Francisco Bolívar

Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad de México, Mexico City, Mexico

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Publications (162)578.84 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: A two-compartment scale-down system was used to mimic pH heterogeneities that can occur in large-scale bioreactors. The system consisted of two interconnected stirred tank reactors (STRs) where one of them represented the conditions of the bulk of the fluid and the second one the zone of alkali addition for pH control. The working volumes ratio of the STRs was set to 20:1 in order to simulate the relative sizes of the bulk and alkali addition zones, respectively, in large-scale bioreactors. Residence times (tR ) in the alkali addition STR of 60, 120, 180, and 240 s were simulated during batch cultures of an engineered Escherichia coli strain that produced plasmid DNA (pDNA). pH gradients of up to 0.9 units, between the two compartments, were attained. The kinetic, stoichiometric, and pDNA topological changes due to the pH gradients were studied and compared to cultures at constant pH of 7.2 and 8.0. As the tR increased, the pDNA and biomass yields, as well as pDNA final titer decreased, whereas the accumulation of organic acids increased. Furthermore, the transcriptional response of 10 selected genes to alkaline stress (pH 8.0) and pH gradients was monitored at different stages of the cultures. The selected genes coded for ion transporters, amino acids catabolism enzymes, and transcriptional regulators. The transcriptional response of genes coding for amino acids catabolism, in terms of relative transcription level and stage of maximal expression, was different when the alkaline stress was constant or transient. This suggests the activation of different mechanisms by E. coli to cope with pH fluctuations compared to constant alkaline pH. Moreover, the transcriptional response of genes related to negative control of DNA synthesis did not correlate with the lower pDNA yields. This is the first study that reports the effects of pH gradients on pDNA production by E. coli cultures. The information presented can be useful for the design of better bioreactor scale-up strategies. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 08/2015; DOI:10.1002/bit.25817 · 4.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Laboratory and industrial cultures of Escherichia coli employ media containing glucose which is mainly transported and phosphorylated by the phosphotransferase system (PTS). In these strains, 50% of the phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP), which results from the catabolism of transported glucose, is used as a phosphate donor for its phosphorylation and translocation by the PTS. This characteristic of the PTS limits the production of industrial biocommodities that have PEP as a precursor. Furthermore, when E. coli is exposed to carbohydrate mixtures, the PTS prevents expression of catabolic and non-PTS transport genes by carbon catabolite repression and inducer exclusion. In this contribution, we discuss the main strategies developed to overcome these potentially limiting effects in production strains. These strategies include adaptive laboratory evolution selection of PTS(-) Glc(+) mutants, followed by the generation of strains that recover their ability to grow with glucose as a carbon source while allowing the simultaneous consumption of more than one carbon source. We discuss the benefits of using alternative glucose transport systems and describe the application of these strategies to E. coli strains with specific genetic modifications in target pathways. These efforts have resulted in significant improvements in the production of diverse biocommodities, including aromatic metabolites, biofuels and organic acids. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology 07/2015; 25(2-3):195-208. DOI:10.1159/000380854 · 1.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background The aromatic compounds cinnamic acid (CA) and p-hydroxycinnamic acid (pHCA) are used as flavoring agents as well as precursors of chemicals. These compounds are present in plants at low concentrations, therefore, complex purification processes are usually required to extract the product. An alternative production method for these aromatic acids is based on the use of microbial strains modified by metabolic engineering. These biotechnological processes are usually based on the use of simple sugars like glucose as a raw material. However, sustainable production processes should preferably be based on the use of waste material such as lignocellulosic hydrolysates.ResultsIn this study, E. coli strains with active (W3110) and inactive phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) (VH33) were engineered for CA and pHCA production by transforming them with plasmids expressing genes encoding phenylalanine/tyrosine ammonia lyase (PAL/TAL) enzymes from Rhodotorula glutinis or Arabidopsis thaliana as well as genes aroG fbr and tktA, encoding a feedback inhibition resistant version of 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate synthase and transketolase, respectively. The generated strains were evaluated in cultures with glucose, xylose or arabinose, as well as a simulated lignocellulosic hydrolysate containing a mixture of these three sugars plus acetate. Production of CA was detected in strains expressing PAL/TAL from A. thaliana, whereas both CA and pHCA accumulated in strains expressing the enzyme from R. glutinis. These experiments identified arabinose and W3110 expressing PAL/TAL from A. thaliana, aroG fbr and tktA as the carbon source/strain combination resulting in the best CA specific productivity and titer. To improve pHCA production, a mutant with inactive pheA gene was generated, causing an 8-fold increase in the yield of this aromatic acid from the sugars in a simulated hydrolysate.Conclusions In this study the quantitative contribution of active or inactive PTS as well as expression of PAL/TAL from R. glutinis or A. thaliana were determined for production performance of CA and pHCA when growing on carbon sources derived from lignocellulosic hydrolysates. These data will be a useful resource in efforts towards the development of sustainable technologies for the production of aromatic acids.
