[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the clinical usefulness of transoesophageal echocardiography in the assessment of children with fixed left ventricular outflow tract stenosis.
Eight consecutive children, aged over 5 years, with fixed subaortic stenosis and one child with fixed subpulmonary left ventricular outflow tract stenosis were prospectively assessed by precordial and transoesophageal echocardiography.
Transoesophageal images of the left ventricular outflow tract were much clearer than precordial images in all patients except one with a prosthetic mitral valve. Improved visualisation provided further information on the nature of the lesion (additional chordal attachment of the mitral valve in one, accessory atrioventricular valve tissue with aneurysm formation in one), on the extent of the lesion (circumferential in three), and on the very close relation of a ridge to the aortic valve leaflets in one. Transoesophageal Doppler did not provide any additional information on aortic regurgitation and was unreliable for gradient estimation across the left ventricular outflow tract.
Transoesophageal imaging provides an excellent means of visualising lesions in the left ventricular outflow tract and can be useful in a few children and adolescents in whom precordial echocardiography does not provide adequate information. The technique can also be used intraoperatively to define the full extent of the obstructive lesion and to assess residual lesions after surgery.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the additional information provided by colour Doppler in the ultrasonic assessment of congenital heart disease.
A prospective study of 215 children (age range 1 day-16 years) presenting with clinical signs of congenital heart disease.
Colour Doppler was essential for the diagnosis of an anomalous left coronary artery and altered the management of a patient initially diagnosed as having cardiomyopathy. Colour Doppler provided extra information, but without major impact on management, in the following: the diagnosis of ventricular septal defects associated with other defects, of multiple ventricular septal defects, of anomalous pulmonary venous drainage, and of mild mitral regurgitation; the demonstration of site of coarctation, of stenotic or hypoplastic pulmonary artery branches, of unobstructed flow through a right atrial membrane, and of left ventricle to right atrium regurgitation; the assessment of the width of the duct and of flow through the patent foramen ovale in transposition and tricuspid atresia; the differentiation of pulmonary atresia from critical pulmonary stenosis and the measurement of maximum velocity of tricuspid regurgitation.
Ideally all patients should undergo colour Doppler studies before cardiac surgery to ensure a more accurate diagnosis. However, since the additional information provided does not affect the management in most patients, machines without colour Doppler can provide a satisfactory service in paediatric cardiology centres in countries where resources are limited.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We compared the ability of transthoracic and transoesophageal echocardiography to determine the presence and site of an atrial septal defect and associated anomalous pulmonary venous connexions in 13 school age children (aged 5 to 15 years) and 12 adults (aged 25 to 68 years). Transthoracic echocardiography detected atrial septal defects in 12 children and 6 adults. Transoesophageal echocardiography confirmed the position of 16 (13 secundum, 3 primum) of these 18 defects but altered the diagnosis from a secundum defect to a sinus venosus defect in one and from a sinus venosus defect to a high secundum defect in another. In addition to these 18, transoesophageal echocardiography diagnosed a defect in 5 adults (3 secundum and 2 sinus venosus defects) and 1 child (secundum defect). In an adult with inconclusive transthoracic findings, transoesophageal echocardiography enabled clear visualisation of the atrial septum and excluded an atrial septal defect. Transoesophageal echocardiography showed anomalous attachment of a pulmonary vein into the region of a sinus venosus defect (n = 3) but did not show anomalous connexions to the superior caval vein (n = 3) or the inferior caval vein (n = 1). Transoesophageal echocardiography provides a reliable method of diagnosing or excluding an atrial septal defect in patients with inconclusive transthoracic findings and is of particular diagnostic value in sinus venosus defects.
