[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: the aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between positive painful forced internal rotation (FIR) and lateral pulley instability in the presence of a pre-diagnosed posterosuperior cuff tear. The same investigation was conducted for painful active internal rotation (AIR).
a multicenter prospective study was conducted in a series of patients scheduled to undergo arthroscopic posterosuperior cuff repair. Pain was assessed using a visual analog scale (VAS) and the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand questionnaire (DASH) was administered. The VAS score at rest, DASH score, and presence/absence of pain on FIR and AIR were recorded and their relationships with lesions of the lateral pulley, cuff tear patterns and shape of lesions were analyzed.
the study population consisted of 115 patients (mean age: 55.1 years) recruited from 12 centers. The dominant arm was affected in 72 cases (62.6%). The average anteroposterior extension of the lesion was 1.61 cm. The mean preoperative VAS and DASH scores were 6.1 and 41.8, respectively. FIR and AIR were positive in 94 (81.7%) and 85 (73.9%) cases, respectively. The lateral pulley was compromised in 50 cases (43.4%). Cuff tears were partial articular in 35 patients (30.4%), complete in 61 (53%), and partial bursal in 19 (16.5%). No statistical correlation between positive FIR or AIR and lateral pulley lesions was detected. Positive FIR and AIR were statistically associated with complete lesions. Negative FIR was associated with the presence of partial articular tears.
painful FIR in the presence of a postero-superior cuff tear does not indicate lateral pulley instability. When a cuff tear is suspected, positive FIR and AIR are suggestive of full-thickness tear patterns while a negative FIR suggests a partial articular lesion.
level I, validating cohort study with good reference standards.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
the aim of this study was to evaluate the role of arthroscopic capsuloplasty in the treatment of failed primary arthroscopic treatment of glenohumeral instability.
we retrospectively examined at a minimum of 3-years follow-up 22 patients who underwent arthroscopic treatment between 1999 and 2007 who had recurrent anterior shoulder instability with a post-surgical failure. A statistical analysis was performed to evaluate which variable could influence the definitive result and clinical outcomes at final follow-up. A p value of less than 0.05 was considered significant.
we observed after revision surgery an overall failure rate of 8/22 (36.4%) including frank dislocations, subluxations and also apprehension that seriously inhibit the patient's quality of life. No significant differences were observed in the examined parameters.
according to our outcomes we generally do not recommend an arthroscopic revision procedure for failed instability surgery.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: this study was performed to identify the role of arthroscopic capsulo-labral repair (ACR) in unidirectional post-traumatic shoulder instability in adolescent athletes participating in overhead or contact sports.
sixty-five adolescent patients (aged 13 to 18 years) with post-traumatic shoulder instability submitted to arthroscopic surgery were selected from our database. The mean follow-up duration was 63 months. Shoulder range of motion and functional outcomes were evaluated preoperatively and postoperatively using the Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation (SANE), Rowe, and American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) scores. In addition, details in the database on the type of sport practiced, time until surgery, and number of dislocations were analyzed to look for possible correlations with the recurrence rate.
at the final follow-up, the mean SANE score was 87.23% (range: 30% to 100%) (preoperative mean score: 46.15% [range, 20% to 50%]); the mean Rowe score was 85 (range: 30 to 100) (preoperative mean score: 35.9 [range: 30 to 50]); and the mean ASES score was 84.12 (range: 30 to 100) (preoperative mean score: 36.92 [range: 30 to 48]). Mean forward flexion and external rotation with the arm at 90° abduction did not show changes compared with preoperative values; 81.5% of the patients returned to their pre-injury level of sports activities, and the failure rate was 21.5%. The recurrence rate was not related to the postoperative scores (p = 0.556 for SANE, p = 0.753 for Rowe, and p = 0.478 for ASES), number of preoperative episodes of instability (p = 0.59), or time that elapsed between the first instability episode and the surgery (p = 0.43). A statistically significant association (p = 0.0021) was found between recurrence and the type of sport practiced.