    Microbial Cell Factories 01/2015; 14(1):6. DOI:10.1186/s12934-014-0185-1 · 4.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The production of aromatic amino acids using fermentation processes with recombinant microorganisms can be an advantageous approach to reach their global demands. In addition, a large array of compounds with alimentary and pharmaceutical applications can potentially be synthesized from intermediates of this metabolic pathway. However, contrary to other amino acids and primary metabolites, the artificial channelling of building blocks from central metabolism towards the aromatic amino acid pathway is complicated to achieve in an efficient manner. The length and complex regulation of this pathway have progressively called for the employment of more integral approaches, promoting the merge of complementary tools and techniques in order to surpass metabolic and regulatory bottlenecks. As a result, relevant insights on the subject have been obtained during the last years, especially with genetically modified strains of Escherichia coli. By combining metabolic engineering strategies with developments in synthetic biology, systems biology and bioprocess engineering, notable advances were achieved regarding the generation, characterization and optimization of E. coli strains for the overproduction of aromatic amino acids, some of their precursors and related compounds. In this paper we review and compare recent successful reports dealing with the modification of metabolic traits to attain these objectives.
    Microbial Cell Factories 12/2014; 13(126). DOI:10.1186/s12934-014-0126-z · 4.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Leuconostoc mesenteroides P45 was isolated from the traditional Mexican pulque beverage. We report its draft genome sequence, assembled in 6 contigs consisting of 1,874,188 bp and no plasmids. Genome annotation predicted a total of 1,800 genes, 1,687 coding sequences, 52 pseudogenes, 9 rRNAs, 51 tRNAs, 1 noncoding RNA, and 44 frameshifted genes.
    Genome Announcements 11/2014; 2(6). DOI:10.1128/genomeA.01130-14
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    ABSTRACT: We report the screening and characterization of EPS produced by LAB identified as Leuconostoc kimchii isolated from pulque, a traditional Mexican fermented, non-distilled alcoholic beverage produced by the fermentation of the sap extracted from several (Agave) maguey species. EPS-producing LAB constitutes an abundant bacterial group relative to total LAB present in sap and during fermentation, however, only two EPS-producing colony phenotypes (EPSA and EPSB, respectively) were detected and isolated concluding that despite the high number of polymer-producing LAB their phenotypic diversity is low. Scanning electron microcopy analysis during EPS-producing conditions revealed that both types of EPS form a uniform porous structure surrounding the bacterial cells. The structural characterization of the soluble and cell-associated EPS fractions of each polymer by enzymatic and acid hydrolysis, as by 1D- and 2D-NMR, showed that polymers produced by the soluble and cell-associated fractions of EPSA strain are dextrans consisting of a linear backbone of linked α-(1→6) Glcp in the main chain with α-(1→2) and α-(1→3)-linked branches. The polymer produced by the soluble fraction of EPSB strain was identified as a class 1 dextran with a linear backbone containing consecutive α-(1→6)-linked D-glucopyranosyl units with few α-(1→3)-linked branches, whereas the cell-associated EPS is a polymer mixture consisting of a levan composed of linear chains of (2→6)-linked β-D-fructofuranosyl residues with β-(2→6) connections, and a class 1 dextran. According to our knowledge this is the first report of dextrans and a levan including their structural characterization produced by L. kimchii isolated from a traditional fermented source. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/2193-1801-3-583) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
    SpringerPlus 10/2014; 3(583). DOI:10.1186/2193-1801-3-583
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    ABSTRACT: Background The aromatic compound catechol is used as a precursor of chemical products having multiple applications. This compound is currently manufactured by chemical synthesis from petroleum-derived raw materials. The capacity to produce catechol is naturally present in several microbial species. This knowledge has been applied to the generation of recombinant Escherichia coli strains that can produce catechol from simple carbon sources.ResultsSeveral strains derived from E. coli W3110 trpD9923, a mutant that overproduces anthranilate, were modified by transforming them with an expression plasmid carrying genes encoding anthranilate 1,2-dioxygenase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. The additional expression of genes encoding a feedback inhibition resistant version of 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate (DAHP) synthase and transketolase from E. coli, was also evaluated. Generated strains were characterized in complex or minimal medium in shake-flask and fed-batch bioreactor cultures and incubation temperatures ranging from 37 to 28°C. These experiments enabled the identification of culture conditions for the production of 4.47 g/L of catechol with strain W3110 trpD9923, expressing 1,2-dioxygenase, DAHP synthase and transketolase. When considering the amount of glucose consumed, a yield of 16% was calculated, corresponding to 42% of the theoretical maximum as determined by elementary node flux analysisConclusions This work demonstrates the feasibility of applying metabolic engineering for generating E. coli strains for the production of catechol from glucose via anthranilate. These results are a starting point to further optimize environmentally-compatible production capacity for catechol and derived compounds.
