[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Eight human catalytic phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) isoforms exist which are subdivided into three classes. While class I isoforms have been well-studied in cancer, little is known about the functions of class II PI3Ks.
The expression pattern and functions of the class II PI3KC2β isoform were investigated in a panel of tumour samples and cell lines.
Overexpression of PI3KC2β was found in subsets of tumours and cell lines from acute myeloid leukemia (AML), glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), medulloblastoma (MB), neuroblastoma (NB), and small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Specific pharmacological inhibitors of PI3KC2β or RNA interference impaired proliferation of a panel of human cancer cell lines and primary cultures. Inhibition of PI3KC2β also induced apoptosis and sensitised the cancer cells to chemotherapeutic agents.
Together, these data show that PI3KC2β contributes to proliferation and survival in AML, brain tumours and neuroendocrine tumours, and may represent a novel target in these malignancies.
Anticancer research 08/2012; 32(8):3015-27. · 1.71 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The regulation of cell morphology is a dynamic process under the control of multiple protein complexes acting in a coordinated manner. Phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K) and their lipid products are widely involved in cytoskeletal regulation by interacting with proteins regulating RhoGTPases. Class II PI3K isoforms have been implicated in the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton, although their exact role and mechanism of action remain to be established. In this report, we have identified Dbl, a Rho family guanine nucleotide exchange factor (RhoGEF) as an interaction partner of PI3KC2β. Dbl was co-immunoprecipitated with PI3KC2β in NIH3T3 cells and cancer cell lines. Over-expression of Class II phosphoinositide 3-kinase PI3KC2β in NIH3T3 fibroblasts led to increased stress fibres formation and cell spreading. Accordingly, we found high basal RhoA activity and increased serum response factor (SRF) activation downstream of RhoA upon serum stimulation. In contrast, the dominant-negative form of PI3KC2β strongly reduced cell spreading and stress fibres formation, as well as SRF response. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) stimulation of wild-type PI3KC2β over-expressing NIH3T3 cells strongly increased Rac and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation, but failed to show similar effect in the cells with the dominant-negative enzyme. Interestingly, epidermal growth factor (EGF) and PDGF stimulation led to increased extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk) and Akt pathway activation in cells with elevated wild-type PI3KC2β expression. Furthermore, increased expression of PI3KC2β protected NIH3T3 from detachment-dependent death (anoikis) in a RhoA-dependent manner. Taken together, these findings suggest that PI3KC2β modulates the cell morphology and survival through a specific interaction with Dbl and the activation of RhoA.
PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(9):e44945. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway is frequently activated in human cancers and plays an important role in small cell lung cancer (SCLC) biology. We investigated the potential of targeting mTOR signaling as a novel antitumor approach in SCLC.
The expression of mTOR in patient specimens and in a panel of SCLC cell lines was analyzed. The effects on SCLC cell survival and downstream signaling were determined following mTOR inhibition by the rapamycin derivative RAD001 (Everolimus) or down-regulation by small interfering RNA.
We found elevated expression of mTOR in patient specimens and SCLC cell lines, compared with normal lung tissue and normal lung epithelial cells. RAD001 treatment impaired basal and growth factor-stimulated cell growth in a panel of SCLC cell lines. Cells with increased Akt pathway activation were more sensitive to RAD001. Accordingly, a constitutive activation of the Akt/mTOR pathway was sufficient to sensitize resistant SCLC cells to the cytotoxic effect of RAD001. In the sensitive cells, RAD001 showed a strong additive effect to the proapoptotic action of the chemotherapeutic agent etoposide. Intriguingly, we observed low Bcl-2 family proteins levels in the SCLC cells with a constitutive Akt pathway activation, whereas an increased expression was detected in the RAD001-resistant SCLC cells. An antisense construct targeting Bcl-2 or a Bcl-2-specific inhibitor was able to sensitize resistant SCLC cells to RAD001. Moreover, SCLC tumor growth in vivo was significantly inhibited by RAD001.
Together, our data show that inhibiting mTOR signaling with RAD001 potently disrupts growth and survival signaling in human SCLC cells.
