Colman McGrath

The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong

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Publications (158)242.16 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objectives The objective of this study was to review orofacial functional impairments among patients following stroke, including objective and subjective assessment.MethodsA structured search strategy was applied to three electronic databases (Pubmed, Embase, and Web of Science) to identify effective papers. Relevant data regarding subjects, method, outcomes, and key findings were extracted from the effective papers and the results were summarized.ResultsThe initial search yielded 5227 papers, and 18 effective papers (Kappa: 0.971) were in accordance with the inclusion criteria. The patients with stroke consistently showed a decreased lip force, salivary flow rate, and chewing performance compared to the healthy controls. Due to equivocal results gained from the effective papers, the qualitative assessments regarding whether there was any change in masticatory force on the affected side and oral health-related quality of life were inconclusive.Conclusions Existing evidence highlights a number of compromised orofacial functions experienced by patients following stroke. These impairments appear to be sustained, with spontaneous recovery unlikely to occur. While rehabilitative approaches may have the potential to improve orofacial function and quality of life following stroke, there is currently a lack of evidence-based interventions available to inform the development of comprehensive rehabilitation protocols.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Oral Diseases 07/2014; · 2.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to review clinical, microbiological, and immunological aspects of oral health, as well as oral health related behaviors among patients following stroke.
    Journal of dentistry. 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic orofacial pain (OFP) is common in general adult populations worldwide. High levels of psychological distress and impaired coping abilities are common among Western people with chronic OFP but limited information was found in southern Chinese people. This study aimed to explore the perceptions and experiences of community dwelling elderly people with chronic OFP symptoms and their treatment seeking behaviour in Hong Kong. An exploratory qualitative interview study was conducted. Elderly people experiencing chronic OFP symptoms were invited to take part in an individual semi-structured interview. A total of 25 semi-structured interviews were performed for 25 participants. Pertinent issues relating to the treatment seeking behaviour emerged from the interviews, many of which were inter-related and overlapping. They were organized into three major themes: (i) Impact of chronic OFP on daily life; (ii) Personal knowledge and feeling of chronic OFP; (iii) Management of chronic OFP. The participants were found to have the intention to seek professional treatment, but there were barriers which discouraged them continuing to seek professional treatment. They also received complementary treatment for chronic OFP, such as acupuncture, massage and "chi kung". Moreover, a wide range self-management techniques were also mentioned. On the other hand, those who did not seek professional treatment for the chronic OFP claimed that they had accepted or adapted to the pain as part of their lives. This qualitative study observed that elderly people affected by chronic OFP symptoms in Hong Kong sought many different ways to manage their pain including traditional and complementary approaches. The role of the dentist in dealing with chronic OFP is unclear. Multiple barriers exist to accessing care for chronic OFP. The findings may be used to inform future chronic OFP management strategies in Hong Kong.
    BMC Oral Health 01/2014; 14(1):8. · 1.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) of young adults in Hong Kong and its relationships with oral health status. A survey was conducted in a representative sample of Hong Kong adults aged 18 years. OHRQoL was measured by the short form Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14, Chinese version). Clinical examinations were taken to assess the oral health status using DMFT index and Community Periodontal Index (CPI) according to WHO criteria. Information on socioeconomic status, self-perceived oral health status and treatment need was also collected. Totally 324 young adults (male: 177 and female: 147) were examined. The mean and median OHIP-14 score were 6.3 (SD = 5.8, range = 0–26) and 5, respectively. Half of the subjects (50.6 %) reported some negative impacts. Good internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.87) and construct validity in relation to perceived oral health status, perceived dental treatment need and perceived oral health impact on daily life were established. Neither socio-demographic background nor oral health status showed a significant association with OHIP-14 score (p > 0.05). The findings indicated that the impact of oral health on quality of life appeared to be low in the young Hong Kong adults. Chinese version of OHIP-14 had good reliability and validity in measuring OHRQoL of young Chinese adults. Neither socio-demographic background nor oral health status had an influence on their OHRQoL in this low impact population.