    Microbial Cell Factories 10/2014; 13(1):136. DOI:10.1186/PREACCEPT-6182816651318506 · 4.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The production of aromatic amino acids using fermentation processes with recombinant microorganisms can be an advantageous approach to reach their global demands. In addition, a large array of compounds with alimentary and pharmaceutical applications can potentially be synthesized from intermediates of this metabolic pathway. However, contrary to other amino acids and primary metabolites, the artificial channelling of building blocks from central metabolism towards the aromatic amino acid pathway is complicated to achieve in an efficient manner. The length and complex regulation of this pathway have progressively called for the employment of more integral approaches, promoting the merge of complementary tools and techniques in order to surpass metabolic and regulatory bottlenecks. As a result, relevant insights on the subject have been obtained during the last years, especially with genetically modified strains of Escherichia coli. By combining metabolic engineering strategies with developments in synthetic biology, systems biology and bioprocess engineering, notable advances were achieved regarding the generation, characterization and optimization of E. coli strains for the overproduction of aromatic amino acids, some of their precursors and related compounds. In this paper we review and compare recent successful reports dealing with the modification of metabolic traits to attain these objectives.
    Microbial Cell Factories 09/2014; 13(1):126. DOI:10.1186/PREACCEPT-2032244031131285 · 4.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dovepress 35 R e v i e w open access to scientific and medical research Open Access Full Text Article http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/RRMC.S46560 Abstract: Aromatic metabolism comprises the shikimic acid (SA) and the aminoshikimic acid (ASA) pathways. The SA pathway is the common route for the biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids and other metabolites in bacteria, higher plants, fungi, and Apicomplexa parasites, but this pathway is absent in mammals. A variant of the SA pathway known as the ASA pathway branches off from the normal pathway in some bacteria, and its final product, 3-amino-5-hydroxybenzoic acid, is the precursor for many aminoglycoside antibiotics such as kanamycin, neomycin, butirosin, and spectinomycin. The SA pathway includes the key intermediate SA, which is the precursor for the chemical synthesis of the drug oseltamivir phosphate, known commercially as Tamiflu ® , an efficient inhibitor of the neuraminidase enzyme of the seasonal influenza viruses types A and B, avian influenza virus H5N1, and human influenza virus H1N1. Meanwhile, the intermediate of the ASA pathway, ASA, is an attractive candidate for use as the core scaffold for the synthesis of combinatorial libraries and is a potential alternative to SA as a precursor for oseltamivir phosphate synthesis. In this review, we discuss the relevance of the key intermedi-ates SA and ASA as scaffold molecules for the synthesis of diverse chemicals. We highlight the current and potential pharmaceutical applications of these molecules and discuss the main strategies for the production of these aromatic compounds from natural sources and the appli-cation of metabolic engineering strategies in diverse bacterial strains for production through biotechnological processes.
