[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: SicA functions both as a class II chaperone for SipB and SipC of the type III secretion system (T3SS)-1 and as a transcriptional cofactor for the AraC-type transcription factor InvF in Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium. Bioinformatic analysis has predicted that SicA possesses three tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR)-like motifs, which are important for protein-protein interactions and serve as multiprotein complex mediators. To investigate whether the TPR-like motifs in SicA are critical for its transcriptional cofactor function, the canonical residues in these motifs were mutated to glutamate (SicAA44E , SicAA78E , and SicAG112E ). None of these mutants except SicAA44E were able to activate the expression of the sipB and sigD genes. SicAA44E still has a capacity to interact with InvF in vitro, and despite its instability in cell, it could activate the sigDE operon. This suggests that TPR motifs are important for the transcriptional cofactor function of the SicA chaperone.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The tumor-suppressing effects of SipB160/HPV16 E7 fusion protein, derived from human papillomavirus, and expressed in Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium, were evaluated in a cervical cancer model. The expressed E7 protein resulted in efficacious cytotoxicity and tumor growth retardation in TC-1 cervical cancer cells. In addition, in mice bearing TC-1 tumors, live cells of Salmonella expressing HPV16 E7 were administered orally and induced immune responses through interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha cytokine secretion and also suppressed tumor growth (45 %) and prolonged survival (70 %) compared with the control group. These results suggested that the SipB160/HPV16 E7 fusion protein may be a candidate cancer therapeutic agent.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Flagellin, the structural component of the flagellar filament in various motile bacteria, can contribute to the activation of NF-κB and proinflammatory cytokine expression during the innate immune response in host cells. Thus, flagellin proteins represent a particularly attractive target for the development of vaccine candidates. In this study, we investigated the immune response by increasing the flagella number in the iacP mutant strain and the adjuvant activity of the flagellin component FljB of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. We found that the iacP mutant strain expresses two flagellin proteins (FliC and FljB), which result in increased NF-κB-dependent gene expression in bone marrow derived macrophages. Using an oral immunization mouse model, we observed that the administration of a live attenuated S. typhimurium BRD509 strain expressing the FliC and FljB flagellins induced significantly enhanced flagellin-specific IgG responses in the systemic compartment. The mice immunized with the recombinant attenuated S. typhimurium strain that has two types of flagella were protected from lethal challenge with the Salmonella SL1344 strain. These results indicate that overexpression of flagella in the iacP mutant strain enhance the induction of an antigen-specific immune responses in macrophage cell, and both the FliC and FljB flagellar filament proteins-producing S. typhimurium can induce protective immune responses against salmonellosis.
PLoS ONE 09/2013; 8(9):e74850. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0074850 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bacterial small noncoding RNAs act as important regulators that control numerous cellular processes. Here we identified RaoN, a novel small RNA encoded in the cspH-envE intergenic region on Salmonella pathogenicity island-11. RaoN contributes to survival under conditions of acid and oxidative stress combined with nutrient limitation, which partially mimic the intramacrophage environment. Indeed, inactivation of raoN reduces the intramacrophage replication of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. Genome-wide transcriptome analysis revealed that the lactate dehydrogenase gene ldhA is upregulated in the raoN knockout mutant. Notably, both inactivation and overexpression of ldhA in the wild-type strain render Salmonella more sensitive to oxidative stress, particularly when combined with nutrient limitation. However, ldhA is not the sole determinant of RaoN function in facilitating intramacrophage survival of Salmonella. Together, our data suggest that balanced regulation of ldhA expression by RaoN is necessary for survival under in vitro stress conditions and contributes to the intramacrophage growth of Salmonella.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) is a transcription factor found in mammalian cells under hypoxia. While HIF-1α in hypoxia translocates to the nucleus where it transcribes the target genes including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mRNA, HIF-1α is degraded under normoxia, which involves its proline hydroxylation and subsequent binding to the von Hippel-Lindau protein-Elongin B-Elogin C (VBC) complex. Previously, peptide inhibitors against this interaction between hydroxylated HIF-1α and VBC have been developed to stabilize the transcriptional activity of HIF-1α by preventing the degradation of the protein even under normoxia. Despite the specific inhibition by these peptides, their poor inhibition potency needs to be improved for further clinical application. In this work, we have designed and prepared a streptavidin-based multivalent peptide inhibitor against the HIF-1α-VBC complexation. We have evaluated the potency of the multivalent peptide in terms of stabilization of HIF-1α and the downstream effect. As the result, we have found that the inhibitor showed about 13-fold lowered IC value compared with that of the corresponding monovalent peptide, thereby activating HIF-1α and leading to up-regulation of VEGF protein at the cellular level.