    Applied Research in Quality of Life 01/2014; · 0.74 Impact Factor
  • Pei Liu, Colman McGrath, Gary Shun Pan Cheung
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction To date, evidence of the effectiveness of endodontic treatment and criteria of success have mainly been considered in terms of clinical outcome, and there is a lack of information of treatment outcomes from patients' perspectives. This study aimed to assess changes in quality of life after endodontic treatment and to determine if changes in quality of life were associated with changes in patient-perceived oral health and clinical assessments of success. Methods This longitudinal study involved 279 subjects. Patient-reported outcome measures based on oral health–related quality of life was assessed using the short form of the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14). The patients completed the assessments before endodontic treatment and 1 month and 6 months after root canal obturation. A global oral health transition assessment was ascertained by a single (global) item rating of oral health improvement and clinical assessment mainly based on the Periapical Index (PAI) of periapical radiographs. Results There were significant changes in OHIP-14 scores over the study period after conventional orthograde endodontic treatment (from pretreatment–6 months postobturation) (P < .001). The magnitude of statistical change (effect size) was moderate (0.61) in the short-term (after 1 month) and large (0.71) in the longer-term (after 6 months). Changes in the OHIP-14 was associated with changes in patient self-rating oral health status (P < .001), which was also associated with changes in PAI scores (P < .05). Conclusions Endodontic treatment improves quality of life. The OHIP-14 measure is both sensitive and responsive to endodontic treatment and is likely to be useful in understanding patients' perspectives of outcomes from endodontic care.
    Journal of Endodontics. 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Internet social media offers a rich source for soliciting the public's views on health issues. This qualitative research, using You-Tube as a platform, aimed to explore the public's perspectives on management of dental fear and anxiety (DFA) in pediatric patients. Using three keywords ("dental fear," "dental phobia," and "dental anxiety"), YouTube videos were searched. Twenty-seven videos related to DFA in children and adolescents were reviewed by three investigators, including a nondental layperson. Inductive thematic analysis was adopted for interpreting the data. Several strategies were considered useful for controlling DFA in pediatric patients, including: verbal and nonverbal communication to establish closeness and effective guidance (explanation, permission-seeking, reassurance, and negotiation); desensitization to dental settings and procedures; tell-show-do; positive reinforcement; distraction by imagination and thoughtful designs of clinic; and parental presence and support. Some self-coping strategies adopted by patients alleviated their DFA, such as self-reasoning and trust-building through long-term connection. Dentists' clinical competence, favorable treatment outcomes, and state-of-the-art devices and technologies (dental lasers, intraoral camera, and adapted anaesthesia method) contributed to reducing DFA. Authentic testimonials in YouTube videos endorsed and interpreted a variety of strategies adoptable by patients, parents, and dental professionals for managing children's and adolescents' dental fears and anxieties.
    Pediatric dentistry. 01/2014; 36(1):29-33.
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: To explore the influence of socio-demographic and clinical oral health factors on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) in patients after stroke, and to monitor OHRQoL outcomes following the provision of an in-hospital oral health intervention programme.Design: OHRQoL was measured before and after randomization and provision of oral health promotion interventions in a prospective clinical trial.Subjects: Eighty-one patients admitted to a stroke rehabilitation ward.Methods: OHRQoL was assessed using the Oral Health Impact Profile-14 (OHIP-14) and Oral Health Transition Scale upon admission and 3 weeks later following provision of an oral health promotion programme. Potential factors were examined for their association with OHRQoL outcomes.Results: Lack of a regular daily brushing habit was significantly associated with 6 of 8 transition scale items (pp Conclusion: OHRQoL is compromised following stroke and may be influenced by the lack of a regular daily brushing habit during hospitalization. The early re-establishment of an oral hygiene protocol is a priority in stroke rehabilitation wards in order to improve clinical oral health and OHRQoL.