ACR is a reasonable surgical option in an adolescent population participating in sports. It has a role in restoring shoulder stability with very low morbidity; however, the failure rate is higher than in the adult population and both the young patients and their relatives must be properly informed about the expected outcome of the procedure.
level IV, therapeutic case series.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to compare the clinical and subjective difference between transtendon repair or complete/repair in two homogeneous groups of patients affected by deep partial articular supraspinatus tear. METHODS: Seventy-four patients were randomized in two groups of 37 patients each. The first group (A) was treated with arthroscopic transtendon repair while the second group (B) was treated with an arthroscopic completion of the tear and formal repair. All the patients were revaluated at a minimum 2 years of follow-up with Constant score and Visual Analogic Scale (VAS). RESULTS: Constant score improved by a mean value of 25 (95 % CI 21-28) (p < 0.0001) and of 29 (95 % CI 26-31) (p < 0.0001), respectively; VAS score decreased by a mean value of 3.4 (95 % CI 2.9-3.9) (p < 0.0001) and of 3.6 (95 % CI 3.3-4.0) (p < 0.0001), respectively. The improvement was higher in both groups for the ADL, and in Group B, the improvement in strength was higher than in Group A. There were no statistical differences between the two different techniques. CONCLUSION: Both repairing techniques of deep partial supraspinatus tear provide good results in terms of function and pain. There were no statistically significant differences between the two techniques. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prospective comparative study, Level II.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The tendon of the long head of the biceps (LHB) is a common source of pain in the shoulder, and the surgical treatments proposed are tenotomy or tenodesis performed in different ways. The purpose of this study is to compare the clinical results (objective and subjective) of tenotomy versus soft tissue tenodesis. One-hundred and four patients with an isolated LHB pathology, arthroscopically treated between 2004 and 2007, were observed retrospectively. Forty-eight of these patients were treated with tenotomy and 56 with a soft tissue tenodesis technique. All the patients were evaluated by an independent observer with a minimum follow-up of 2 years which included VAS, DASH questionnaire, Constant score and ROM evaluation with a goniometer. All these evaluations were performed pre- and post-operatively. An independent expert radiologist then performed an ultrasound examination only in the post-operative evaluation of the tenodesis group looking to confirm the effectiveness of the procedure. In both groups, the scores were significantly improved. In the tenotomy group, 16.6 % of the patients had bicipital cramps for a mean post-operative time of 1 month. Constant score improved in both groups: 46.6 to 86.1 in tenotomy group and 48.9-84.9 in tenodesis group; VAS improved from 8.4 to 1.5 in tenotomy group and from 8.8 to 1.4 in tenodesis group; DASH scores changed from 42.5 to 13.6 in tenotomy group and from 55.8 to 11.4 in tenodesis group. Popeye sign was present in 37.5 % in the tenotomy group and in 5.3 % in tenodesis group. In 3 patients of the tenodesis group, ultrasound revealed complete failure of the tenodesis. In conclusion, both procedures are effective in terms of treatment of LHB pathologies. Tenotomy does not require specific post-operative treatment and is easy to perform, but cramp and Popeye sign may occur after surgery. The soft tissue tenodesis technique is an easy and cost-effective way to perform tenodesis with good results, especially in preventing the Popeye sign, but requires a longer rehabilitation time. Level of evidence IV.
MUSCULOSKELETAL SURGERY 04/2012; 96 Suppl 1(S1):S47-52. DOI:10.1007/s12306-012-0189-0
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the outcome of arthroscopic capsular repair for shoulder instability in an active adolescent population participating in overhead or contact sports.
We identified 67 patients (aged 13 to 18 years) with post-traumatic recurrent shoulder instability for inclusion in the study from our computer database. Of these patients, 65 (96%) were available for clinical review. There were 44 male and 21 female patients, with a mean age of 16 years at the time of surgery. All patients participated in overhead or contact sports at a competitive level. Arthroscopic capsulolabral repair was performed after at least 6 months of failed nonoperative treatment. The mean follow-up was 63 months. Shoulder range of motion and functional outcomes were measured preoperatively and postoperatively with Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation (SANE), Rowe, and American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) scores. Furthermore, type of sport, time until surgery, and number of dislocations were analyzed from our database to find any correlation with the recurrence rate.
At final follow-up, the mean SANE score was 87.23% (range, 30% to 100%) (preoperative mean, 46.15% [range, 20% to 50%]); the mean Rowe score was 85 (range, 30 to 100) (preoperative mean, 35.9 [range, 30 to 50]); and the mean ASES score was 84.12 (range, 30 to 100) (preoperative mean, 36.92 [range, 30 to 48]). The mean forward flexion and external rotation with the arm at 90° abduction did not change from preoperative values; 81% of the patients returned to their preinjury level of sport, and the rate of failure was 21%. The recurrence rate was not related to the postoperative scores (P = .556 for SANE score, P = .753 for Rowe score, and P = .478 for ASES score), the number of preoperative episodes of instability (P = .59), or the time from the first instability episode to the time of surgery (P = .43). There was a statistically significant relation (P = .0021) between recurrence and the type of sport practiced. Recurrence rate was related to the type of sport practiced.
