Isabelle Brabet

Université Montpellier 2 Sciences et Techniques, Montpelhièr, Languedoc-Roussillon, France

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Publications (30)132.73 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) play key roles in the modulation of many synapses. Chloride (Cl(-)) is known to directly bind and regulate the function of different actors of neuronal activity, and several studies have pointed to the possible modulation of mGluRs by Cl(-). Herein, we demonstrate that Cl(-) behaves as a positive allosteric modulator of mGluRs. For example, whereas glutamate potency was 3.08 ± 0.33 μM on metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) 4 receptors in high-Cl(-) buffer, signaling activity was almost abolished in low Cl(-) in cell-based assays. Cl(-) potency was 78.6 ± 3.5 mM. Cl(-) possesses a high positive cooperativity with glutamate (Hill slope ≈6 on mGlu4), meaning that small variations in [Cl(-)] lead to large variations in glutamate action. Using molecular modeling and mutagenesis, we have identified 2 well-conserved Cl(-) binding pockets in the extracellular domain of mGluRs. Moreover, modeling of activity-dependent Cl(-) variations at GABAergic synapses suggests that these variations may be compatible with a dynamic modulation of the most sensitive mGluRs present in these synapses. Taken together, these data reveal a necessary role of Cl(-) for the glutamate activation of many mGluRs. Exploiting Cl(-) binding pockets may yield to the development of innovative regulators of mGluR activity.-Tora, A. S., Rovira, X., Dione, I., Bertrand, H.-O., Brabet, I., De Koninck, Y., Doyon, N., Pin, J.-P., Acher, F., Goudet, C. Allosteric modulation of metabotropic glutamate receptors by chloride ions. © FASEB.
    The FASEB Journal 06/2015; DOI:10.1096/fj.14-269746 · 5.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A series of phosphinic glutamate derivatives (e.g.) have been proven to be potent agonists of metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors and shown promising in vivo activity. However, so far all were synthesized and tested as a mixture of two diastereomers whose absolute and relative configurations are not known. In this study, the stereomers were separated on a Crownpack CR(+) column and their absolute configuration was assessed by means of a diastereoselective synthesis. Both separated l-stereomers activated the mGlu4 receptor with EC50's of 0.72 and 4.4 μM for (1S,1'S)-and (1S,1'R)-, respectively.
    Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry 11/2014; 13(4). DOI:10.1039/c4ob01960a · 3.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors are promising targets to treat numerous brain disorders. So far, allosteric modulators are the only subtype selective ligands, but pure agonists still have strong therapeutic potential. Here, we aimed at investigating the possibility of developing subtype-selective agonists by extending the glutamate-like structure to hit a nonconsensus binding area. We report the properties of the first mGlu4-selective orthosteric agonist, derived from a virtual screening hit, LSP4-2022 using cell-based assays with recombinant mGlu receptors [EC(50): 0.11 ± 0.02, 11.6 ± 1.9, 29.2 ± 4.2 μM (n>19) in calcium assays on mGlu4, mGlu7, and mGlu8 receptors, respectively, with no activity at the group I and -II mGlu receptors at 100 μM]. LSP4-2022 inhibits neurotransmission in cerebellar slices from wild-type but not mGlu4 receptor-knockout mice. In vivo, it possesses antiparkinsonian properties after central or systemic administration in a haloperidol-induced catalepsy test, revealing its ability to cross the blood-brain barrier. Site-directed mutagenesis and molecular modeling was used to identify the LSP4-2022 binding site, revealing interaction with both the glutamate binding site and a variable pocket responsible for selectivity. These data reveal new approaches for developing selective, hydrophilic, and brain-penetrant mGlu receptor agonists, offering new possibilities to design original bioactive compounds with therapeutic potential.