    Historical Journal Of Film Radio and Television 01/2014; 46(6).
  • S M Peng, H M Wong, N M King, C McGrath
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    ABSTRACT: Background/Aims: To investigate the cross-sectional relationship between dental caries experience and adiposity status (general, central, and peripheral adiposity) in 12-year-old children in Hong Kong. Methods: A random sample of 668 12-year-old students was recruited. Clinical assessment for dental caries (DMFT) was conducted using WHO criteria. Anthropometric measurements for body height, body weight, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference and triceps skinfold thickness (TRSKF) were performed to assess general adiposity (weight-height ratio, body mass index); central adiposity (WC; waist-hip ratio, WHR), and peripheral adiposity (TRSKF). Associations between adiposity indices and dental caries experience [prevalence DMFT >0, 'high' experience (DMFT ≥ SiC Index value) and 'very high' experience (DMFT ≥ SiC(10) Index value)] were examined in bivariate and multivariate regression analyses. Results: The response rate was 76.9% (n = 514/668). Regression analyses (adjusted for oral hygiene practice, snacking habits, and socio-demographic factors) identified that WHR z score was associated with 'high' dental caries experience (OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.05, 1.70, p = 0.02), and that WHR z score was associated with 'very high' dental caries experience (OR 1.52, 95% CI 1.10, 2.11, p = 0.01). TRSKF z score was associated with 'very high' dental caries experience (OR 1.47, 95% CI 1.10, 1.96, p = 0.01). Conclusions: In a population-based sample of 12-year-old children in Hong Kong, dental caries experience was associated with adiposity. Central and peripheral, but not general adiposity was associated with dental caries experience. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Caries Research 11/2013; 48(1):32-38. · 2.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To describe the relationship between caregivers' oral health literacy (OHL) and the oral health status of their children in an Asian population. A random sample of 301 child/caregiver dyads was recruited from kindergartens in Hong Kong. Two locally-developed and validated OHL assessment tasks were administered to caregivers with Hong Kong Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Dentistry-30 (HKREALD-30) assessing word recognition and Hong Kong Oral Health Literacy Assessment Task for Paediatric Dentistry (HKOHLAT-P) assessing comprehension. Their children's oral health status was assessed [dental caries experience - decayed, missing, filled teeth index - (dmft) and oral hygiene status - Visible Plaque Index (VPI)]. Caregivers' literacy was associated with children's oral health status. The HKOHLAT-P had a stronger association with children's oral health than HKREALD-30. HKOHLAT-P and HKREALD-30 remained associated with dmft in the adjusted negative binomial regression models (accounting for socio-demographics), Incidence Rate Ratio (IRR) 0.97, p=0.02, and 0.96, p=0.03, respectively. In the adjusted model, HKOHLAT-P was associated with VPI (IRR 0.90, p<0.05), but no association between HKREALD-30 and VPI was evident. The main conclusion of this study was that caregiver oral health literacy was associated with their child's oral health status. A comprehension instrument had a more robust association with children's oral status than a word recognition instrument. This study has implications for general public health education for designing community-level interventions.
    Patient Education and Counseling 11/2013; · 2.60 Impact Factor
  • Gillian H M Lee, Colman McGrath, Cynthia K Y Yiu
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    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to explore the preferred treatment for pre-school children with caries of different severities in primary teeth among general dental practitioners (GDPs) and specialists in paediatric dentistry (PDs) in Hong Kong, and to determine the difference in practice patterns between the groups. A random sample of 476 GDPs (approximately 25% of all registered dentists) and all registered PDs (n = 28) were invited to participate in the study. Both groups were asked to select their single most preferred treatment option on eight hypothetical clinical case scenarios in which the severity of dental caries in a single primary molar/incisor of a 4-year-old healthy and cooperative boy differed. The distribution frequency of responses was tabled. Difference in the care approach patterns of GDPs and PDs were examined in bivariate and regression analyses. The overall response rate of the study was 61.5% (310/504). There were significant differences between the GDPs and PDs on their preferred treatment in six out of eight case scenarios (P < 0.05). PDs favoured comprehensive restorative treatment more than GDPs. Non-interventionist approach, atraumatic restorative technique or extraction were more popular among GDPs. Variation in treatment choices was apparent within both GDPs and PDs, in which spread of treatment options was wider among GDPs. GDPs and PDs have different dental care approach patterns for pre-school children with dental caries. Wide variation in the views about the best way to treat the child exists within both groups.
