer treated with chemotherapy containing sequential taxane and anthracycline-based regimens (then endocrine therapy if estrogen receptor [ER]-positive). Different predictive signatures for resistance and response to preoperative (neoadjuvant) chemotherapy (stratified according to ER status) were developed from gene expression microarrays of newly diagnosed breast cancer (310 patients). Breast cancer treatment sensitivity was then predicted using the combination of signatures for (1) sensitivity to endocrine therapy, (2) chemoresistance, and (3) chemosensitivity, with independent validation (198 patients) and comparison with other reported genomic predictors of chemotherapy response.
Distant relapse-free survival (DRFS) if predicted treatment sensitive and absolute risk reduction ([ARR], difference in DRFS between 2 predicted groups) at median follow-up (3 years).
Patients in the independent validation cohort (99% clinical stage II-III) who were predicted to be treatment sensitive (28%) had 56% (95% CI, 31%-78%) probability of excellent pathologic response and DRFS of 92% (95% CI, 85%-100%), with an ARR of 18% (95% CI, 6%-28%). Survival was predicted in ER-positive (30% predicted sensitive; DRFS, 97% [95% CI, 91%-100%]; ARR, 11% [95% CI, 0.1%-21%]) and ER-negative (26% predicted sensitive; DRFS, 83% [95% CI, 68%-100%]; ARR, 26% [95% CI, 4%-48%]) subsets and was significant in multivariate analysis. Other genomic predictors showed paradoxically worse survival for patients predicted to be responsive to chemotherapy.
A genomic predictor combining ER status, predicted chemoresistance, predicted chemosensitivity, and predicted endocrine sensitivity identified patients with high probability of survival following taxane and anthracycline chemotherapy.
JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 05/2011; 305(18):1873-81. · 29.98 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diagnosis of follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (FVPTC) by ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (FNA) is challenging. In this retrospective review, we evaluated triage efficacy (i.e., potential for triggering surgical intervention) in 44 archived FNA biopsies of surgically confirmed FVPTC obtained between December 2006 and December 2008. We compared the original FNA diagnoses with reclassified diagnoses based on 2007 National Cancer Institute (NCI)/Bethesda recommendations, and reviewed FNA cytologic features. Original FNA diagnoses included colloid nodule (7%, 3/44), atypical follicular cells (5%, 2/44), follicular lesion (11%, 5/44), follicular neoplasm (16%, 7/44), suspicious for malignancy/PTC (27%, 12/44), and papillary thyroid carcinoma (34%, 15/44). Reclassified diagnoses included indeterminate (5%, 2/44), colloid nodule (7%, 3/44), atypical cells of undetermined significance [ACUS] (7%, 3/44), Hurthle cell neoplasm (2%, 1/44), follicular neoplasm (7%, 3/44), suspicious for malignancy/PTC (25%, 11/44), and PTC (48%, 21/44). Triage efficacy was 77% (34/44) for original diagnoses versus 82% (36/44) for reclassified FNA diagnoses. We frequently observed cytologic features of PTC, such as nuclear grooves and fine chromatin; conversely, intranuclear inclusions, though present in 77% cases, were scant. Our review findings suggest that lack of characteristic cytologic features of PTC,coexistence with other thyroid lesions, and small tumor size arethe major obstacles to FNA diagnosis of FVPTC. Reclassification of thyroid FNA diagnoses does not significantly improve triage efficacy. Furthermore, FNA diagnoses of follicular neoplasm and suspicious for malignancy are valuable in patients with FVPTC because they trigger triage toward surgical intervention.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to validate clinical utilization of routinely prepared cytology specimens for molecular testing to detect EGFR or KRAS mutations in lung cancer.
From September 2009 to April 2010, the authors collected 209 cytology specimens from patients with lung cancer at the MD Anderson Cancer Center Department of Pathology. The specimens included 99 cases of endobronchial ultrasound-guided (EBUS) fine-needle aspiration (FNA), 67 cases of computed tomography (CT)-guided FNA, 27 cases of body fluid, 10 cases of ultrasound-guided of superficial FNA, and 6 cases of other cytology specimens. DNA sequencing for EGFR exons 18-21 and KRAS codons 12, 13, and 61 was performed.
The overall specimen insufficiency rate was low (6.2%). EBUS (4%) and body-fluid cases (3.7%) showed lower insufficiency rates than the other cases. Similar insufficiency rates were observed in smears (6.1%) and cell-block sections (6.4%). EGFR mutations were detected in 19.4% (34 of 175) of nonsmall cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) with a significantly higher frequency in adenocarcinoma (29%, 29 of 100) than in nonadenocarcinoma (7%, 5 of 75, P = .002). KRAS mutations were detected in 23.6% (41 of 174) of NSCLCs with no statistical differences between adenocarcinoma (26%, 26 of 102) and nonadenocarcinoma (21%, 17 of 72, P = .86). Higher frequencies of EGFR mutations in exons 19 and 21 (65%) than in exons 18 and 20 were detected.
Our findings support clinical utilization of routinely prepared cytology specimens, including EBUS, CT/US. FNAs and body fluid specimens, as a reliable source for molecular testing to detect EGFR or KRAS mutations in patients with NSCLC.
Cancer Cytopathology 03/2011; 119(2):111-7. · 4.43 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The goal of this study was to determine whether gene expression differences exist between inflammatory breast cancers (IBC) and T stage-matched non-IBC patients stratified by hormone receptor and HER2 status. We used Affymetrix GeneChips to analyze 82 tumor samples (25 T4d patients, and 57 T4a-c patients) of newly diagnosed breast cancers. Genes that were differentially expressed between the IBC and non-IBC specimens were identified using the t test, and differential expression of gene sets was assessed using gene set analysis. Three distinct clinical subtypes of IBC and non-IBC were compared: ER-positive/HER2-normal, HER2-amplified, and ER-negative/HER2-normal. When we compared expression data from all IBC with all non-IBC, we found no significant differences after adjusting for multiple testing. When IBC and non-IBC tumors were compared by clinical subtype, however, significant differences emerged. Complement and immune system-related pathways were overexpressed in ER-positive/HER2-normal IBC. Protein translation and mTOR signaling were overexpressed in HER2-amplified IBC. Apoptosis-, neural-, and lipid metabolism-related pathways were overexpressed in ER-negative/HER2-normal IBC compared with non-IBC of the same receptor phenotype. In this T stage-matched case-control study, the survival curves of patients with IBC and non-IBC were similar for all three clinical subtypes. IBC tumors can be divided into molecular and clinical subtypes similar to those of non-IBC. Clinical subtypes of IBC show molecular differences compared with similar subtypes of non-IBC.
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 02/2011; 125(3):785-95. · 4.47 Impact Factor