    The FASEB Journal 01/2012; 26(4):1682-93. DOI:10.1096/fj.11-195941 · 5.48 Impact Factor
  • ChemInform 12/2010; 28(52). DOI:10.1002/chin.199752090
  • ChemInform 10/2010; 29(41). DOI:10.1002/chin.199841204
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    ABSTRACT: G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) oligomers have been proposed to play critical roles in cell signaling, but confirmation of their existence in a native context remains elusive, as no direct interactions between receptors have been reported. To demonstrate their presence in native tissues, we developed a time-resolved FRET strategy that is based on receptor labeling with selective fluorescent ligands. Specific FRET signals were observed with four different receptors expressed in cell lines, consistent with their dimeric or oligomeric nature in these transfected cells. More notably, the comparison between FRET signals measured with sets of fluorescent agonists and antagonists was consistent with an asymmetric relationship of the two protomers in an activated GPCR dimer. Finally, we applied the strategy to native tissues and succeeded in demonstrating the presence of oxytocin receptor dimers and/or oligomers in mammary gland.
    Nature Chemical Biology 08/2010; 6(8):587-94. DOI:10.1038/nchembio.396 · 13.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: ChemInform is a weekly Abstracting Service, delivering concise information at a glance that was extracted from about 100 leading journals. To access a ChemInform Abstract of an article which was published elsewhere, please select a “Full Text” option. The original article is trackable via the “References” option.
    ChemInform 05/2010; 31(20). DOI:10.1002/chin.200020163
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    ABSTRACT: (R)-PCEP (3-amino-3-carboxypropyl-2'-carboxyethyl phosphinic acid, 1), a new metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 (mGlu4R) agonist, was discovered in a previously reported virtual screening. The (S)-enantiomer and a series of derivatives were synthesized and tested on recombinant mGlu4 receptors. A large number of derivatives activated this receptor but was not able to discriminate between mGlu4 and mGlu8 receptors. The most potent ones 6 and 12 displayed an EC(50) of 1.0 +/- 0.2 microM at mGlu4R. Interestingly these agonists with longer alkyl chains revealed a new binding pocket adjacent to the glutamate binding site, which is lined with residues that differ among the mGluR subtypes and that will allow the design of more selective compounds. Additionally 6 was able to activate mGlu7 receptor with an EC(50) of 43 +/- 16 microM and is thus significantly more potent than L-AP4 (EC(50) of 249 +/- 106 microM).
    Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 03/2010; 53(7):2797-813. DOI:10.1021/jm901523t · 5.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Stereoisomers of 1-amino-2-phosphonomethylcyclopropanecarboxylic acid (APCPr), conformationally restricted analogues of L-AP4 (2-amino-4-phosphonobutyric acid), have been prepared and evaluated at recombinant group III metabotropic glutamate receptors. They activate these receptors over a broad range of potencies. The most potent isomer (1S,2R)-APCPr displays a similar pharmacological profile as that of L-AP4 (EC50 0.72, 1.95, >500, 0.34 microM at mGlu4, 6, 7, 8 receptors, respectively, and no effect at group I/II mGluRs). It was characterized on native receptors located in the basal ganglia (BG) where it induced a robust and reversible inhibition of synaptic transmission. It was tested in vivo in haloperidol-induced catalepsy, a model of Parkinsonian akinesia, by direct infusion in the globus pallidus of the BG. At a dose of 0.5 nmol/microL, catalepsy was significantly antagonized. This study reveals that (1S,2R)-APCPr is a potent group III mGluR agonist and confirms that these receptors may be considered as a therapeutic target in the Parkinson's disease.
    Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 07/2007; 50(15):3585-95. DOI:10.1021/jm070262c · 5.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The seven-transmembrane receptor Smoothened (Smo) transduces the signal initiated by Hedgehog (Hh) morphogen binding to the receptor Patched (Ptc). We have reinvestigated the pharmacological properties of reference molecules acting on the Hh pathway using various Hh responses and a novel functional assay based on the coexpression of Smo with the alpha subunit of the G15 protein in HEK293 cells. The measurement of inositol phosphate (IP) accumulation shows that Smo has constitutive activity, a response blocked by Ptc which indicates a functional Hh receptor complex. Interestingly, the antagonists cyclopamine, Cur61414, and SANT-1 display inverse agonist properties and the agonist SAG has no effect at the Smo-induced IP response, but converts Ptc-mediated inactive forms of Smo into active ones. An oncogenic Smo mutant does not mediate an increase in IP response, presumably reflecting its inability to reach the cell membrane. These studies identify novel properties of molecules displaying potential interest in the treatment of various cancers and brain diseases, and demonstrate that Smo is capable of signaling through G15.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 11/2006; 349(2):471-9. DOI:10.1016/j.bbrc.2006.07.216 · 2.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The "receiver operating characteristic" (ROC) curve method is a well-recognized metric used as an objective way to evaluate the ability of a given test to discriminate between two populations. This facilitates decision-making in a plethora of fields in which a wrong judgment may have serious consequences including clinical diagnosis, public safety, travel security, and economic strategies. When virtual screening is used to speed-up the drug discovery process in pharmaceutical research, taking the right decision upon selecting or discarding a molecule prior to in vitro evaluation is of paramount importance. Characterizing both the ability of a virtual screening workflow to select active molecules and the ability to discard inactive ones, the ROC curve approach is well suited for this critical decision gate. As a case study, the first virtual screening workflow focused on metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 4 (mGlu4R) agonists is reported here. Six compounds out of 38 selected and tested in vitro were shown to have agonist activity on this target of therapeutic interest.
    Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 05/2005; 48(7):2534-47. DOI:10.1021/jm049092j · 5.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The gamma-aminobutyric acid type B (GABAB) receptor is an allosteric complex made of two subunits, GABAB1 (GB1) and GABAB2 (GB2). Both subunits are composed of an extracellular Venus flytrap domain (VFT) and a heptahelical domain (HD). GB1 binds GABA, and GB2 plays a major role in G-protein activation as well as in the high agonist affinity state of GB1. How agonist affinity in GB1 is regulated in the receptor remains unknown. Here, we demonstrate that GB2 VFT is a major molecular determinant involved in this control. We show that isolated versions of GB1 and GB2 VFTs in the absence of the HD and C-terminal tail can form hetero-oligomers as shown by time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer (based on HTRF technology). GB2 VFT and its association with GB1 VFT controlled agonist affinity in GB1 in two ways. First, GB2 VFT exerted a direct action on GB1 VFT, as it slightly increased agonist affinity in isolated GB1 VFT. Second and most importantly, GB2 VFT prevented inhibitory interaction between the two main domains (VFT and HD) of GB1. According to this model, we propose that GB1 HD prevents the possible natural closure of GB1 VFT. In contrast, GB2 VFT facilitates this closure. Finally, such inhibitory contacts between HD and VFT in GB1 could be similar to those important to maintain the inactive state of the receptor.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 05/2004; 279(16):15824-30. DOI:10.1074/jbc.M313639200 · 4.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Heptahelical receptor coupling selectivity to G-proteins is controlled by a large contact area that involves several portions of the receptor and each subunit of the G-protein. In the G-protein alpha subunit, the C-terminal 5 residues, the N terminus, and the alpha N-beta 1 and alpha 4-alpha 5 loops play important roles. On the receptor side, both the second and third (i2 and i3) intracellular loops as well as the C-terminal tail probably contact these different regions of the G-protein. It is now accepted that the C terminus of the alpha subunit binds in a cavity formed by the i2 and i3 loops. Among the various G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), class III receptors that include metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors greatly differ from the rhodopsin-like GPCRs, but the contact