    International Dental Journal 10/2013; 63(5):273-280. · 1.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This paper describes the development of a new literacy assessment instrument, the Hong Kong Oral Health Literacy Assessment Task for Paediatric Dentistry (HKOHLAT-P). Its relationship to literacy theory is analyzed to establish content and face validity. Implications for construct validity are examined by analyzing cognitive demand to determine how "comprehension" is measured. Key influences from literacy assessment were identified to analyze item development. Cognitive demand was analyzed using an established taxonomy. The HKOHLAT-P focuses on the functional domain of health literacy assessment. Items had strong content and face validity reflecting established principles from modern literacy theory. Inclusion of new text types signified relevant developments in the area of new literacies. Analysis of cognitive demand indicated that this instrument assesses the "comprehension" domain, specifically the areas of factual and procedural knowledge, with some assessment of conceptual knowledge. Metacognitive knowledge was not assessed. Comprehension tasks assessing patient health literacy predominantly examine functional health literacy at the lower levels of comprehension. Item development is influenced by the fields of situated and authentic literacy. Inclusion of content regarding multiliteracies is suggested for further research. Development of functional health literacy assessment instruments requires careful consideration of the clinical context in determining construct validity.
    Journal of Public Health Dentistry 09/2013; · 1.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Oral health literacy is a newly emerging field with considerable research potential. To validate an original instrument, the Hong Kong Oral Health Literacy Assessment Task (HKOHLAT-P) for paediatric dentistry. A convenient sample of 200 child/parent dyads attending a dental hospital in Hong Kong was selected. Convergent validity was tested by examining the association of HKOHLAT-P scores with those derived from the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Dentistry (TOFHLiD) and Hong Kong Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Dentistry (HKREALD-30). The predictive validity of HKOHLAT-P was determined by testing the association between HKOHLAT-P and children's caries experience (dmft) and the Chinese Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS). The test-retest reliability and internal consistency of HKOHLAT-P were also evaluated. HKOHLAT-P was positively correlated with TOFHLiD and HKREALD-30 (P < 0.01), and was negatively correlated with children's dmft and ECOHIS. In the regression model, HKOHLAT-P was associated with TOFHLiD, HKEALD-30, children's dmft, and ECOHIS (P < 0.05) after controlling for participants' demographic characteristics. The intra-class correlation coefficient of HKOHLAT-P was 0.63 and the Cronbach's α was 0.71. Initial testing of HKOHLAT-P suggested that it is a valid and reliable instrument.
    International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry 09/2013; 23(5):366-75. · 0.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Limited information on oral health status for young adults aged 18 year-olds is known, and no available data exists in Hong Kong. The aims of this study were to investigate the oral health status and its risk indicators among young adults in Hong Kong using negative binomial regression. A survey was conducted in a representative sample of Hong Kong young adults aged 18 years. Clinical examinations were taken to assess oral health status using DMFT index and Community Periodontal Index (CPI) according to WHO criteria. Negative binomial regressions for DMFT score and the number of sextants with healthy gums were performed to identify the risk indicators of oral health status. A total of 324 young adults were examined. Prevalence of dental caries experience among the subjects was 59% and the overall mean DMFT score was 1.4. Most subjects (95%) had a score of 2 as their highest CPI score. Negative binomial regression analyses revealed that subjects who had a dental visit within 3 years had significantly higher DMFT scores (IRR = 1.68, p < 0.001). Subjects who brushed their teeth more frequently (IRR = 1.93, p < 0.001) and those with better dental knowledge (IRR = 1.09, p = 0.002) had significantly more sextants with healthy gums. Dental caries experience of the young adults aged 18 years in Hong Kong was not high but their periodontal condition was unsatisfactory. Their oral health status was related to their dental visit behavior, oral hygiene habit, and oral health knowledge.
