[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Objective: To assess the local effect of hyaluronidase injection on the expression of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and proteoglycans (PGs) in the extracellular matrix of the uterine cervix from pregnant albino rats. Methods: Ten pregnant rats were divided into two groups on day 18 of pregnancy. The experimental group (Gexp) of rats received an intracervical infusion of 0.02 mL of hyaluronidase diluted to 1 mL with distilled water, whereas the control group (Gc) received 1 mL of distilled water. On day 20 of pregnancy, the pregnant rats were sacrificed and the uterine cervixes from all rats were then dissected. The qualitative expression of hyaluronic acid (HA) was assessed by immunohistochemistry and quantified by sandwich ELISA. To compare the quantitative GAG values between groups, a Student's t-test for independent samples was performed. PGs were also assessed by immunohistochemical analysis. Results: The electrophoretic profile of newly synthesized radioactively labeled GAGs degraded by specific enzymes showed that there were two predominant GAGs in both Gc and Gexp, i.e., heparan sulfate (HS) and a mixture of hondroitin sulfate (CS) and dermatan sulfate (DS). The concentrations of GAGs showed a significant reduction of CS/DS (p<0.004) and HS (p<0.005) relative to Gc. HA staining was less intense in the lamina propria and area surrounding the blood vessels in Gexp compared to Gc. The HA contents were also significantly reduced (p<0.012). Conclusions: Intracervical hyaluronidase infusion promoted a significant reduction in the concentration of sulfated GAGs as assessed by both qualitative (histochemical) and quantitative (fluorometric) measurements of HA.
The journal of maternal-fetal & neonatal medicine: the official journal of the European Association of Perinatal Medicine, the Federation of Asia and Oceania Perinatal Societies, the International Society of Perinatal Obstetricians 09/2013; · 1.36 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the last decades, the development of real-time ultrasonography has allowed the direct view of the fetus in the uterus, as well as assessing its activity. The advent of three-dimensional ultrasonography (3D) at the end of the 80s initiated a new era in diagnostic imaging for Obstetrics, dramatically increasing the possibility of studying the fetus. Recently, a new technique allowing the 3D image to be transformed into real-time was introduced: the four-dimensional (4D) ultrasonography. It allows the continuous monitoring of fetal face and other surface areas, such as the extremities. Some studies have already assessed this new methodology for fetal behavior observation during different stages of pregnancy, trying to understand better the relationship between fetal central nervous system maturation and the implications for its behavior. In this article, the authors review the current use of 4D ultrasonography in the assessment of fetal behavior, and discuss the possibilities of the technique to show the neurological development of the fetus, by means of watching movement and facial expressions. They also highlight the potential applicability of this new method in this new research area of fetal medicine.
Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira 09/2013; · 0.77 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cesarean scar pregnancy is a rare form of ectopic pregnancy. It is associated with many complications, including a high risk of massive bleeding and hysterectomy under unfavorable conditions. Conservative treatment with systemic methotrexate (MTX) has been used preferentially with the aim of allowing the patient to have a reproductive future. However, cases of complex ectopic masses in a cesarean scar with guarded prognosis demand techniques that are more effective, such as uterine artery embolization (UAE) in association with intra-arterial MTX infusion. We describe the case of a 35-year-old patient in the 8th week of pregnancy who was referred to us because of genital bleeding and suspected ectopic pregnancy in the cesarean scar. After confirmation of the diagnosis, an initial attempt at systemic treatment with MTX was made. This was abandoned due to the elevation of the hepatic transaminase level. In addition, because of the complexity of the mass and the patient's desire to preserve her reproductive capacity, it was decided to perform UAE with local MTX infusion. The procedure was performed successfully and the patient's fertility was preserved.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare accuracy between 3D and 2D ultrasonography for predicting lethal pulmonary hypoplasia (LPH) among high-risk fetuses.
In a cross-sectional prospective study at a fetal medicine referral center in Brazil, bilateral fetal lung scans were evaluated for 54 fetuses with suspected LPH between May 2008 and June 2011. Measurements for predicting LPH were ultrasonographic fetal lung volume/estimated fetal weight ratio (US-FLW), observed/expected thoracic circumference (o/e-TC), observed/expected thoracic circumference/abdominal circumference (o/e-TC/AC), observed/expected thoracic area/heart area (o/e-TA/HA), observed/expected amniotic fluid index (o/e-AFI), and observed/expected total fetal lung volume (o/e-Tot-FLV). To evaluate accuracy in predicting LPH, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were calculated, and areas under the curves (AUCs) were compared. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to assess 3D lung volume reproducibility.