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The type III secretion systems (T3SSs) are exploited by many Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria to deliver a set of effector proteins into host cytosol during cell entry. The T3SS of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is composed of more than 20 proteins that constitute the membrane-associated base, needle and the tip complex at the distal end of the T3SS needle. Membrane docking and piercing between the T3SS and host cells is followed by the secretion of effector proteins. Therefore, a secretion hierarchy among the substrates of the T3SS is required. The secretion of the pore-forming translocase proteins SipB, SipC and SipD is controlled by the T3SS regulator protein, InvE. In an attempt to identify the regions of InvE that are involved in the T3SS regulation, it was observed that the secretion of SipB, SipC and SipD was inhibited when the C-terminal 52 amino acids were removed from InvE. In addition, InvE derivatives lacking the N-terminal 30 and 100 residues were unable to secrete translocases into the culture medium. Interestingly, in the absence of the N-terminal 180 residues of InvE, SipD is unstable, resulting in the hypersecretion of SipB. We also found that both the type III secretion signal of SipB and SptP were functionally interchangeable with the first 30 amino acids of InvE, which could allow the secretion of a reporter protein. These results suggest that InvE may have two functional domains responsible for regulating the secretion of translocases: N-terminal secretion signal and C-terminal regulatory domain.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays a pro-angiogenic role in tumor progression. Stabilization of a key regulator termed the hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1α under oxygen deficient environment around tumor is known to elicit expression of VEGF through binding to p300. Thus, inhibition of the HIF-1α-p300 interaction would lead to down-regulation of VEGF expression, thereby providing potential cancer therapeutics. Here, we have screened a chemical library against the interaction of the HIF-1α-derived peptide with p300 employing a fluorescence polarization-based assay. We have identified a compound as the most prominent inhibitor against the protein-protein interaction. Further, we have observed suppression of the mRNA level of VEGF upon treatment of HeLa cells with the compound, demonstrating its inhibitory effect at the cellular level.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Live attenuated bacteria can be used as a carrier for the delivery of foreign antigens to a host's immune system. The N-terminal domain of SipB, a translocon protein of the type III secretion system of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, is required for secretion and outer membrane localization. In the present study, vaccine plasmids for antigen delivery in which the non-toxic tetanus toxin fragment C (TTFC), which contains a T cell epitope, is fused to the N-terminal 160 amino acids of SipB were developed. It was found that the recombinant proteins are secreted into the culture media and localized to the bacterial surface. TTFC-specific antibody responses are significantly increased in mice orally immunized with attenuated S. Typhimurium BRD509 strains carrying TTFC delivery plasmids. When the TTFC delivery cassettes were introduced into a low copy vector, the plasmid was stably maintained in the BRD509 strain and induced an immune response to the TTFC antigen in mice. These results suggest that expression and delivery of heterologous antigens fused to the N-terminus of SipB enhance the induction of antigen-specific immune responses, and that the N-terminal domain of SipB can be used as a versatile delivery system for foreign antigens.
Microbiology and Immunology 06/2012; 56(9):595-604. DOI:10.1111/j.1348-0421.2012.00480.x · 1.24 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Flagella are surface appendages that are important for bacterial motility and invasion of host cells. Two flagellin subunits in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, FliC and FljB, are alternatively expressed by a site-specific DNA inversion mechanism called flagellar phase variation. Although this inversion mechanism is understood at the molecular level, the key factor controlling the expression of the two flagellin subunits has not been determined. In this study, we found that a putative acyl carrier protein, IacP, affects flagellar phase variation in S. Typhimurium strain UK-1 under Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI1)-inducing conditions. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of the secreted proteins from S. Typhimurium determined that the amount of FljB secreted was significantly higher in the iacP mutant strain, a finding confirmed by Western blot analysis. Northern blotting, quantitative PCR, and microarray data showed that the level of FljB in the iacP mutant strain was regulated at the transcriptional level, although the transcription and expression of the fliC gene were independent of IacP. FljB production was abolished by the deletion of the Hin DNA invertase but could be restored by the introduction of a plasmid carrying the hin gene. We also found that in the iacP mutant strain, the orientation of the invertible H segment is in the FljB-expressing phase. Furthermore, electron microscopy observations indicated that the iacP mutant strain had more flagella per cell than the wild-type strain. These results suggest that IacP is associated with flagellar phase switching under SPI1-inducing conditions.