Clinical Cancer Research 03/2009; 15(4):1277-87. · 7.84 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality in the world, with more than 1 million deaths per year. Over the past years, lung cancer treatment has been based on cytotoxic agents and an improvement in the outcome and quality of life for patients has been observed. However, it has become clear that additional therapeutic strategies are urgently required in order to provide an improved survival benefit for patients. Two major intracellular signaling pathways, the Ras/Raf/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk) and the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathways have been extensively studied in neoplasia, including lung cancer. Furthermore, the study of constitutively activated receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) and their downstream signaling mediators has opened a promising new field of investigation for lung cancer treatment. Since both the Ras/Raf/Erk and the PI3K/Akt pathways are downstream of a plethora of activated RTKs, they have been extensively studied for the development of novel anti-tumor agents. Moreover, the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) has been identified as a downstream target of the PI3K/Akt pathway. Rapamycin and its derivatives are highly selective and very potent inhibitors of mTOR and initial pre-clinical and clinical studies have reported encouraging results for different tumor types. Nevertheless for lung cancer, this approach has not been successful yet. Here we will review the molecular basis of PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling in lung cancer and further discuss the therapeutic potential of multi-targeted strategies involving mTOR inhibitors.
Critical Reviews in Oncology/Hematology 09/2007; 63(2):172-82. · 4.64 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is an aggressive form of lung cancer, which represents 13% of all cases and is strongly associated with cigarette smoking. The survival of SCLC patients is dismal and has not greatly improved in the last 20 years, despite advances in chemotherapy regimens and a better understanding of SCLC biology. The development of resistance to chemotherapy and metastasis are commonly recognized as important causes of poor clinical outcome in SCLC. Targeting receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signalling represents an attractive approach to develop new drugs for SCLC, in view of the accumulating data demonstrating that polypeptide growth factors play a key role in driving SCLC cell proliferation, chemoresistance and metastasis. The insulin-like growth factor-I receptor (IGF-IR), c-Kit, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) have been identified as potential drug targets in SCLC. Moreover, downstream signalling mediators of RTKs, such as phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) may also represent attractive candidate molecules for anti-cancer therapies in SCLC. Here we will review the available data concerning results with RTK inhibitors in SCLC and the clinical trials undertaken to investigate the potential of these compounds as anti-tumour agents in SCLC.
Cancer Treatment Reviews 07/2007; 33(4):391-406. · 6.02 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) play an essential role in the signal transduction events initiated by the binding of extracellular signals to their cell surface receptors. There are eight known PI3Ks in humans, which have been subdivided into three classes (I-III). The class I(A) of PI3K comprises the p110alpha, p110beta and p110delta isoforms, which associate with receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). On the other hand, the class I(B) PI3K p110gamma is regulated by G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Gene targeting studies in mice have revealed specific biological functions for the class I(A) p110delta in lymphocyte activation, and the class I(B) p110gamma in inflammatory cell responses. In human cancer, recent reports have described activating mutations in the PIK3CA gene encoding p110alpha, and inactivating mutations in the PTEN gene, a tumor suppressor and antagonist of the PI3K pathway. Thus, individual PI3K isoforms are potential drug targets for a variety of human diseases, including allergies, cancer, rheumatoid arthritis and arterial thrombosis. In this review, we will discuss recent patents relating to class I PI3Ks, including patents on the cDNA sequences of p110gamma and p110delta. Moreover, we will review patents on novel pharmacological PI3K inhibitors and on methods of manipulating T cell responses through PI3K.
Recent patents on DNA & gene sequences. 02/2007; 1(1):9-23.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Receptor-linked class I phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) induce assembly of signal transduction complexes through protein-protein and protein-lipid interactions that mediate cell proliferation, survival, and migration. Although class II PI3Ks have the potential to make the same phosphoinositides as class I PI3Ks, their precise cellular role is currently unclear. In this report, we demonstrate that class II phosphoinositide 3-kinase C2beta (PI3KC2beta) associates with the Eps8/Abi1/Sos1 complex and is recruited to the EGF receptor as part of a multiprotein signaling complex also involving Shc and Grb2. Increased expression of PI3KC2beta stimulated Rac activity in A-431 epidermoid carcinoma cells, resulting in enhanced membrane ruffling and migration speed of the cells. Conversely, expression of dominant negative PI3KC2beta reduced Rac activity, membrane ruffling, and cell migration. Moreover, PI3KC2beta-overexpressing cells were protected from anoikis and displayed enhanced proliferation, independently of Rac function. Taken together, these findings suggest that PI3KC2beta regulates the migration and survival of human tumor cells by distinct molecular mechanisms.
Molecular Biology of the Cell 10/2006; 17(9):3729-44. · 4.60 Impact Factor