Data were compared for 47 newborns, of whom 34 had LPH (perinatal mortality 74.5%). The AUCs for predicting LPH were 0.93, 0.69, 0.55, 0.46, 0.71, and 0.86 for US-FLW, o/e-TC, o/e-TC/AC, o/e-TA/HA, o/e-AFI, and o/e-Tot-FLV, respectively. No significant intraobserver difference was observed in measurements of the right (ICC, 0.973; P<0.0001) or left (ICC, 0.950; P<0.0001) lung volumes.
Among high-risk fetuses, US-FLW by 2D/3D and o/e-Tot-FLV by 3D ultrasonography were more accurate than 2D parameters for predicting LPH.
International journal of gynaecology and obstetrics: the official organ of the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics 07/2013; · 1.41 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: AIM : The aim of this study was to evaluate the passage of fetal erythrocytes into the maternal circulation after invasive obstetric procedures, using the Kleihauer-Betke test, flow cytometry and α-fetoprotein concentration in maternal blood.
This was a prospective descriptive study on patients who underwent: amniocentesis, cordocentesis, chorionic villus sample, amniotic infusion, bladder drainage and ventricular-amniotic shunt to investigate the karyotype; treatment for hydrocephalus, oligohydramnios, obstructive uropathy and polyhydramnios; and investigation of lung maturity. Maternal blood samples were collected before and 60 min after the invasive obstetric procedure in order to evaluate the passage of fetal erythrocytes using the Kleihauer-Betke test, flow cytometry and α-fetoprotein concentration.
In total, 43 invasive obstetric procedures were performed. The procedures performed were: 27 cases of amniocentesis (62.7%), seven cases of cordocentesis (16.2%), four chorionic villus samples (9.4%), two amniotic infusions (4.7%), two ventricular-amniotic shunts and one bladder drainage (2.3%). After one case of cordocentesis with two puncture attempts via the placenta, a significant increase in fetal erythrocytes was detected using the three methods. After another cordocentesis with one puncture via the placenta, a significant increase in fetal erythrocytes was detected using flow cytometry and α-fetoprotein concentration, but not through the Kleihauer-Betke test. The other 41 samples did not show any significant increase in fetal erythrocytes in the maternal blood.
Invasive obstetric procedures performed during prenatal care are safe when performed by experienced professionals with the proper technique, with minimal chance of passage of fetal erythrocytes into the maternal compartment.
Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research 07/2013; · 0.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CONTEXT Diastrophic dysplasia is a type of osteochondrodysplasia caused by homozygous mutation in the gene DTDST (diastrophic dysplasia sulfate transporter gene). Abnormalities occurring particularly in the skeletal and cartilaginous system are typical of the disease, which has an incidence of 1 in 100,000 live births. CASE REPORT The case of a pregnant woman, without any consanguineous relationship with her husband, whose fetus was diagnosed with skeletal dysplasia based on ultrasound findings and DNA tests, is described. An obstetric ultrasound scan produced in the 16th week of gestation revealed characteristics that guided the clinical diagnosis. Prominent among these characteristics were rhizomelia of the lower and upper limbs (shortening of the proximal portions) and mesomelia (shortening of the intermediate portions). Both upper limbs showed marked curvature, with the first finger of the upper limbs in abduction and clinodactyly of the fifth finger. Molecular analysis using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and gene sequencing detected mutations that had already been described in the literature for the gene DTDST, named c.862C > T and c.2147_2148insCT. Therefore, the fetus was a compound heterozygote, carrying two different mutations. CONCLUSIONS Prenatal diagnosis of this condition allowed a more realistic interpretation of the prognosis, and of the couple's reproductive future. This case report shows the contribution of molecular genetics towards the prenatal diagnosis, for which there are few descriptions in the literature.