zone between these receptors and the G-protein is less understood. The C terminus of the alpha subunit has been shown to play a pivotal role in the selective recognition of class III GPCRs. Indeed, the mGlu2 and mGlu4 and -8 receptors can discriminate between alpha subunits that differ at the level of their C-terminal end only (such as Gqo and Gqz). Here, we examine the role of the i2 loop of mGluRs in the selective recognition of this region of the alpha subunit. To that aim, we analyzed the coupling properties of mGlu2 and mGlu4 or -8 receptors and chimeras containing the i2 loop of the converse receptor to G-protein alpha subunits that only differ by their C termini (Gqo,Gqz, and their point mutants). Our data demonstrate that the central portion of the i2 loop is responsible for the selective recognition of the C-terminal end of the alpha subunit, especially the residue on position -4. These data are consistent with the proposal that the C-terminal end of the G-protein alpha subunit interacts with residues in a cavity formed by the i2 and i3 loops in class III GPCRs, as reported for class I GPCRs.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 10/2003; 278(37):35063-70. DOI:10.1074/jbc.M306555200 · 4.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ca2+, pheromones, sweet taste compounds, and the main neurotransmitters glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid activate G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that constitute the GPCR family 3. These receptors are dimers, and each subunit has a large extracellular domain called a Venus flytrap module (VFTM), where agonists bind. This module is connected to a heptahelical domain that activates G proteins. Recently, the structure of the dimer of mGlu1 VFTMs revealed two important conformational changes resulting from glutamate binding. First, agonists can stabilize a closed state of at least one VFTM in the dimer. Second, the relative orientation of the two VFTMs in the dimer is different in the presence of glutamate, such that their C-terminal ends (which are connected to the G protein-activating heptahelical domain) become closer by more than 20 A. This latter change in orientation has been proposed to play a key role in receptor activation. To elucidate the respective role of VFTM closure and the change in orientation of the VFTMs in family 3 GPCR activation, we analyzed the mechanism of action of the mGlu8 receptor antagonists ACPT-II and MAP4. Molecular modeling studies suggest that these two compounds prevent the closure of the mGlu8 VFTM because of ionic and steric hindrance, respectively. We show here that the replacement of the residues responsible for these hindrances (Asp-309 and Tyr-227, respectively) by Ala allows ACPT-II or MAP4 to fully activate the receptors. These data are consistent with the requirement of the VFTM closure for family 3 GPCR activation.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 09/2002; 99(17):11097-102. DOI:10.1073/pnas.162138699 · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: L-Glutamate (Glu) activates at least eight different G protein-coupled receptors known as metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors, which mostly act as regulators of synaptic transmission. These receptors consist of two domains: an extracellular domain in which agonists bind and a transmembrane heptahelix region involved in G protein activation. Although new mGlu receptor agonists and antagonists have been described, few are selective for a single mGlu subtype. Here, we have examined the effects of a novel compound, BAY36-7620 [(3aS,6aS)- 6a-Naphtalen-2-ylmethyl-5-methyliden-hexahydro-cyclopental[c]furan-1-on], on mGlu receptors (mGlu1-8), transiently expressed in human embryonic kidney 293 cells. BAY36-7620 is a potent (IC(50) = 0.16 microM) and selective antagonist at mGlu1 receptors and inhibits >60% of mGlu1a receptor constitutive activity (IC(50) = 0.38 microM). BAY36-7620 is therefore the first described mGlu1 receptor inverse agonist. To address the mechanism of action of BAY36-7620, Glu dose-response curves were performed in the presence of increasing concentrations of BAY36-7620. The results show that BAY36-7620 largely decreases the maximal effect of Glu. Moreover, BAY36-7620 did not displace the [(3)H]quisqualate binding from the Glu-binding pocket, further indicating that BAY36-7620 is a noncompetitive mGlu1 antagonist. Studies of chimeric receptors containing regions of mGlu1 and regions of DmGluA, mGlu2, or mGlu5, revealed that the transmembrane region of mGlu1 is necessary for activity of BAY36-7620. Transmembrane helices 4 to 7 are shown to play a critical role in the selectivity of BAY36-7620. This specific site of action of BAY36-7620 differs from that of competitive antagonists and indicates that the transmembrane region plays a pivotal role in the agonist-independent activity of this receptor. BAY36-7620 will be useful to further delineate the functional importance of the mGlu1 receptor, including its putative agonist-independent activity.