    07/2014; 4:35-46. DOI:10.2147/RRMC.S46560
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    ABSTRACT: Phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) is a precursor involved in the biosynthesis of aromatics and other valuable compounds in Escherichia coli. The PEP:carbohydrate phosphotransferase system (PTS) is the major glucose transport system and the largest PEP consumer. To increase intracellular PEP availability for aromatics production purposes, mutant strains of E. coli JM101 devoid of the ptsHIcrr operon (PB11 strain) have been previously generated. In this derivative, transport and growth rate on glucose decreased significantly. A laboratory evolved strain derived from PB11 that partially recovered its growth capacity on glucose was named PB12. In the present study, we blocked carbon skeletons interchange between PEP and pyruvate (PYR) in these ptsHIcrr− strains by deleting the pykA, pykF, and ppsA genes. The PB11 pykAF− ppsA− strain exhibited no growth on glucose or acetate alone, but it was viable when both substrates were consumed simultaneously. In contrast, the PB12 pykAF− ppsA− strain displayed a low growth rate on glucose or acetate alone, but in the mixture, growth was significantly improved. RT-qPCR expression analysis of PB11 pykAF− ppsA− growing with both carbon sources showed a downregulation of all central metabolic pathways compared with its parental PB11 strain. Under the same conditions, transcription of most of the genes in PB12 pykAF− ppsA− did not change, and few like aceBAK, sfcA, and poxB were overexpressed compared with PB12. We explored the aromatics production capabilities of both ptsHIcrr− pykAF− ppsA− strains and the engineered PB12 pykAF− ppsA− tyrR− pheAev2+/pJLBaroGfbrtktA enhanced the yield of aromatic compounds when coutilizing glucose and acetate compared with the control strain PB12 tyrR− pheAev2+/pJLBaroGfbrtktA. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2014;111: 1150–1160. © 2013 The Authors. Biotechnology and Bioengineering Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 06/2014; 111(6). DOI:10.1002/bit.25177 · 4.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Efficient production of shikimic acid (SA) in Escherichia coli has been achieved by modifying key genes of the central carbon metabolism and SA pathway, resulting in overproducing strains grown in batch- or fed-batch-fermentor cultures using a complex broth including glucose and yeast extract (YE). In this study, we performed a GTA to identify those genes significantly upregulated in an engineered E. coli strain, PB12.SA22, in mid EXP (5 h), early STA (STA1, 9 h), and late SAT (STA2, 44 h) phases, grown in complex fermentation broth in batch-fermentor cultures. Growth of E. coli PB12.SA22 in complex fermentation broth for SA production resulted in an EXP growth during the first 9 h of cultivation depending of supernatant available aromatic amino acids provided by YE because, when tryptophan was totally consumed, cells entered into a second, low-growth phase (even in the presence of glucose) until 26 h of cultivation. At this point, glucose was completely consumed but SA production continued until the end of the fermentation (50 h) achieving the highest accumulation (7.63 g/L of SA). GTA between EXP/STA1, EXP/STA2 and STA1/STA2 comparisons showed no significant differences in the regulation of genes encoding enzymes of central carbon metabolism as in SA pathway, but those genes encoding enzymes involved in sugar, amino acid, nucleotide/nucleoside, iron and sulfur transport; amino acid catabolism and biosynthesis; nucleotide/nucleoside salvage; acid stress response and modification of IM were upregulated between comparisons. GTA during SA production in batch-fermentor cultures of strain PB12.SA22 grown in complex fermentation broth during the EXP, STA1 and STA2 phases was studied. Significantly, upregulated genes during the EXP and STA1 phases were associated with transport, amino acid catabolism, biosynthesis, and nucleotide/nucleoside salvage. In STA2, upregulation of genes encoding transporters and enzymes involved in the synthesis and catabolism of Arg suggests that this amino acid could have a key role in the fuelling of carbon toward SA synthesis, whereas upregulation of genes involved in pH stress response, such as membrane modifications, suggests a possible response to environmental conditions imposed on the cell at the end of the fermentation.
    Microbial Cell Factories 02/2014; 13(1):28. DOI:10.1186/1475-2859-13-28 · 4.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The biosynthesis of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (P3HB), a biodegradable bio-plastic, requires acetyl-CoA as precursor and NADPH as cofactor. Escherichia coli has been used as a heterologous production model for P3HB, but metabolic pathway analysis shows a deficiency in maintaining high levels of NADPH and that the acetyl-CoA is mainly converted to acetic acid by native pathways. In this work the pool of NADPH was increased 1.7-fold in E. coli MG1655 through plasmid overexpression of the NADP(+)-dependent glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene (gapN) from Streptococcus mutans (pTrcgapN). Additionally, by deleting the main acetate production pathway (ackA-pta), the acetic acid production was abolished, thus increasing the acetyl-CoA pool. The P3HB biosynthetic pathway was heterologously expressed in strain MG1655 Δack-pta/pTrcgapN, using an IPTG inducible vector with the P3HB operon from Azotobacter vinelandii (pPHB Av ). Cultures were performed in controlled fermentors using mineral medium with glucose as the carbon source. Accordingly, the mass yield of P3HB on glucose increased to 73 % of the maximum theoretical and was 30 % higher when compared to the progenitor strain (MG1655/pPHB Av ). In comparison with the wild type strain expressing pPHB Av , the specific accumulation of PHB (gPHB/gDCW) in MG1655 Δack-pta/pTrcgapN/pPHB Av increased twofold, indicating that as the availability of NADPH is raised and the production of acetate abolished, a P3HB intracellular accumulation of up to 84 % of the E. coli dry weight is attainable.
    Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 02/2014; 105(4). DOI:10.1007/s10482-014-0124-5 · 2.14 Impact Factor
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    Susy Carmona · Francisco Bolívar · Adelfo Escalante
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    ABSTRACT: RESUMEN El ácido shikímico (SA), uno de los intermediarios de la ruta común de biosíntesis de compuestos aromáticos o vía del ácido shikímico, presente en bacterias y plantas principalmente, es utilizado como precursor para la síntesis química del antiviral oseltamivir-fosfato. Dicho antiviral es utilizado para el tratamiento de la influenza común y en los casos de infección por los virus H5N1, H3N2 y A/H1N1 ABSTRACT Shikimic acid (SA) is an intermediate of the shikimic acid pathway, which is the common route for the biosynthesis of aromatic compounds mainly in bacteria and plants. SA is used as a precursor for the chemical synthesis of the antiviral oseltamivir phosphate. This drug is used for treatment of seasonal flu and cases of H5N1, H3N2 and H1N1 virus infection. Given the potential scenario of a pandemic influenza, diverse research groups have implemented strategies of
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    ABSTRACT: Natural aromatic polymers, mainly melanins, have potential and current applications in the cosmetic, pharmaceutical and chemical industries. The biotechnological production of this class of compounds is based on tyrosinase-dependent conversion of L-tyrosine and other aromatic substrates into melanins. The purpose of this work was to apply metabolic engineering for generating Escherichia coli strains with the capacity to synthesize an aromatic polymer from a simple carbon source. The strategy was based on the expression in E. coli of the MutmelA gene from Rhizobium etli, encoding an improved mutant tyrosinase. To direct the carbon flow from central metabolism into the common aromatic and the L-tyrosine biosynthetic pathways, feedback inhibition resistant versions of key enzymes were expressed in strains lacking the sugar phosphotransferase system and TyrR repressor. The expressed tyrosinase consumed intracellular L-tyrosine, thus causing growth impairment in the engineered strains. To avoid this issue, a two phase production process was devised, where tyrosinase activity was controlled by the delayed addition of the cofactor Cu. Following this procedure, 3.22 g/L of melanin were produced in 120 h with glucose as carbon source. Analysis of produced melanin by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed similar characteristics to a pure eumelanin standard. This is the first report of a process for producing melanin from a simple carbon source at grams level, having the potential for reducing production cost when compared to technologies employing L-tyrosine as raw material.
    Microbial Cell Factories 11/2013; 12(1):108. DOI:10.1186/1475-2859-12-108 · 4.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The glycolytic intermediate phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) is a precursor of several cellular components, including various aromatic compounds. Modifications to the PEP node such as PEP:sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) or pyruvate kinase inactivation have been shown to have a positive effect on aromatics production capacity in Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. In this study, pyruvate kinase and PTS-deficient B. subtilis strains were employed for the construction of derivatives lacking shikimate kinase activity that accumulate two industrially valuable chemicals, the intermediates of the common aromatic pathway, shikimic and dehydroshikimic acids. The pyruvate kinase-deficient strain (CLC6-PYKA) showed the best production parameters under resting-cell conditions. Compared to the PTS-deficient strain, the shikimic and dehydroshikimic acids specific production rates for CLC6-PYKA were 1.8- and 1.7-fold higher, respectively. A batch fermentor culture using complex media supplemented with 83 g/l of glucose was developed with strain CLC6-PYKA, where final titers of 4.67 g/l (shikimic acid) and 6.2 g/l (dehydroshikimic acid) were produced after 42 h. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology 10/2013; 24(1):37-45. DOI:10.1159/000355264 · 1.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: During the last two decades many efforts have been directed towards obtaining efficient microbial processes for the production of shikimic acid (SA); however, feeding high amounts of substrate to increase the titer of this compound has invariably rendered low conversion yields, leaving room for improvement of the producing strains. In this work we report an alternative platform to overproduce SA in a laboratory-evolved Escherichia coli strain, based on plasmid-driven constitutive expression of six genes selected from the pentose phosphate and aromatic amino acid pathways, artificially arranged as an operon. Production strains also carried inactivated genes coding for phosphotransferase system components (ptsHIcrr), shikimate kinases I and II (aroK and aroL), pyruvate kinase I (pykF) and the lactose operon repressor (lacI). The strong and constitutive expression of the constructed operon permitted SA production from the beginning of the cultures, as evidenced in 1L batch-mode fermentors starting with high concentrations of glucose and yeast extract. Inactivation of the pykF gene improved SA production under the evaluated conditions by increasing the titer, yield and productivity of this metabolite compared to the isogenic pykF+ strain. The best producing strain accumulated up to 43g/L of SA in 30h and relatively low concentrations of acetate and aromatic byproducts were detected, with SA accounting for 80% of the produced aromatic compounds. These results were consistent with high expression levels of the glycolytic pathway and synthetic operon genes from the beginning of fermentations, as revealed by transcriptomic analysis. Despite the consumption of 100g/L of glucose, the yields on glucose of SA and of total aromatic compounds were about 50% and 60% of the theoretical maximum, respectively. The obtained yields and specific production and consumption rates proved to be constant with three different substrate concentrations. The developed production system allowed continuous SA accumulation until glucose exhaustion and eliminated the requirement for culture inducers. The obtained SA titers and yields represent the highest reported values for a high-substrate batch process, postulating the strategy described in this report as an interesting alternative to the traditionally employed fed-batch processes for SA production.
    Microbial Cell Factories 09/2013; 12(1):86. DOI:10.1186/1475-2859-12-86 · 4.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Traditional strategies for production of thermo-induced recombinant protein in E. coli consist of a two-phase culture, with an initial growth stage at low temperature (commonly 30°C) followed by a production stage where temperature is increased stepwise (commonly up to 42°C). A disadvantage of such strategies is that growth is inhibited upon temperature increase, limiting the duration of the production stage and consequently limiting recombinant protein production. In this work, a novel oscillatory thermo-induction strategy, consisting on temperature fluctuations between 37 and 42°C or 30 and 42°C, was tested for improving recombinant protein production. In addition, the induction schemes were combined with one of three different nutrient feeding strategies: two exponential and one linear. Recombinant human preproinsulin (HPPI), produced under control of the λPL-cI857 system in the E. coli BL21 strain, was used as the model protein. Compared to the conventional induction scheme at constant temperature (42°C), longer productive times were attained under oscillatory induction, which resulted in a 1.3- to 1.7-fold increase in maximum HPPI concentration. Temperature oscillations led to a 2.3- to 4.0-fold increase in biomass accumulation and a decrease of 48 to 62% in the concentration of organic acids, compared to conventional induction. Under constant induction, growth ceased upon temperature increase and the maximum concentration of HPPI was 3.9g/L, regardless of the post-induction feeding strategy used. In comparison, the combination of temperature oscillations and a high nutrient-feeding rate allowed sustained growth after induction and reaching up to 5.8g/L of HPPI.