São Paulo medical journal = Revista paulista de medicina 04/2013; 131(2):127-32. · 0.75 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study aimed to evaluate the effect that combining multiple ultrasonographic imaging methods has on the proportion of tests with a satisfactory fetal heart assessment at 12-14 weeks of pregnancy using B-mode, color Doppler, and spatiotemporal image correlation software (STIC) via both the abdominal and vaginal routes. This cross-sectional prospective study involved healthy pregnant women at 12-14 weeks of pregnancy with a crown-rump length (CRL) of 84 mm or shorter. The following four cardiac views were assessed: four-chamber, left and right ventricular outflow tract, and aortic arch views. The same examiner sought to identify these four views using B-mode, color Doppler, and STIC via both the vaginal and abdominal routes. The study determined the proportion of cases and the respective 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) in which all four views were identified. The presence of significant differences in comparisons between methods was analyzed using McNemar's test. Although 57 pregnant women at 12-14 weeks of pregnancy agreed to participate in the study, 4 were not included because they presented with a CRL longer than 84 mm. Thus, 53 pregnant women were thoroughly assessed and included in the analysis. The combination of B-mode, color Doppler, and STIC via both the abdominal and vaginal routes enabled the highest proportion of identification of the four views (90.6 %; 95 % CI, 79.8-95.9 %). The lowest proportions were observed when B-mode was used alone via both the vaginal route (30.2 %; 95 % CI, 19.5-43.5 %) and the abdominal route (37.7 %; 95 % CI, 25.9-51.2 %). The abdominal route showed results slightly better than those of the vaginal route with all the methods, but the differences were not statistically significant. In the vast majority of the cases, the fetal hearts were properly assessed at 12-14 weeks of pregnancy when several methods were combined using both the abdominal and vaginal routes. However, only one-third of them would have had adequate heart assessment if the B-mode via either the abdominal or the vaginal route had been used alone.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate changes to the pelvic floor of primiparous women with different delivery modes, using three-dimensional ultrasound.
A prospective cross-sectional study on 35 primiparae divided into groups according to the delivery mode: elective cesarean delivery (n=10), vaginal delivery (n=16), and forceps delivery (n=9). Three-dimensional ultrasound on the pelvic floor was performed on the second postpartum day with the patient in a resting position. A convex volumetric transducer (RAB4-8L) was used, in contact with the large labia, with the patient in the gynecological position. Biometric measurements of the urogenital hiatus were taken in the axial plane on images in the rendering mode, in order to assess the area, anteroposterior and transverse diameters, average thickness, and avulsion of the levator ani muscle. Differences between groups were evaluated by determining the mean differences and their respective 95% confidence intervals. The proportions of levator ani muscle avulsion were compared between elective cesarean section and vaginal birth using Fisher's exact test.
The mean areas of the urogenital hiatus in the cases of vaginal and forceps deliveries were 17.0 and 20.1 cm², respectively, versus 12.4 cm² in the Control Group (elective cesarean). Avulsion of the levator ani muscle was observed in women who underwent vaginal delivery (3/25), however there was no statistically significant difference between cesarean section and vaginal delivery groups (p=0.5).
Transperineal three-dimensional ultrasound was useful for assessing the pelvic floor of primiparous women, by allowing pelvic morphological changes to be differentiated according to the delivery mode.
Revista brasileira de ginecologia e obstetrićia: revista da Federação Brasileira das Sociedades de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia 03/2013; 35(3):117-22.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epignathus teratomas are rare tumors that originate in the region of the palate or pharynx and are known as Rathke pouch. They may be associated with other malformations such as a cleft palate and bifid tongue or nose. The prenatal diagnosis can be established by two-dimensional ultrasonography showing a heterogeneous mass protruding through the mouth of the fetus. The three-dimensional ultrasonography in rendering mode permits better understanding of this anomaly by the parents, facilitating the counseling. The importance of prenatal diagnosis lies in the fact that this tumor may obstruct the airways, thus leading to death at birth due to respiratory insufficiency. We report a case of prenatal diagnosis of epignathus teratoma in the 30th week of pregnancy by two-dimensional ultrasonography. We focus on the importance of three-dimensional ultrasonography in rendering mode for demonstrating the spatial relationships of the tumor with the oral cavity and provide correlations between the ultrasound images and the anatomopathological findings.
The Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal 02/2013; · 1.24 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Preterm delivery is one of the most serious public health problems and is the most important factor relating to neonatal morbidity and mortality. The strategies for preventing it include understanding the risk factors, with specific interventions. Recently, uterine cervix measurements using ultrasonography and vaginal administration of progesterone have gained importance in predicting and secondarily preventing spontaneous preterm delivery. OBJECTIVE: To describe the short cervix syndrome, including its etiology, diagnosis, and possible therapies. METHODS: Research in ISI, Pubmed, and Scielo database using the words short cervix, preterm delivery, sludge, cervical funneling, cervical gland area, progesterone, cerclage, and pessary. RESULTS: We found a lot of articles about this topic, including randomized controlled trials. The etiology is multifactorial, being the diagnosis based in a cervix shortening at 20-24 weeks. The history and measurement of cervix length by transvaginal ultrasound have been shown to be effective to select the high risk pregnancies. The progesterone, cervical cerclage, and cervical pessary showed to be effective to reduce the preterm delivery in pregnant women with short cervix. CONCLUSION: The successful management of pregnant women presenting a short cervix depends on the understanding that cervical shortening is the final common path for several causes of preterm delivery. The best approach should be individualized to each patient.
Archives of Gynecology 02/2013; · 0.91 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives To determine reference ranges for measurements of fetal cerebral fissures by 3-dimensional (3D) sonography in the multiplanar mode and to evaluate the reliability and concordance of these measurements. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on 393 women with normal pregnancies at 22 weeks to 33 weeks 6 days. The distances between the internal bone plate of the fetal calvaria and the sylvian, parieto-occipital, hippocampal, and calcarine fissures were assessed. To obtain the distances for the first 3 fissures, a 3D sweep was made in the axial plane, at the level of the lateral ventricles. To obtain the distance for the calcarine fissure, a coronal sweep was used, at the level of the occipital lobes. To evaluate the correlation between the fissures and gestational age, polynomial regression was performed with adjustments using the coefficient of determination (R(2)). Reliability was determined with intraclass correlation coefficients and concordance with concordance limits. Results The mean distances ± SD to the sylvian, parieto-occipital, hippocampal, and calcarine fissures were 10.42 ± 2.28, 22.38 ± 3.23, 24.88 ± 4.67, and 21.19 ± 2.73 mm, respectively. These distances correlated with gestational age such that the best fit with the linear equation produced R(2) values of 0.582, 0.627, 0.860, and 0.458 for the sylvian, parieto-occipital, hippocampal, and calcarine fissures. Reliability analyses showed intraobserver and interobserver intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.90 to 0.95 and 0.85 to 0.97. The concordance limits were-1.33 to 1.30 and -2.38 to 2.28 mm for the intraobserver evaluation and -1.60 to 2.57 and -3.51 to 2.73 mm for the interobserver evaluation. Conclusions Cerebral fissures can be measured by 3D sonography at 22 to 33 weeks of pregnancy with acceptable reliability and concordance. Reference ranges for this gestational period have thus been described.
Journal of ultrasound in medicine: official journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine 02/2013; 32(2):269-77. · 1.40 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Objective: To evaluate the influence of different races over the measurement of the frontomaxillary facial angle between 11 and 13+6 weeks of pregnancy in a Brazilian population. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 332 healthy pregnant women, with a crown-rump length (CRL) between 47 and 84 mm. Such measurements were taken abdominally, using the mid-sagittal plane, and the angle was measured by tracing a line over the palate and a line from the anterosuperior maxillary angle all the way to the external part of the forehead. As for the reference intervals, a simple linear regression between the frontomaxillary facial angle and the CRL was used, as well as Pearson's correlation coefficient (r). To evaluate the difference between races, a variance analysis was used (ANOVA). To calculate reproducibility, the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used. Results: The means for the fetal frontomaxillary facial angle in white, black and mixed races were 81.8±6.6; 82.2±6.1 and 81.4±6.2 mm, respectively. There was no statistical difference between races (p= 0.713). A decreasing correlation between the frontomaxillary facial angle and the CRL was observed for the black (r= -0.450) and mixed (r= -0.212) races. Excellent intraobserver reproducibility was observed, as well as a satisfactory interobserver reproducibility, with ICC of 0.858 and 0.605, respectively. Conclusion: There were no significative statistical differences in the measurement of the fetal frontomaxillary facial angle between 11 and 13+6 weeks of pregnancy in the different races in a Brazilian population.
The journal of maternal-fetal & neonatal medicine: the official journal of the European Association of Perinatal Medicine, the Federation of Asia and Oceania Perinatal Societies, the International Society of Perinatal Obstetricians 01/2013; · 1.36 Impact Factor