Journal of bacteriology 06/2012; 194(16):4332-41. DOI:10.1128/JB.00076-12 · 2.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) causes diseases that attack the human central nervous system. Traditionally, the quality control for JEV vaccines, in which the plaque reduction neutralization (PRN) titer is measured by the national control laboratories before the vaccine batches are marketed, has required laboratory animal testing. However, classical animal tests have inherent problems, including the very fact that animals are used, ethical issues, and the possibility of error. In this study, JEV antigen was measured in an in vitro assay to assess the feasibility of replacing in vivo assays that measure the PRN titers of JEV vaccines. We constructed a double-sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DS-ELISA) that could detect JEV envelope (E). Initially, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) directed against the JEV E protein were generated and characterized. We isolated 18 mAbs against JEV E protein, and most were the IgG1 or IgG2a isotype. The mAbs (5F15 and 7D71) were selected as the most suitable mAb pair to detect JEV E protein. DS-ELISA with this pair detected as little as approximately 3 μg/mL JEV E protein and demonstrated a relationship between the amount of JEV E protein and the PRN titer. From these results, we surmise that this DS-ELISA may be useful, not only in terms of measuring the amount of JEV E protein, but also as a substitute for the PRN test for JEV vaccine evaluation.
Microbiology and Immunology 04/2012; 56(7):463-71. DOI:10.1111/j.1348-0421.2012.00462.x · 1.24 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) causes diseases that attack the human central nervous system. Traditionally, the quality control for JEV vaccines, in which the plaque reduction neutralization (PRN) titer is measured by the national control laboratories before the vaccine batches are marketed, has required laboratory animal testing. However, classical animal tests have inherent problems, including the very fact that animals are used, ethical issues, and the possibility of error. In this study, JEV antigen was measured in an in vitro assay to assess the feasibility of replacing in vivo assays that measure the PRN titers of JEV vaccines. We constructed a double‐sandwich enzyme‐linked immunosorbent assay (DS‐ELISA) that could detect JEV envelope (E). Initially, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) directed against the JEV E protein were generated and characterized. We isolated 18 mAbs against JEV E protein, and most were the IgG1 or IgG2a isotype. The mAbs (5F15 and 7D71) were selected as the most suitable mAb pair to detect JEV E protein. DS‐ELISA with this pair detected as little as approximately 3 μg/mL JEV E protein and demonstrated a relationship between the amount of JEV E protein and the PRN titer. From these results, we surmise that this DS‐ELISA may be useful, not only in terms of measuring the amount of JEV E protein, but also as a substitute for the PRN test for JEV vaccine evaluation.
Microbiology and Immunology 01/2012; 56(7). · 1.24 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is an inflammatory, chronically relapsing, puritic skin disorder. These syndromes result from multifactorial inheritance, with interaction between genetic and environmental factors. In particular, the macrophage-derived chemokine CCL22 is directly implicated in skin inflammatory reactions and its levels are significantly elevated in serum and correlated with disease severity in AD. We tested the suppression of the CCL22 gene by microRNA (miRNA) and observed the effects in mice with inflammation similar to AD. We used Salmonella as a vector to deliver miRNA. The recombinant strain of Salmonella typhimurium expressing CCL22 miRNA (ST-miRCCL22) was prepared for in vivo knockdown of CCL22. ST-miRCCL22 was orally inoculated into mice and the CCL22 gene suppressed with CCL22 miRNA in the activated lymphocytes. IgE and interleukin-4 were inhibited and interferon-γ was induced after treatments with ST-miRCCL22 and CCL22 was suppressed. Further, Th17 cells were suppressed in the atopic mice treated with ST-miRCCL22. These results suggested that suppression of the CCL22 gene using Salmonella induced anti-inflammatory effects.