    BMC Oral Health 08/2013; 13(1):40. · 1.34 Impact Factor
  • Hai Ming Wong, Colman McGrath, Nigel M King
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    ABSTRACT: To compare the prevalence and severity of diffuse opacities among subjects whose maxillary incisors developed during periods with different concentrations of fluoride in the Hong Kong public water supply. Standardized intra-oral photographs of random samples of 12-year-old children were collected in 1983, 1991, 2001 and 2010 (n = 2658) in Hong Kong and were assessed for diffuse opacities by a calibrated and blinded examiner. The fluoride concentrations in the public water supply at the times when the enamel on their maxillary incisors developed were 1.0, 0.7, 0.5 and 0.5 ppm, respectively. The mouth prevalence figures for diffuse opacities of these children (based on the maxillary incisors) were 89.3%, 48.5%, 32.4% and 42.1 in the years 1983, 1991, 2001 and 2010, respectively. Variation in the mouth and tooth prevalences of diffuse opacities was apparent among the four different year groups (P < 0.0001). Marked differences in severity of diffuse opacities, in terms of different subtypes and maximum extent of tooth affected, were also observed in association with the year of study (P < 0.001). The prevalence and severity of diffuse opacities among maxillary incisor teeth of Hong Kong children decreased from 1983 and then increased in 2010; however, this change did not fully correspond to the concentration of fluoride in the drinking water during the time of enamel development.
    Community Dentistry And Oral Epidemiology 07/2013; · 1.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the effectiveness of natural compounds containing mouthrinse (NCCM) as an adjunct to unsupervised oral hygiene in the management of dental plaque and gingivitis. An electronic search for clinical studies of NCCMs was conducted in Medline-PubMed, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and EMBASE for a period spanning from the earliest available date in each database up to February 2013. Plaque index, gingival index, and gingival bleeding index were selected as primary outcomes. The methodological quality of the studies was assessed according to the "Levels of Evidence" outlined by the Center of Evidence-Based Medicine, and to the Jadad scale. The screen yielded 2,236 titles and abstracts that met the inclusion criteria. These identified 11 clinical trials testing 13 different NCCMs, and were used for data extraction. Heterogeneity and the limited number of studies on any individual NCCM precluded a formal meta-analysis. Of the 13 NCCMs tested, eight demonstrated positive results, and few reported any adverse effects or events. Evidence proving the effectiveness of NCCM as an adjunct to unsupervised oral hygiene for plaque and gingivitis control is still insufficient. However, some natural products (compounds) may have oral health benefits, so further high-quality study is warranted. This review provides an overview of the strength of clinical evidence regarding the effectiveness of natural compounds containing mouthrinses in promoting gingival health.
    Clinical Oral Investigations 07/2013; · 2.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: To date, research on the relationship between dental caries experience and adiposity status is debated. AIM: To determine associations between dental caries experience and adiposity status among a community sample of preschool children in Hong Kong. DESIGN: Among a random sample of 5-year-old children, clinical assessment for dental caries was conducted using WHO criteria. Anthropometric measurements for body weight, body height, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference, and triceps skinfold thickness (TRSKF) were performed to assess general adiposity, central adiposity, and peripheral adiposity. Associations between adiposity status and caries were examined in regression analyses. RESULTS: The response rate was 83.1% (324/390). Regression analyses (adjusted for tooth brushing habits, snacking habits, and socio-demographic factors) identified that weight/height ratio z-score was associated with caries experience: prevalence of dental caries experience (dmft > 0), OR 1.41 (95% CI 1.04, 1.91), and 'very high' caries experience (dmft ≥ SiC(10) Index value), OR 1.62, (95% CI 1.05, 2.50). In addition, WC z-score was associated with 'very high' caries experience (dmft ≥ SiC(10) Index value), OR 1.72, 95% CI 1.06, 2.81. CONCLUSION: In a Hong Kong community sample of preschool children, dental caries experience was associated with general adiposity (as assessed by weight/height ratio) and central adiposity (as assessed by WC).