    Molecular Pharmacology 05/2001; 59(5):965-73. · 4.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Specific domains of the G-protein alpha subunit have been shown to control coupling to heptahelical receptors. The extreme N and C termini and a region between alpha4 and alpha5 helices of the G-protein alpha subunit are known to determine selective interaction with the receptors. The metabotropic glutamate receptor 2 activated both mouse Galpha(15) and its human homologue Galpha(16), whereas metabotropic glutamate receptor 8 activated Galpha(15) only. The extreme C-terminal 20 amino acid residues are identical between the Galpha(15) and Galpha(16) and are therefore unlikely to be involved in coupling selectivity. Our data reveal two regions on Galpha(16) that inhibit its coupling to metabotropic glutamate receptor 8. On a three-dimensional model, both regions are found in a close proximity to the extreme C terminus of Galpha(16). One module comprises alpha4 helix, alpha4-beta6 loop (L9 Loop), beta6 sheet, and alpha5 helix. The other, not described previously, is located within the loop that links the N-terminal alpha helix to the beta1 strand of the Ras-like domain of the alpha subunit. Coupling of Galpha(16) protein to the metabotropic glutamate receptor 8 is partially modulated by each module alone, whereas both modules are needed to eliminate the coupling fully.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 03/2001; 276(5):3262-9. DOI:10.1074/jbc.M004880200 · 4.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor type B (GABA(B)R) is constituted of at least two homologous proteins, GABA(B)R1 and GABA(B)R2. These proteins share sequence and structural similarity with metabotropic glutamate and Ca(2+)-sensing receptors, both of which are sensitive to Ca(2+). Using rat brain membranes, we report here that the affinity of GABA and 3-aminopropylphosphinic acid for the GABA(B)R receptor is decreased by a factor >10 in the absence of Ca(2+). Such a large effect of Ca(2+) is not observed with baclofen or the antagonists CGP64213 and CGP56999A. In contrast to baclofen, the potency of GABA in stimulating GTPgammaS binding in rat brain membranes is also decreased by a factor >10 upon Ca(2+) removal. The potency for Ca(2+) in regulating GABA affinity was 37 microM. In cells expressing GABA(B)R1, the potency of GABA, but not of baclofen, in displacing bound (125)I-CGP64213 was similarly decreased in the absence of Ca(2+). To identify residues that are responsible for the Ca(2+) effect, the pharmacological profile and the Ca(2+) sensitivity of a series of GABA(B)R1 mutants were examined. The mutation of Ser269 into Ala was found to decrease the affinity of GABA, but not of baclofen, and the GABA affinity was found not to be affected upon Ca(2+) removal. Finally, the effect of Ca(2+) on the GABA(B) receptor function is no longer observed in cells coexpressing this GABA(B)R1-S269A mutant and the wild-type GABA(B)R2. Taken together, these results show that Ser269, which is conserved in the GABA(B)R1 protein from Caenorhabditis elegans to mammals, is critical for the Ca(2+)-effect on the heteromeric GABA(B) receptor.
    Molecular Pharmacology 04/2000; 57(3):419-26. DOI:10.1124/mol.57.3.419 · 4.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The first synthesis of one of the 4 possible stereoisomers of 3,4-dihydroxy-L-glutamic acid ((3S,4S)-DHGA 3), a natural product of unknown configuration, is described. The synthesis is based on the Lewis acid catalyzed reaction of benzyl alcohol with a D-ribose-derived 2,3-aziridino-gamma-lactone 4-benzyl carboxylate (6). Preliminary pharmacological studies showed that (3S,4S)-3 is an agonist of metabotropic glutamate receptors of type 1 (mGluR1) and a weak antagonist of mGluR4 but has no discernible activity with respect to mGluR2. This activity profile can be rationalized by fitting extended conformations of (3S,4S)-3 in proposed models of each of these receptor subtypes.
    Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters 02/2000; 10(2):129-33. DOI:10.1016/S0960-894X(99)00641-1 · 2.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the structural requirements for selective activation or blockade of metabotropic glutamate receptors, we developed a pharmacophore model for group I (mGluR1) and group II (mGluR2) agonists. The Apex-3D program was used with a training set of known active, inactive, and/or selective compounds with a wide structural diversity. The pharmacophore models were then validated by testing a set of additional known agonists. We also used competitive antagonist superpositions in order to define more precisely the topology of the mGluR1 and mGluR2 agonists' recognition site. Both models account for the activity of most potent compounds and show that the selectivity between mGluR1 and mGluR2 subtypes may be due to excluded volumes and additional binding sites, while the relative spatial position of functional groups (NH2, alpha- and gamma-CO2H) remains very similar. On both models glutamate lies in an extended form. An additional binding site is disclosed on mGluR1, while this region would be forbidden on mGluR2. This new site combines a closed and an open model for mGluR1 and accounts for the increased affinity of quisqualic acid. The models show another large hydrophobic region which is tolerated for mGluR2 and restricted for mGluR1.
    Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 06/1999; 42(9):1546-55. DOI:10.1021/jm980571q · 5.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Novel mRNA isoforms for two members of the group III metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs), called mGluR7b and mGluR8b, were identified from rat brain cerebral cortex and hippocampus. In both cases, the alternative splicing is generated by a similar out-of-frame insertion in the carboxyl-terminus that results in the replacement of the last 16 amino acids of mGluR7 and mGluR8 by 23 and 16 different amino acids, respectively. Distribution analysis for mGluR7 and mGluR8 isoforms revealed that the two splice variants are generally coexpressed in the same brain areas. The few exceptions were the olfactory bulb, in which only the mGluR7a form could be detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and the lateral reticular and ambiguous nuclei, which showed only mGluR8a labelling. Despite expression in the same regions, different mRNA abundance for the two variants of each receptor were observed. When transiently coexpressed in HEK 293 cells with the phospholipase C-activating chimeric G alpha qi9-G-protein, the a and b forms for both receptor subtypes showed a similar pharmacological profile. The rank order of potencies for both was: DL-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate > L-serine-O-phosphate > glutamate. However, the agonist potencies were significantly higher for mGluR8a, b compared with mGluR7a,b. In Xenopus oocytes, glutamate evoked currents only with mGluR8 when coexpressed with Kir 3.1 and 3.4. Glutamate-induced currents were antagonized by the group II/III antagonist (RS)-alpha-cyclopropyl-4-phosphonophenylglycine. In conclusion, the two isoforms of each receptor have identical pharmacological profiles when expressed in heterologous systems, despite structural differences in the carboxyl-terminal domains.
    European Journal of Neuroscience 12/1998; 10(12):3629-41. DOI:10.1046/j.1460-9568.1998.00371.x · 3.67 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
132.73 Total Impact Points


  • 2012
    • Université Montpellier 2 Sciences et Techniques
      Montpelhièr, Languedoc-Roussillon, France
  • 2010
    • French Institute of Health and Medical Research
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
    • Unité Inserm U1077
      Caen, Lower Normandy, France
  • 1998–2010
    • French National Centre for Scientific Research
      • Institut de Génomique Fonctionnelle (IGF)
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2003
    • Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic
      • Ústav experimentální medicíny
      Praha, Hlavni mesto Praha, Czech Republic
  • 2001
    • Charles University in Prague
      Praha, Praha, Czech Republic
  • 1997
    • Université René Descartes - Paris 5
      • Laboratoire de Chimie et Biochimie Pharmacologiques et Toxicologiques (Lcbpt) (UMR 8601)
      Paris, Ile-de-France, France