DNA and cell biology 08/2011; 31(3):290-7. DOI:10.1089/dna.2010.1118 · 2.06 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oxygen dependent degradation of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α is triggered with hydroxylation by proline hydroxylase domain 2 (PHD2) under normoxic conditions. Some of previously developed PHD2 inhibitors show a considerable potency against factor inhibiting HIF (FIH), the HIF asparagine hydroxylase. For specific inhibition of PHD2, we have synthesized peptides containing 556-575 residues of HIF-1α with modifications at the Pro-564 and examined their inhibitory effect against PHD2. Adopting fluorescence polarization-based assays, we evaluated inhibitory potency of the peptides and selected potent inhibitors. These PHD2 inhibitor peptides showed no significant potency against FIH, demonstrating their specific inhibitory effect on PHD2.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gram-negative bacteria, including Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, exploit type III secretion systems (T3SSs) through which virulence proteins are delivered into the host
cytosol to reinforce invasive and replicative niches in their host. Although many secreted effector proteins and membrane-bound
structural proteins in the T3SS have been characterized, the functions of many cytoplasmic proteins still remain unknown.
In this study, we found that IacP, encoded by Salmonella pathogenicity island 1, was important for nonphagocytic cell invasion and bacterial virulence. When the iacP gene was deleted from several Salmonella serovar Typhimurium strains, the invasion into INT-407 epithelial cells was significantly decreased compared to that of their
parental strains, and retarded rearrangements of actin fibers were observed for the iacP mutant-infected cells. Although IacP had no effect on the secretion of type III translocon proteins, the levels of secretion
of the effector proteins SopB, SopA, and SopD into the culture medium were decreased in the iacP mutant. In a mouse infection model, mice infected with the iacP mutant exhibited alleviated pathological signs in the intestine and survived longer than did wild-type-infected mice. Taken
together, IacP plays a key role in Salmonella virulence by regulating the translocation of T3SS effector proteins.
Infection and immunity 03/2011; 79(4):1440-50. DOI:10.1128/IAI.01231-10 · 3.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: IL-12 is known to be an essential cytokine which appears to provide protective immunity against intracellular bacteria, such as Salmonella. In this study, we investigated the possibility of developing a vaccine using IL-12 against virulent Salmonella. We used the host defense system activated by cytokine IL-12. The highly virulent Salmonella strain (Salmonella typhimurium UK-1) was transformed with cytokine-expressing plasmids. These live, wild-type pathogens were used as vaccine strains without undergoing any other biological or genetic attenuating processes. The newly developed strains induced partial protection from infections (30-40%). Of note, the interleukin-12-transformed pathogen was safe upon immunization with low doses (10(3) cfu), induced IgG responses, and stimulated protective immune responses against Salmonella typhimurium in mice (80-100%). These results suggest that IL-12 induced attenuation of wild-type Salmonella in the host infection stage and vaccine development using the wild-type strain harboring plasmid-secreting IL-12 may be considered as an alternative process for intracellular bacterial vaccine development without the inconvenience of time-consuming attenuation processes.
The Journal of General and Applied Microbiology 01/2011; 57(2):115-22. DOI:10.2323/jgam.57.115 · 0.94 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Th-2-biased immune responses are known to play a key role in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis. In particular, the macrophage-derived chemokine CCL22 is directly implicated in Th-2-associated skin inflammatory reactions, and its levels are significantly elevated in serum and are correlated with disease severity in atopic dermatitis. In this study, we tested the development of genetic therapeutic options to treat atopic dermatitis using bacteria expressing miRNA. We constructed a recombinant strain of Salmonella typhimurium expressing CCL22 miRNA (ST-miRCCL22) for the in vivo knockdown of CCL22. The CCL22 gene was downregulated with CCL22 miRNA in activated lymphocytes. In mice with a cutaneous disease similar to atopic dermatitis, interleukin-4 was inhibited and interferon-g was induced after treatments with ST-miRCCL22. Furthermore, CCL22 levels were suppressed in the atopic mice treated with ST-miRCCL22. These results suggest that ST-miRCCL22 may be an effective genetic agent for treating atopic dermatitis.