Arthroscopic stabilization is a reasonable surgical option even in an adolescent population performing sports activities. However, it must be emphasized to the patients and their relatives that the recurrence rate that could be expected after an arthroscopic procedure is higher than in the adult population.
Level IV, therapeutic case series.
Arthroscopy The Journal of Arthroscopic and Related Surgery 11/2011; 28(3):309-15. DOI:10.1016/j.arthro.2011.08.302 · 3.21 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In recent years the advent of arthroscopy has given a great contribution to a better understanding of the pathological findings of shoulder instability. Today we know that between the classical TUBS and AMBRI there is a new group of instabilities defined as minor or occult instabilities (AIOS and AMSI). This group of instabilities is more difficult to diagnose and sometimes they are wrongly identified with a subacromial pathology in the preoperative phase. On the other hand, we have also understood that the capsular avulsion from the humeral head named HAGL and PHAGL lesion can be responsible of shoulder instability. These kind of lesions can be diagnosed arthroscopically and some of them can be also treated at the same time with satisfactory outcomes. However, not all of these minor capsulo-ligamentous lesions can be successfully treated by means of arthroscopy, particularly some HAGL lesions, and in selected cases we prefer to switch to open surgery.
LO SCALPELLO-OTODI Educational 07/2011; 25(2). DOI:10.1007/s11639-011-0107-5
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There are not many reports in the literature about the long-term outcomes in terms of recurrence and degenerative changes after arthroscopic capsulolabral reconstruction for anterior shoulder instability.
The aim of this study was to evaluate long-term follow-up (minimum 10 years) of arthroscopic suture-anchor repair for traumatic unidirectional anterior instability, with special emphasis on the radiological evidence of arthritis and clinical outcome.
Case series; Level of evidence, 4.
Forty-two patients (43 shoulders) treated at our institute from 1995 to 1997 were included in the study. Thirty patients (31 shoulders) were available for clinical and radiological examination (71%). The mean follow-up was 10.9 years (range, 9.8-14.3 years). Patients were evaluated preoperatively and after surgery using the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), Simple Shoulder Test (SST), and Rowe score. Patient satisfaction was determined by asking the patients if they would do this operation again. Radiological outcome was used to evaluate the incidence and grade of arthritis according to the Samilson-Prieto classification.
At the final follow-up examination, 5 patients (16%) reported an atraumatic recurrent instability, while 2 recurrences (7%) occurred after a major injury. Three of the 7 recurrences occurred 6 years after surgery. All of the patients in the recurrence group except 1 were contact or overhead athletes. Twenty-six patients were satisfied (84%) with the outcome. The SST showed an improvement of shoulder function in 23 cases, the UCLA score improved from 21.8 to 32.1, and the Rowe score showed excellent or good results in 77.3% of cases. Twenty-two patients (71%) were able to return to their preoperative sports level. Radiographic findings showed 9 cases with mild arthritis (29%) and 3 cases with moderate arthritis (10%).
The recurrence rate deteriorated with time. Involvement in contact sports and overhead activities appears to be a risk factor for recurrence of instability, although this could not be proved statistically with the numbers available, whereas age, gender, and number of preoperative dislocations did not reveal any correlation with recurrence. Degenerative changes of the glenohumeral joint were noted but had no significant effect on the clinical outcomes.
The American Journal of Sports Medicine 10/2010; 38(10):2012-6. DOI:10.1177/0363546510372614 · 4.36 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Today advances in techniques and materials for rotator cuff surgery allow the repair of a large variety of types or extensions of cuff lesions in patients from a wide range of age groups who have different kinds of jobs and participate in different kinds of sports, and who have widely different expectations in terms of recovery of functions and pain relief. A large number of factors must be taken into account before implementing a rehabilitation protocol after rotator cuff surgery. These mainly include the technique (materials and procedure) used by the surgeon. Moreover, tissue quality, retraction, fatty infiltration and time from rupture are important biological factors while the patient's work or sport or daily activities after surgery and expectations of recovery must also be assessed. A rehabilitation protocol should also take into account the timing of biological healing of bone to tendon or tendon to tendon interface, depending on the type of rupture and repair. This timing should direct the therapist's choice of correct passive or assisted exercise and mobilisation manoeuvres and the teaching of correct active mobilisation movements the patient has to do. Following accepted knowledge about the time of biological tissue healing, surgical technique and focused rehabilitation exercise, a conceptual protocol in four phases could be applied, tailoring the protocol for each patient. It starts with sling rest with passive small self-assisted arm motion in phase one, to prevent post-op stiffness. In phase two passive mobilisation by the patient dry or in water, integrated with scapular mobilisation and stabiliser reinforcement, are done. Phase three consists of progressive active arm mobilisation dry or in water integrated with proprioceptive exercise and "core" stabilisation. In phase four full strength recovery integrated with the recovery of work or sports movements will complete the protocol. Because of the multi-factorial aspects of the problem, the best results can be obtained through a full transfer of information from the surgeon to the therapist to optimise timing and sizing of the individual rehabilitation protocol for each patient.