    International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry 05/2013; · 0.92 Impact Factor
  • P Liu, C McGrath, G Cheung
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the associations between endodontic factors and oral health-related quality of life (OHQoL), controlling for socio-demographics, pain and other oral health clinical factors. OHQoL assessments were conducted amongst a consecutive sample of 412 Chinese patients requiring endodontic treatment employing the short-form Oral Heath Impact Profile (OHIP-14). Information on (i) number of teeth requiring endodontic treatment, (ii) tooth type, (iii) retreatment requirements, (iv) periapical radiolucency assessment and (v) diagnostic classification was obtained. In addition, socio-demographic information (age, gender, educational attainment and family income), pain ratings on a visual analogue scale (VAS) and other clinical oral health status information were collected. Bivariate analyses identified association between number of teeth requiring endodontic treatment and summary OHIP-14 score (P < 0.01) and four of its seven domain scores (P < 0.05). Need for endodontic retreatment was associated with summary OHIP-14 score (P < 0.05) and two of its seven domain scores (P < 0.05). In regression analyses having controlled for socio-demographics, other clinical factors and pain rating amongst 15 confounding variables, patients requiring endodontic treatment for multiple teeth were more than twice as likely to have poor OHQoL (upper quintile OHIP-14 scores) compared with those requiring endodontic treatment for a single tooth (OR = 2.16, 95% CI 1.17, 3.98, P < 0.05). Pain VAS rating and age also emerged as significant factors associated with poor OHQoL in the regression analysis. OHQoL is compromised amongst patients requiring endodontic treatment. Number of teeth requiring endodontic treatment is associated with poor OHQoL, controlling for socio-demographic and other oral health clinical and pain factors.
    International Endodontic Journal 05/2013; · 2.05 Impact Factor
  • Sm Peng, C McGrath, Hm Wong, Nm King
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: To explore the association between oral hygiene status and obesity among preschool children in Hong Kong. METHODS: Three hundred and twenty-four 5-year-old children in Hong Kong were recruited. Their oral hygiene status was recorded using visible plaque index (VPI). Body height, body weight, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference and triceps skinfold thickness (TRSKF) were measured to assess general adiposity (weight/height ratio, W/H; body mass index, BMI), central adiposity (WC; waist/hip ratio, WHR) and peripheral adiposity (TRSKF). The relationships between VPI and W/H, BMI, WC, WHR and TRSKF were examined in bivariate and regression analyses. RESULTS: Fifty-six per cent of the children were considered to have high VPI (VPI ≥ 65.0%). Logistic regression analyses identified that W/H z-score (OR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.01-1.61) and WC z-score (OR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.00-1.58) were associated with high VPI. No association was found after adjusted for socio-demographic status (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Oral hygiene status was not associated with obesity among 5-year-old children in Hong Kong after controlling for socio-demographic factors.