International Journal of Cardiology 06/1991; 31(2):167-74. DOI:10.1016/0167-5273(91)90212-8 · 4.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In a patient with mitral valve aneurysm precordial echocardiography suggested a mistaken diagnosis of infective endocarditis. Transoesophageal echocardiographic examination established the correct diagnosis, which was subsequently confirmed at operation. Transoesophageal echocardiography gives better resolution of lesions associated with the mitral valve than precordial examination and may improve the diagnostic accuracy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Balloon atrial septostomy was undertaken under cross sectional echocardiographic control in 63 consecutive infants: in no case was fluoroscopic imaging required. The procedure was performed in the cardiac catheterisation laboratory, ward side room, or at the bedside in the neonatal intensive care unit. Catheterisation via the umbilical vein was attempted in 37 infants aged less than 48 hours old and was successful in 27. No complication was clearly attributable to the procedure though two infants died. A nine day old child died from disseminated intravascular coagulation the day after septostomy by the iliofemoral route and another, aged nine days, died of necrotising enterocolitis which had developed when he was eight days old, after umbilical catheterisation at eight hours. Balloon atrial septostomy is a safe and easy procedure under cross sectional echocardiographic imaging control. Catheterisation via the umbilical vein was safe, easy to perform, and is appropriate in infants aged less than 48 hours.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A clinically undetectable, small ductus arteriosus was identified by Doppler ultrasonography in 21 individuals. Infants were excluded from the study and no patient had pulmonary hypertension. Persistence of the ductus arteriosus is likely to be more common than shown by less sensitive diagnostic methods. Some patients considered to have infective endocarditis with a normal heart may have a silent ductus arteriosus. Evidence of such an association would justify ligation or antibiotic cover as prophylactic measures.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pulmonary artery sling is a rare abnormality that usually presents in infancy with wheeze or stridor. Diagnoses by cross sectional echocardiography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging have been described but pulmonary arteriography was regarded as essential for a definite diagnosis. The use of colour Doppler adds to the diagnostic certainty of cross sectional echocardiography and colour Doppler provided a definite diagnosis in an infant that allowed surgical repair without the need for cardiac catheterisation. Postoperative flow through the left pulmonary artery was also assessed by Doppler, and this avoided the need for repeat catheterisation or perfusion lung scanning.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Four infants and children with anomalous connection of the left coronary artery to the pulmonary trunk were studied with colour Doppler flow mapping. In three the diagnosis was only suspected when the colour Doppler study showed dilated intraseptal and epicardial vessels and an abnormal flow signal into the pulmonary artery in diastole; this latter signal localised the exact site of communication, which was not apparent on angiocardiography. Two of these patients had previously had operations for severe mitral regurgitation, the diagnosis of anomalous left coronary artery having been previously considered in one but missed despite aortic root angiography. The colour study in the fourth was largely confirmatory, operation without catheterisation being undertaken on the basis of the echocardiographic images. By contrast in two infants subsequently seen with congestive cardiomyopathy the demonstration of flow direction in the left coronary artery confirmed that it was normally connected to the aorta. Colour Doppler flow mapping can show flow direction in the left coronary artery and from the mouth of an anomalous coronary artery into the pulmonary artery, thus simplifying the diagnosis and allowing the site of the connection of the left coronary artery to the pulmonary artery to be determined with precision.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A fistula between the left ventricle and the coronary sinus was diagnosed by Doppler echocardiography and confirmed by cardiac catheterisation in a symptom free child who presented with clinical signs of mitral regurgitation. A similar abnormality has been reported after repeated mitral valve replacement and after myocardial infarction but a congenital fistula of this type has not been described before.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Doppler spectral pattern of flow through the ductus arteriosus was studied in 117 patients. In 37 who underwent catheterisation, Doppler records and aortic and pulmonary artery pressure were available (21 simultaneously with two catheters) for review while the others had surgical ligation of the duct on the basis of the results of non-invasive tests. Four flow patterns were obtained: (a) continuous flow, maximum velocity in late systole with gradual fall throughout diastole; (b) continuous flow, high systolic flow with rapid fall to a very low early diastolic velocity maintained throughout diastole; (c) continuous low velocity, maximum in late diastole; and (d) bidirectional flow. Flow pattern (a) was associated with normal or slightly raised pulmonary artery pressure; (b) with raised pulmonary artery pressure; and (c) and (d) with pulmonary artery pressure at systemic values. Comparison of the Doppler and measured pressure differences between the great arteries was reasonably good for peak values but poor for the trough readings. Doppler ultrasound clearly showed ductal flow; the flow pattern gave an indication of the pulmonary artery pressure, but pressure measurement by application of the Bernoulli equation to the flow velocities cannot yet be regarded as reliable.