La Chirurgia degli Organi di Movimento 04/2009; 93 Suppl 1(S1):S55-63. DOI:10.1007/s12306-009-0003-9
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Posterior dislocation of the shoulder is an unusual injury that most often occurs secondary to a high-energy trauma. Unfortunately the diagnosis is commonly missed, thus making its treatment a challenge. Neglected posterior dislocation is mainly characterised by an impression fracture on the anterior articular surface of the humeral head, which makes the dislocation often difficult to reduce. Diagnosis is based upon a careful history assessment, physical examination and radiological findings. Several treatment approaches have been described. The modified MacLaughlin procedure in our hands has been shown to be a reproducible technique allowing good results at medium- and long-term follow-up. According to our experience it is possible to adopt this technique also in patients with a locked posterior dislocation older than 6 months or in cases with a humeral head defect up to 50% when a shoulder prosthesis is not a good indication. Poorer results should be expected in patients with an associated fracture of the proximal humerus.
La Chirurgia degli Organi di Movimento 04/2009; 93 Suppl 1:S1-5. DOI:10.1007/s12306-009-0001-y
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transtendinous repair is a well-known technique for the arthroscopic management of partial rotator cuff tear. However, there are not a lot of clinical follow-up studies in the literature reporting data on this approach, and, moreover, potential factors responsible to influence the outcomes have not been investigated.
To evaluate clinical outcomes after arthroscopic transtendinous repair and to identify predictive factors of residual shoulder symptoms.
Case series; Level of evidence, 4.
Fifty-four patients with a mean age of 56.7 +/- 8.8 years (range, 31-71 years) who had undergone an arthroscopic transtendon repair for a painful articular-sided rotator cuff tear with a minimum of 2 years of follow-up were contacted. Clinical outcomes using a patient-based questionnaire, the Constant score, University of California at Los Angeles score, Simple Shoulder Test, and visual analog scale were evaluated. The influence of patient age, presence or absence of a trauma responsible for the cuff tear, presence of associated shoulder lesions, millimeters of exposed footprint, and millimeters of torn tendon retraction on the outcomes were assessed.
The mean cuff tear exposure footprint was 5.2 mm, and the mean retraction of the torn part of the tendon was 8 mm. Only one patient reported dissatisfaction with surgery because of persistence of pain during overhead activities. After arthroscopic repair, University of California at Los Angeles, Constant, and Simple Shoulder Test scores were significantly improved from 14.1, 45.3, and 9.8 to 32.9, 90.6, and 0.8, respectively (P < .001). Twenty-two patients (41%) reported occasional shoulder discomfort at the extremes of range of motion (particularly at extremes of abduction and internal rotation) occurring during some daily living and sports activities. The best multivariate model showed that residual shoulder discomfort is strongly linked with a partial thickness supraspinatus tendon avulsion-type articular-sided rotator cuff lesion consisting of a large tendon retraction and/or a relatively small exposure footprint area in an older patient in the absence of a specific trauma (P < .001).
Arthroscopic transtendon partial articular supraspinatus tendon avulsion-type rotator cuff repair was a reliable procedure that resulted in a good outcome in terms of pain relief and shoulder scores in 98% of the 54 patients. Better results could be expected in patients with less tendon retraction, a larger footprint exposure, of younger age, and with a clinical history of trauma.