    Journal of Biotechnology 06/2013; 167(1). DOI:10.1016/j.jbiotec.2013.06.001 · 2.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background The bacterium Escherichia coli can be grown employing various carbohydrates as sole carbon and energy source. Among them, glucose affords the highest growth rate. This sugar is nowadays widely employed as raw material in industrial fermentations. When E. coli grows in a medium containing non-limiting concentrations of glucose, a metabolic imbalance occurs whose main consequence is acetate secretion. The production of this toxic organic acid reduces strain productivity and viability. Solutions to this problem include reducing glucose concentration by substrate feeding strategies or the generation of mutant strains with impaired glucose import capacity. In this work, a collection of E. coli strains with inactive genes encoding proteins involved in glucose transport where generated to determine the effects of reduced glucose import capacity on growth rate, biomass yield, acetate and production of an experimental plasmid DNA vaccine (pHN). Results A group of 15 isogenic derivatives of E. coli W3110 were generated with single and multiple deletions of genes encoding glucose, mannose, beta-glucoside, maltose and N-acetylglucosamine components of the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS), as well as the galactose symporter and the Mgl galactose/glucose ABC transporter. These strains were characterized by growing them in mineral salts medium supplemented with 2.5 g/L glucose. Maximum specific rates of glucose consumption (qs) spanning from 1.33 to 0.32 g/g h were displayed by the group of mutants and W3110, which resulted in specific growth rates ranging from 0.65-0.18 h-1. Acetate accumulation was reduced or abolished in cultures with all mutant strains. W3110 and five selected mutant derivatives were transformed with pHN. A 3.2-fold increase in pHN yield on biomass was observed in cultures of a mutant strain with deletion of genes encoding the glucose and mannose PTS components, as well as Mgl. Conclusions The group of E. coli mutants generated in this study displayed a reduction or elimination of overflow metabolism and a linear correlation between qs and the maximum specific growth rate as well as the acetate production rate. By comparing DNA vaccine production parameters among some of these mutants, it was possible to identify a near-optimal glucose import rate value for this particular application. The strains employed in this study should be a useful resource for studying the effects of different predefined qs values on production capacity for various biotechnological products.
    Microbial Cell Factories 05/2013; 12(1):42. DOI:10.1186/1475-2859-12-42 · 4.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Adenosine-5-triphosphate (ATP) plays a fundamental role in many cellular processes such as transport, central carbon metabolism, biosynthetic reactions, macromolecular synthesis, signal transduction and cellular division. In addition, the intracellular [ATP]/[ADP] ratio in Escherichia coli plays an important role in controlling the specific rates of growth (µ), glucose consumption (q(Glc) ) and oxygen uptake (q(O2) ), as well as the transcriptome pattern in the cell, as was recently reported. In the current study, the energetic level (expressed as [ATP]/[ADP] ratio) was substantially reduced in E. coli strains by either over-expressing the F(1) -ATPase activity (JMAGD(+) ) or inactivating ATP synthase (JMat(-) ). The physiological characterization of the wild-type JM101 strain and its derivative JMAGD(+) and JMatp(-) strains was conducted in bioreactors containing minimal medium with glucose. The inactivation of the atp operon and F(1) -ATPase overexpression significantly diminished the energetic level and cAMP concentration in derivative strains. Relative transcription levels of 105 genes involved in glucose transport, glycolysis, tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, fermentation, respiration, transcriptional regulators, transcription and genes involved in stress were determined by using qPCR. Interestingly, in the JMAGD(+) and JMatp(-) strains, having a reduced energetic level, many transcripts of glycolysis, TCA cycle and respiratory genes were down-regulated when compared to wild type JM101. The transcriptional responses, detected in the strains with reduced energetic level show down-regulation of genes involved in central carbon metabolism and respiration, these results are apposite to the observed trends of increased metabolic fluxes in glucose consumption, glycolysis, acetate synthesis, TCA cycle and respiration. Regulation mediated by CRP-cAMP complex may explain some observed transcriptional responses of TCA cycle genes, since cAMP concentration and crp transcript level were significant reduced in the JMatp(-) mutant. Therefore, the substantial reduction of [ATP]/[ADP] ratio had a relevant effect on the CRP-cAMP regulatory system (among other global regulators), which may trigger an extensive transcriptional response. (© 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim).
    Journal of Basic Microbiology 03/2013; 53(4). DOI:10.1002/jobm.201100525 · 1.20 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

12k Citations
578.84 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1979–2015
    • Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México
      • • Departamento de Ingeniería Celular y Biocatálisis
      • • Institute of Biotechnology
      • • Department of Molecular Microbiology
      • • Departament of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology
      • • Department of Molecular Genetics
      • • Institute for Biomedical Investigation
      Ciudad de México, Mexico City, Mexico
    • City of Hope National Medical Center
      • Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology
      Duarte, CA, United States
  • 1996–2009
    • Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos
      • Centre of Biotechnological Research (CEIB)
      Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico
  • 2004
    • Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo
      Villa Gustavo A. Madero, The Federal District, Mexico
  • 1998
    • Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey
      New Brunswick, New Jersey, United States
  • 1978
    • University of California, San Francisco
      • Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics
      San Francisco, California, United States
    • Instituto de Investigaciones Biomedicas de Barcelona
      Barcino, Catalonia, Spain