Experimental and Molecular Medicine 12/2010; 43(2):63-70. DOI:10.3858/emm.2011.43.2.008 · 3.45 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although the use of TNF-α in the treatment of cancer is restricted due to its non-specific cytotoxicity and narrow range of applications to different cancers in clinical trials, we investigated a safe anti-cancer drug by the use of engineered bacterial capsule harboring TNF-α. The engineered bacterial capsule was designed to target cancer cells, promote a tumor-suppressive environment, and increase the efficacy of existing cancer treatments, including chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and cell therapy. The engineered bacterial capsule was constructed with Salmonella capsulizing TNF-α protein, which was produced and capsulized by Salmonella to reduce side effects of the protein. This bacterial capsule induced a tumor-suppressive environment through the activation of natural killer cells. Engineered bacterial capsule invaded tumor cells, released TNF-α, and induced apoptosis of tumor cells without apparent side effects. In a murine melanoma model, the bacterial capsule of TNF-α significantly inhibited tumor growth by 80-100% and prolonged the survival of the mice. When tested in combination with chemotherapy (cisplatin), antibiotics, and vaccine, recombinant microbial treatment increased the anti-tumor effects of existing therapies. The anti-tumor effects of the bacterial capsule of TNF-α were also observed in cervical cancer, melanoma, breast cancer, colon cancer, and renal carcinoma. These results suggest that the bacterial capsule of TNF-α is a promising strategy for TNF-α treatment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genotypic drug resistance assay has been the only method available to provide information related to drug resistance in South Korea since 1999. Phenotypic assay is also a useful method to predict a patient's state related to antiretroviral drug resistance. However, commercial systems and methods for phenotyping have not been introduced into South Korea.
To establish and apply modified phenotypic drug susceptibility assay using treatment-experienced patients' derived HIV-1 in South Korea.
The genotypic drug resistance and phenotypic drug susceptibility of two different methods, Stanford HIV Drug Resistance Database (Stanford DB) and modified phenotypic drug susceptibility assay were compared especially focused on the HIV-1 protease (PR) and reverse transcriptase (RT) sequences.
There was some discordance in comparing drug susceptibility results (a modified drug susceptibility assay) with the predicted genotypic drug resistance (Stanford DB). Phenotypic drug resistance showed the following order for pseudoviruses from treatment-experienced patients infected with HIV/AIDS: Efavirenz (EFV, 21 to 1,319-fold change), Lamivudine (3TC, 31 to >189-fold change), Indinavir sulfate (IDV, 26 to 63-fold change), Amprenavir (APV, 4 to 35-fold change) and Zidovudine (AZT, 20 to 634-fold change). For patient KRC3221, the AZT-related phenotypic drug resistance was the greatest, with 634-fold change compared with the wild type.
Application of this modified phenotypic drug susceptibility assay is expected to help in predicting drug resistance as a guideline for clinicians to obtain a combined interpretation among genotyping, phenotyping and effective clinical treatments.
Journal of clinical virology: the official publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology 10/2010; 50(1):19-25. DOI:10.1016/j.jcv.2010.09.012 · 3.02 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Anaerobic digestion sludge was cultivated in an electrochemical bioreactor (ECB) to enrich the hydrogenotrophic methanogens. A modified graphite felt cathode with neutral red (NR-cathode) was charged with electrochemical reducing power generated from a solar cell. The methane and carbon dioxide collected in a Teflon bag from the ECB were more than 80 ml/l of reactant/day and less than 20 ml/l of reactant/day, respectively, whereas the methane and carbon dioxide collected from a conventional bioreactor (CB) was around 40 ml/l of reactant/day, respectively. Moreover, the maximal volume ratios of methane to carbon dioxide (M/C ratio) collected in the Teflon bag from the ECB and CB were 7 and 1, respectively. The most predominant methanogens isolated from the CB on the 20th, 80th, and 150th days of incubation were hydrogenotrophs. The methanogenic diversity analyzed by temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE) of the 16S rDNA variable region was higher in the ECB than in the CB. The DNA extracted from the TGGE bands was more than 95% homologous with hydrogenotrophic methanogens in the CB. In conclusion, the ECB was demonstrated as a useful system for enriching hydrogenotrophic methanogens and increasing the M/C ratio of the gas product.
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 12/2009; 19(12):1665-71. DOI:10.4014/jmb.0904.04002 · 1.53 Impact Factor