The American Journal of Sports Medicine 01/2009; 37(1):103-8. DOI:10.1177/0363546508324178 · 4.36 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effects of posterior plications associated with anterior shoulder instability surgery are still unclear both on shoulder range of motion (ROM) and on recurrence rate. The objective of this randomized study is to evaluate the influence of posterior-inferior plications, performed in association with repair of anterior Bankart lesion, on gleno-humeral (GH) range of motion. In a 24-month period, 40 patients were prospectively enrolled in this study. The criteria for inclusion were age between 17 and 40 years, traumatic unidirectional instability, no previous shoulder surgery, no more than three episodes of dislocation, no relevant glenoid bone deficiency, no clinical evidence of pathological anterior inferior laxity (measured with external rotation with the arm at the side inferior to 90 degrees and Gagey sign negative) and arthroscopic finding of isolated anterior Bankart lesion. A total of 20 patients (group A) were randomized to treat Bankart lesion using three bioadsorbable anchors loaded with a #2 braided polyester suture. In 20 randomized patients (group B) two posterior-inferior capsular plications performed with a #1 polidioxanone suture without any capsular shift were added to the same anterior capsulorraphy performed in group A. Postoperative rehabilitation protocol was the same for all 40 patients. Patients were examined preoperatively and at a 2-year follow-up by a single independent expert physician unaware of the surgical procedure. GH ROM, Constant, UCLA and ASES rating scores as well as recurrence of instability were recorded. At follow-up, forward flexion (FF) decreased by a mean value of 14.5 degrees (median -10 degrees ; range -5 degrees to -35 degrees ; P < 0.001) in group B and increased by a mean value of 3.5 degrees (median 0 degrees ; range -25 degrees to 40 degrees ; P < 0.312) in group A; external rotation with arm adducted (ER1) increased by a mean value of 1.8 degrees (median 0 degrees ; range -15 degrees to 30 degrees ; P < 0.924) in group B, and increased by a mean value of 2.6 degrees (median 2.5 degrees ; range -38 degrees to 40 degrees ; P < 0.610) in group A; external rotation with arm abducted at 90 degrees (ER2) decreased by a mean value of 2.9 degrees (median 0 degrees ; range: -20 degrees to 10 degrees ; P < 0.161) in group B and increased by a mean value of 0.7 degrees (median 0 degrees ; range -30 degrees to 25 degrees ; P < 0.837) in group A; the IR2 decreased by a mean value of 2.4 degrees (median -3.5 degrees ; range -15 degrees to 10 degrees ; P < 0.167) in group B and increased by a mean value of 2.2 degrees (median 0 degrees ; range -20 degrees to 30 degrees ; P < 0.456) in group A. The UCLA mean score gains by 43.1% (median 40; P < 0.001) relatively, and of 45.2% relatively (median 40; P < 0.001), respectively, in group B and A, ASES mean score relatively gains by 21.7% (median 21.2%; P < 0.001) in group B, and of 19.2% (median 18.9%; P < 0.001) in group A, and Constant mean score improves by 20.2% (median 16.5; P < 0.001) in group B, and 10.2% (median 8.4%; P < 0.001) in group A. Thus, the only statistical significant differences were the reduction of forward flexion in group B and the improvements of the scores in both groups. No recurrence of instability was found in the plicated group, while in the non-plicated group we had one traumatic recurrence. In conclusion, arthroscopic posterior-inferior plications associated with a Bankart lesion repair in a selected group of patients seem to reduce only FF, without any effect on rotation. A longer follow-up and a larger number of patients are needed to give definitive conclusions on the benefit to the recurrence rate.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study is to compare percutaneous compression plating (PCCP) device with standard gamma nail (GN). A sample was prospectively followed and compared to a historical cohort: 82 intertrochanteric hip fractures in 81 patients treated with PCCP in 2004 versus 51 hip fractures treated with GN in 2003 (AO type 31A1, 31 A2). The main outcome measures were: surgery times, blood loss (Hb serum level and transfusions), complication, costs, for a 1-year follow-up. The minimally invasive PCCP technique resulted in a lower blood loss and consequently lower transfusion need (statistically significant), fewer implant-related complications and comparable surgery times. Overall surgical costs were lower for a comparable outcome in terms of healing and surgical time.
Strategies in Trauma and Limb Reconstruction 05/2008; 3(1):9-14. DOI:10.1007/s11751-008-0032-1
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The success of anatomic repair of Bankart lesion diminishes in the presence of a capsule stretching and/or attenuation is reported in a variable percentage of patients with a chronic gleno-humeral instability. We introduce a new arthroscopic stitch, the MIBA stitch, designed with a twofold aim: to improve tissue grip to reduce the risk of soft tissue tear, particularly cutting through capsular-labral tissue, to and address capsule-labral detachment and capsular attenuation using a double loaded suture anchor. This stitch is a combination of horizontal mattress stitch passing through the capsular-labral complex in a "south-to-north" direction and an overlapping single vertical suture passing through the capsule and labrum in a "east-to-west" direction. The mattress stitch is tied before the vertical stitch in order to reinforce the simple vertical stitch, improving grip and contact force between capsular-labral tissue and glenoid bone.