    International Journal of Dental Hygiene 05/2013; · 0.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Dental caries (tooth decay) is highly prevalent and is largely attributable to unhealthy self-care behaviors (diet and oral hygiene). The conventional (health) education (CE), focusing on disseminating information and giving normative advice, often fails to achieve sustained behavioral changes. This study incorporates two innovative elements into CE: (i) motivational interviewing (MI), a client-centered counseling for changing behaviors, and (ii) an interactive caries risk assessment (RA) tool, which is devised to facilitate dental counseling and may enhance MI in several ways. Through a randomized, controlled, evaluator-blinded trial, three intervention schemes (CE, CE + MI, and CE + MI + RA) will be compared for their effectiveness in eliciting dentally healthy behaviors and preventing caries in preschool children. METHODS: This study targets 3-year-old children who are at a critical stage for embedding health habits. Children with unfavorable dental behaviors (insufficient toothbrushing and/or frequent snacking) and their parents will be recruited from 12 participating kindergartens. Parent-child dyads (n = 690) will be randomly assigned into three groups. In the first group (CE), oral health information and advice will be delivered to parents through pamphlets. In the second group (CE + MI), in addition to the pamphlets, individual MI counseling with each parent will be performed by one of two trained dental hygienists. In the third group (CE + MI + RA), besides pamphlets and MI, interactive RA will be integrated into MI to motivate parents and facilitate their informed decision making and goal planning. At baseline and after 12 and 24 months, parents will complete a questionnaire and children will undergo a dental examination. The effectiveness of the intervention schemes will be compared over 12 and 24 months. The primary outcome will be caries increment in children and proportion of caries-free children. Secondary outcomes will be changes in parental efficacy for protecting children's oral health and changes in children's dental behaviors. DISCUSSION: Motivating and empowering parents to cultivate dentally healthy habits of young children presents both promises and challenges. With careful methodological considerations, this study is expected to provide scientific evidence for public health workers, dentists, and dental auxiliaries (nurses and hygienists) to choose appropriate interventions to advance children's oral health.Trial registration: HKCTR-1455.
    Trials 04/2013; 14(1):118. · 2.21 Impact Factor
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    Paul H Lee, Colman P J McGrath, Angie Y C Kong, T H Lam
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The longitudinal associations between oral health (OH) and physical and mental health-related quality of life (HRQoL) are unclear. PURPOSE: This study examined the relationship of self-reported OH with the trajectories of physical and mental HRQoL in Hong Kong at 3, 9, and 15 months after the measurement period using a latent growth curve model. METHODS: This study included 5,710 participants recruited in the FAMILY project cohort study during March-October 2009. Self-report OH was measured using a five-point single-item scale, and HRQoL was measured using the physical component scale (PCS) and mental component scale (MCS) of Short Form 12. Latent growth curve model was used to compute the relationship of self-reported OH with the trajectories on HRQoL over time, adjusted for age and sex. RESULTS: The latent growth curve model gave good fit to both the PCS (normed fit index (NFI) = 0.98, comparative fit index (CFI) = 0.99, and standardized root mean square residual (SRMR) = 0.03) and MCS (NFI = 0.97, CFI = 0.98, and SRMR = 0.03). Better self-reported OH was associated with higher PCS and MCS at the baseline. The longitudinal association with PCS remained constant over time (coefficient = -0.02, p = 0.07) but that with MCS diminished over time with baseline oral health status (coefficient = -0.04, p = 0.002). CONCLUSION: Better self-reported OH status was associated with higher level of physical and mental HRQoL, and with negative change in mental HRQoL.
    International Journal of Behavioral Medicine 04/2013; · 2.63 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
242.16 Total Impact Points


  • 2000–2014
    • The University of Hong Kong
      • Faculty of Dentistry
      Hong Kong, Hong Kong
  • 2013
    • University of Western Australia
      • School of Dentistry
      Perth City, Western Australia, Australia
  • 2010
    • National University of Malaysia
      • Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
      Kuala Lumpur, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  • 2008
    • Wuhan University
      Wu-han-shih, Hubei, China
  • 2005–2007
    • Hong Kong SAR Government
      Hong Kong, Hong Kong
    • Marquette University
      • School of Dentistry
      Milwaukee, WI, United States
  • 1998–2005
    • University of London
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 1999–2003
    • University College London
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom