Xian-Zhong Ding

Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, United States

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Publications (39)142.9 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The flavonoid apigenin exhibits anti-proliferative and anti-angiogenic activities. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of apigenin on hypoxia responsive genes important in pancreatic cancer cell proliferation. Immunohistochemistry for GLUT-1 expression was conducted on human pancreatic cancer samples and adjacent controls. Real-time RT-PCR, Western blot analysis, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were conducted on CD18 and S2-013 human pancreatic cancer cells treated with apigenin (0-50 μM) in normoxic and hypoxic conditions to evaluate HIF-1α, GLUT-1, and VEGF mRNA and protein expression and secretion. GLUT-1 expression was significantly increased in pancreatic adenocarcinoma samples versus adjacent controls (P < 0.001). Hypoxic conditions induced HIF-1α, GLUT-1, and VEGF protein expression in both CD18 and S2-013 pancreatic cancer cells. Apigenin (50 μM) blocked hypoxia induced up-regulation of all three proteins in both cell lines. Apigenin also impeded hypoxia-mediated induction of GLUT-1 and VEGF mRNA in both cell lines (P < 0.05). Apigenin inhibits HIF-1α, GLUT-1, and VEGF mRNA and protein expression in pancreatic cancer cells in both normoxic and hypoxic conditions. This may account for the mechanism of apigenin's anti-proliferative and anti-angiogenic effects and further supports the potential of apigenin as a future chemopreventive agent for pancreatic cancer.
    Journal of Surgical Research 11/2010; 167(2):173-81. · 2.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the effects and mechanism of Frondanol-A5P, a polar extract from Cucumaria frondosa, on growth inhibition and apoptosis in S2013 and AsPC-1 human pancreatic cancer cells. The effects of Frondanol-A5P on proliferation, cell cycle, expression of cell cycle proteins and p21, phosphorylation of MAP kinases, annexin V binding, and caspase-3 activation were examined. Frondanol-A5P inhibited proliferation and induced G2/M phase cell cycle arrest in both cell lines with decreased expression of cyclin A, cyclin B, and cdc25c. Frondanol-A5P induced phosphorylation of stress-activated protein kinase and Janus kinase (SAPK/JAK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP) within 5 minutes. Frondanol-A5P markedly increased expression of p21 messenger RNA and protein at 3 hours in both cell lines. This effect was reduced by the p38 kinase inhibitor, SB203580. Frondanol-A5P markedly increased annexin V binding and activated caspase-3. Frondanol-A5 causes cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human pancreatic cancer cells. These changes are associated with decreased expression of cyclin A, cyclin B, and cdc25c and increased expression of p21 that, at least in part, is mediated by a p38 kinase-dependent mechanism. Because Frondanol-A5P is derived from an edible, nontoxic, sea cucumber, it may be valuable for nutritional therapy or prevention of pancreatic cancer.
    Pancreas 07/2010; 39(5):646-52. · 2.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of combination therapy of apigenin and gemcitabine on cell proliferation, the cell cycle, and gemcitabine resistance in human pancreatic cancer cells. Cell counting was used to assess the effect of single-agent and combination treatment on the proliferation of CD18 and AsPC-1 pancreatic cancer cells. Flow cytometry was performed to assess the effect of combination treatment on cell cycle progression and induction of apoptosis. Western blot analysis was used to evaluate phosporylated AKT (pAkt) and cell cycle proteins. The effect of apigenin on gemcitabine-resistant AsPC-1 cells was assessed via thymidine incorporation. Apigenin in combination with gemcitabine inhibited pancreatic cancer cell proliferation more than either agent alone. Combination treatment induced both S and G2/M phase arrest and increased apoptosis. Apigenin down-regulated pAkt expression and abrogated gemcitabine-mediated pAkt induction. In gemcitabine-resistant AsPC-1 cells, apigenin significantly inhibited cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. Combination treatment with apigenin and gemcitabine inhibited pancreatic cancer cell growth via cell cycle arrest, down-regulation of the prosurvival factor pAkt, and induction of apoptosis. Combination therapy may prove useful for the treatment of pancreatic cancer.
    Pancreas 02/2009; 38(4):409-15. · 2.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The antiproliferative mechanisms of flavonoid drugs inpancreatic cancer cells remain unclear. In this study, we evaluated the effects of the flavonoid apigenin on glucose uptake, on the expression of the glucose transporter 1 (GLUT-1), and on the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway in human pancreatic cancer cells. Human pancreatic cancer cells were treated with apigenin and then underwent glucose uptake assays. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis were conducted to evaluate GLUT-1 and pAkt expression in CD18 and S2-013 human pancreatic cancer cells after treatment with apigenin or PI3K inhibitors (LY294002 and wortmannin). Apigenin (0-100 microM) significantly inhibited, in a dose-dependent fashion, glucose uptake in CD18 and S2-013 human pancreatic cancer cell lines. Apigenin inhibited both GLUT-1 mRNA and protein expression in a concentration- and time-dependent fashion. The PI3K inhibitors, like apigenin, downregulated both GLUT-1 mRNA and protein expression. Our results demonstrate that the flavonoid apigenin decreases glucose uptake and downregulates the GLUT-1 glucose transporter in human pancreatic cancer cells. In addition, the inhibitory effects of apigenin and the PI3K inhibitors on GLUT-1 are similar, indicating that the PI3K/Akt pathway is involved in mediating apigenin's effects on downstream targets such as GLUT-1.
    Pancreas 12/2008; 37(4):426-31. · 2.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Arachidonic acid metabolism via the cyclooxygenase (COX) and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) pathways modulates cell growth and apoptosis. Many studies have examined the effects of COX inhibitors on human colorectal cancer, but the role of 5-LOX in colonic cancer development has not been well studied. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the expression of 5-LOX in colonic polyps and cancer and the effect of 5-LOX inhibition on colon cancer cell proliferation. Colonic polyps, cancer, and normal mucosa were evaluated for 5-LOX expression by immunohistochemistry. Reverse transcription-PCR was used to establish 5-LOX expression in colon cancer cells. Thymidine incorporation and cell counts were used to determine the effect of the nonspecific LOX inhibitor Nordihydroguaiaretic Acid and the 5-LOX inhibitor Rev5901 on DNA synthesis. A heterotopic xenograft model in athymic mice using HT29 and LoVo human colon cancer cells was used to evaluate the effect of the 5-LOX inhibitor zileuton on tumor growth. 5-LOX is overexpressed in adenomatous polyps and cancer compared with that of normal colonic mucosa. LOX inhibition and 5-LOX inhibition decreased DNA synthesis in a concentration- and time-dependent manner in the Lovo cell line (P < 0.05). Inhibition of 5-LOX in an in vivo colon cancer xenograft model inhibited tumor growth compared with that of controls (P < 0.05). This study showed that 5-LOX is up-regulated in adenomatous colon polyps and cancer compared with normal colonic mucosa. The blockade of 5-LOX inhibits colon cancer cell proliferation both in vitro and in vivo and may prove a beneficial chemopreventive therapy in colon cancer.
    Clinical Cancer Research 10/2008; 14(20):6525-30. · 7.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pancreatic adeniocarcinoma is among the deadliest of human cancers. Apigenin, an antitumor flavonoid, inhibits pancreatic cancer cell proliferation in vitro. Geminin is a recently identified novel protein that plays a critical role in preventing abnormal DNA replication by binding to and inhibiting the essential replication factor Cdt1. Microarray analysis identified geminin to be downregulated in pancreatic cancer cells treated with apigenin. Therefore, we investigated the effects of apigenin on geminin expression and other proteins involved in replication (Cdc6, Cdt1, and MCM7) in pancreatic cancer cell lines CD18 and S2013. Real time RT-PCR and western blotting analysis showed that geminin expression is downregulated by apigenin at both mRNA and protein levels. Furthermore, treatment of cells with proteosome inhibitor MG132 reversed the downregulation of geminin by apigenin, supporting our hypothesis that the degradation pathway is another mechanism by which apigenin affects geminin expression. Apigenin treatment also resulted in downregulation of Cdc6 at both mRNA and protein levels. However, Cdt1 and MCM7 expression was not affected in apigenin-treated cells. The effect of apigenin treatment on geminin promoter activity was measured by transient transfection of Hela cells with a reporter gene, demonstrating that apigenin inhibited geminin promoter activity. Geminin expression was also evaluated in human pancreatic tissue (n = 15) by immunohistochemistry and showed that geminin is overexpressed in human pancreatic cancer compared to normal adjacent pancreatic tissue. In conclusion, our studies demonstrated that geminin is overexpressed in human pancreatic cancer and downregulated by apigenin which may contribute to the antitumor effect of this natural flavonoid.
    Molecular Carcinogenesis 05/2008; 47(11):835-44. · 4.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pancreatic cancer patients have an abysmal prognosis because of late diagnosis and lack of therapeutic options. Pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasias (PanINs), the precursor lesions, are a potential target for chemoprevention. Targeting eicosanoid pathways is an obvious choice because 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) has been suggested as a tumor promoter in pancreatic carcinogenesis. Here we provide evidence that 15-lipoxygenase-1 (15-LOX-1) expression and activity may exert antitumorigenic effects in pancreatic cancer. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot analysis showed absence or very weak expression of 15-LOX-1 in all pancreatic cancer cell lines tested. 15-LOX-1 was strongly stained in normal ductal cells, tubular complexes, and centroacinar cells, but no staining was seen in islets, cancer cells, PanIN lesions, or in tumor cells in lymph node metastases, indicating that 15-LOX-1 expression is lost during tumor development in human pancreas. Overexpression of 15-LOX-1 in pancreatic tumor cells or treatment with its arachidonic acid-derived metabolite resulted in decreased cell growth. These findings provide evidence that loss of 15-LOX-1 may play an important role in pancreatic carcinogenesis, possibly as a tumor suppressor gene. Thus, induction of 15-LOX-1 expression may be an attractive option for the prevention and treatment of pancreatic cancer.
    Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.) 12/2007; 9(11):917-26. · 5.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have previously shown that the leukotriene B4 receptor antagonist, LY293111 inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in human pancreatic cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. In the current study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms of LY293111-induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. Two human pancreatic cancer cell lines were used in this study, MiaPaCa-2 and AsPC-1. Cell cycle analysis by flow cytometry showed a dramatic increase in the percentage of apoptotic cells as well as S-phase arrest after treatment with 250 nmol/l LY293111 for up to 48 h. Western blotting indicated that LY293111 treatment induced cytochrome c release from the mitochondria into the cytosol, accompanied by caspase-9, caspase-7 and caspase-3 activation, and cleavage of poly ADP-ribose polymerase. Caspase-8 was not activated by LY293111. A decrease was found in the expression of the antiapoptotic proteins, Bcl-2 and Mcl-1, and an increase in the proapoptotic protein, Bax. LY293111 reduced the expression of CDK2, cyclin A and cyclin E, consistent with the S-phase arrest observed in these cells. The expression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, p21 and p27 was not affected by LY293111 treatment. In conclusion, LY293111 induces apoptosis in human pancreatic cancer cells through the mitochondria-mediated pathway. LY293111 also induces S-phase arrest with downregulation of CDK2, cyclin A and cyclin E. Blockade of leukotriene B4 metabolic pathway may provide a novel treatment for human pancreatic cancer.
    Anti-Cancer Drugs 07/2007; 18(5):535-41. · 2.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Resveratrol is a phenolic compound found in grape skins, mulberries, and certain nuts that has been shown to have antitumorigenic and anti-inflammatory properties. Macrophage inhibitory cytokine (MIC-1) is a member of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) superfamily that has been shown to have antitumorigenic activity and is up-regulated in resveratrol-treated cancer cells. Resveratrol inhibits proliferation of human pancreatic cancer cells; however, the exact mechanism of action is not known. In this study, we investigated the role of MIC-1 in resveratrol-induced growth inhibition of human pancreatic cancer cell lines. Proliferation assays conducted with resveratrol-treated human pancreatic cancer cell lines (CD18 and S2-013) at 24, 48, and 72 h revealed inhibition of cell proliferation compared to controls. Using oligonucleotide microarray analysis, we identified marked up-regulation of MIC-1 gene expression in resveratrol-treated human pancreatic cancer S2-013 cells. Real-time RT-PCR performed in CD18 and S2-013 cells treated with resveratrol (0-100 mum) for 24 h confirmed concentration and time-dependent up-regulation of expression of one particular gene, MIC-1. Both cell lines pretreated with actinomycin D (a transcriptional inhibitor) and then resveratrol had reduced up-regulation of MIC-1 gene expression compared to those treated with resveratrol alone. Finally, resveratrol-induced growth inhibition was abolished in CD18 cells transfected with MIC-1 short interfering RNA. Resveratrol up-regulates MIC-1 gene expression in part at the transcriptional level in pancreatic cancer cells. Furthermore, MIC-1 appears to play a key role in resveratrol-induced growth inhibition in these cells.
    Journal of Surgical Research 05/2007; 138(2):163-9. · 2.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Retinoids are potent growth inhibitory and differentiating agents in a variety of cancer cell types. We have shown that retinoids induce growth arrest in all pancreatic cancer cell lines studied, regardless of their p53 and differentiation status. However, the mechanism of growth inhibition is not known. Since TGF-beta2 is markedly induced by retinoids in other cancers and mediates MUC4 expression in pancreatic cancer cells, we investigated the role of TGF-beta in retinoic acid-mediated growth inhibition in pancreatic cancer cells. Retinoic acid markedly inhibited proliferation of two cell lines (Capan-2 and Hs766T) in a concentration and time-dependent manner. Retinoic acid increased TGF-beta2 mRNA content and secretion of the active and latent forms of TGF-beta2 (measured by ELISA and bioassay). The concentrations of active and TGF-beta2 secreted in response to 0.1 - 10 muM retinoic acid were between 1-5 pM. TGF-beta2 concentrations within this range also inhibited proliferation. A TGF-beta neutralizing antibody blocked the growth inhibitory effects of retinoic acid in Capan-2 cells and partially inhibitory the effects in Hs766T cells. These findings indicate that TGF-beta can cause growth inhibition of pancreatic cancer cells, in a p53-independent manner. Furthermore, it demonstrates the fundamental role of TGF-beta in growth inhibition in response to retinoic acid treatment is preserved in vitro.
    Molecular Cancer 02/2007; 6:82. · 5.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Patients with pancreatic cancer have little hope for cure because no effective therapies are available. Sansalvamide A is a cyclic depsipeptide produced by a marine fungus. We investigated the effect of a novel sansalvamide A analogue on growth, cell-cycle phases, and induction of apoptosis in human pancreatic cancer cells in vitro. The sansalvamide analogue caused marked time- and concentration-dependent inhibition of DNA synthesis and cell proliferation of two human pancreatic cancer cell lines (AsPC-1 and S2-013). The analogue induced G0/G1 phase cell-cycle arrest and morphological changes suggesting induction of apoptosis. Apoptosis was confirmed by annexin V binding. This novel sansalvamide analogue inhibits growth of pancreatic cancer cells through G0/G1 arrest and induces apoptosis. Sansalvamide analogues may be valuable for the treatment of pancreatic cancer.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 03/2006; 340(4):1224-8. · 2.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Many chemotherapeutic agents have been used to treat pancreatic cancer without success. Apigenin, a naturally occurring flavonoid, has been shown to inhibit growth in some cancer cell lines but has not been studied in pancreatic cancer. We hypothesized that apigenin would inhibit pancreatic cancer cell growth in vitro. Apigenin caused both time- and concentration-dependent inhibition of DNA synthesis and cell proliferation in four pancreatic cancer cell lines. Apigenin induced G2/M phase cell cycle arrest. Apigenin reduced levels of cyclin A, cyclin B, phosphorylated forms of cdc2 and cdc25, which are all proteins required for G2/M transition. Apigenin inhibits growth of pancreatic cancer cells through suppression of cyclin B-associated cdc2 activity and G2/M arrest, and may be a valuable drug for the treatment or prevention of pancreatic cancer.
    Molecular Cancer 02/2006; 5:76. · 5.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have previously shown the importance of LTB4 in human pancreatic cancer. LTB4 receptor antagonists block growth and induce apoptosis in pancreatic cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, we investigated the effect of LTB4 on proliferation of human pancreatic cancer cells and the mechanisms involved. LTB4 stimulated DNA synthesis and proliferation of both PANC-1 and AsPC-1 human pancreatic cancer cells, as measured by thymidine incorporation and cell number. LTB4 stimulated rapid and transient activation of MEK and ERK1/2 kinases. The MEK inhibitors, PD98059 and U0126, blocked LTB4-stimulated ERK1/2 activation and cell proliferation. LTB4 also stimulated phosphorylation of p38 MAPK; however, the p38 MAPK inhibitor, SB203580, failed to block LTB4-stimulated growth. The activity of JNK/SAPK was not affected by LTB4 treatment. Phosphorylation of Akt was also induced by LTB4 and this effect was blocked by the PI-3 kinase inhibitor wortmannin, which also partially blocked LTB4-stimulated cell proliferation. In conclusion, LTB4 stimulates proliferation of human pancreatic cancer cells through MEK/ERK and PI-3 kinase/Akt pathways, while p38 MPAK and JNK/SAPK are not involved.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 10/2005; 335(3):949-56. · 2.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pancreatic cancer has an abysmal prognosis because of late diagnosis. Therefore, it is important to identify risk factors if we are to be able to prevent and detect this cancer in an early, noninvasive stage. Pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasias (PanIN) are the precursor lesions which could be an ideal target for chemoprevention. This study shows up-regulation of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) in all grades of human PanINs and early lesions of pancreatic cancer in two different animal models (EL-Kras mice and N-nitrosobis(2-oxopropyl)amine-treated hamsters) by immunohistochemistry. The results were consistent in all tissues examined, including seven chronic pancreatitis patients, four pancreatic cancer patients, one multiorgan donor, nine EL-Kras mice, and three N-nitrosobis(2-oxopropyl)amine-treated hamsters, all with PanINs. Overexpression of 5-LOX in NIH3T3 cells resulted in greater sensitivity of these cells to the growth inhibitory effects of the 5-LOX inhibitor Rev5901. These findings provide evidence that 5-LOX plays a key role in the development of pancreatic cancer. Furthermore, the lipoxygenase pathway may be a target for the prevention of this devastating disease.
    Cancer Research 08/2005; 65(14):6011-6. · 8.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Arachidonic acid is metabolized by two major pathways, cyclooxygenases and lipoxygenases. The metabolites catalyzed by these enzymes are important mediators of acute and chronic inflammation. Both enzymes and their metabolites are well recognized to be involved in cancer development and progress. It is well documented that inhibition of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) activity decreases cancer incidence and inhibits tumor growth. It has also been reported that 5-lipoxygenase is involved in cancer cell survival and proliferation. 5-lipoxygenase metabolites including both 5-HETE and leukotriene (LT) B4 directly mediate cancer cell growth. Although 5-HETE receptors are still elusive, two LTB4 receptor subtypes (BLT1 and BLT2) have been characterized. Both 5-lipoxygenase and LTB4 receptors are upregulated in both pancreatic cancer and early pancreatic cancer lesions; hence, these proteins are potential targets for cancer treatment and prevention. Recent studies have shown that an orally stable leukotriene (LT) B4 receptor antagonist, LY293111, has a potent anti-pancreatic cancer effect. LY293111 inhibits pancreatic cancer growth, induces tumor cell apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo, and enhances the anti-pancreatic cancer effect of gemcitabine. LY293111 exhibits its anti-cancer effects through LTB4 receptors and peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor-gamma. A phase I clinical trial indicated that LY293111 is well tolerated by patients with no significant side-effects. LY293111 may be a valuable drug for treatment of pancreatic cancer, especially in combination with gemcitabine. A double-blinded, placebo-controlled phase II clinical trial with LY293111 is currently underway. This review summarizes the current research status of LY293111 as an anti-cancer agent with a focus on pancreatic cancer.
    Anti-Cancer Drugs 07/2005; 16(5):467-73. · 2.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The secretion mechanism of peptide YY involves systemic factors, such as humoral and neural stimuli, and local factors, such as intestinal peristalsis and intraluminal nutrients. This study was designed to survey the impact of local stimuli on the secretion of peptide YY under circumstances in which systemic stimuli are identical. Ileostomies were repaired within three months in a short-term group (14 patients) and after six months in a long-term group (14 patients). Mucosal peptide YY concentrations and cytomorphologic change, such as villus height, crypt depth, mucosal thickness, and villus index, were compared between proximal functioning ileum and a distal nonfunctioning ileal loop during ileostomy repair. In a control group of patients undergoing right hemicolectomy (21 cases), the normal distribution of peptide YY was measured in the mucosa throughout the distal ileum. The peak of peptide YY concentration in the terminal ileum was 307.4 +/- 21 pmol/g, 25 cm from the ileocecal valve, with lower levels both proximally and distally. The mucosa of the functioning ileum in the short-term group showed hypertrophy, but had returned to preoperative levels in the long-term group. The nonfunctioning mucosa in both groups underwent atrophic changes. The mucosal peptide YY content in functioning ileum in the short-term group was higher than that of distal nonfunctioning mucosa (363.9 +/- 25.5 pmol/g vs. 284.1 +/- 13 pmol/g, P < 0.05), suggesting adaptive upregulation. The increments of mucosal peptide YY content in this short-term group compared with the control group were 45.6 and 4.7 percent in the proximal and distal segments, respectively. In the long-term group, proximal and distal mucosal peptide YY were similar (256.6 +/- 31.9 pmol/g vs. 254.9 +/- 27.1 pmol/g, P > 0.05), and there was no increment in either (1.3 vs. 4.4 percent, P > 0.05). The peak concentrations of PYY in the ileal mucosa are found 20 to 25 cm proximal to the ileocecal valve. In the short-term response of ileostomy, local stimulatory factors play a major role in the adaptation of mucosal PYY. In the defunctioned bowel without luminal stimulation, systemic stimulation was important for maintenance of mucosal PYY.
    Diseases of the Colon & Rectum 06/2005; 48(6):1287-94. · 3.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sansalvamide A, a cyclic depsipeptide isolated from a marine fungus of the genus Fusarium, is composed of four hydrophobic amino acids (Phe, two Leu, Val) and one hydroxy acid ((S)-2-hydroxy-4-methylpentanoic acid; O-Leu) with five stereogenic centers all having S-stereochemistry. We have recently synthesized the corresponding cyclic peptide (Gu, W.; Liu, S.; Silverman, R. B. Organic Lett. 2002, 4, 4171-4174) and found that it too has antitumor activity. N-Methylation can enhance potency and selectivity for peptides. Consequently, here we synthesize 12 different N-methylated sansalvamide A peptide analogues and show that for several different tumor cell lines three of these analogues are more potent than the natural product; in pancreatic cells, sansalvamide A shows little activity, but the N-methylsansalvamide peptides are potent cytotoxic agents.
    Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 06/2005; 48(10):3630-8. · 5.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pancreatic cancer has an abysmal prognosis because of late diagnosis and lack of effective therapeutics. New drugs are desperately needed. The present study determined the effect of the LTB4 receptor antagonist, LY293111, on tumor growth and metastases in a fluorescent orthotopic model of pancreatic cancer. Pancreatic cancer cells (S2-013) with stable expression of enhanced green fluorescent protein were implanted into the duodenal pancreatic lobe of athymic mice. Animals were allocated to four groups (eight mice per group): control (no treatment); LY293111; gemcitabine; and LY293111 + gemcitabine. Monitoring of the surgical procedure and follow-up examinations at 2, 3, and 4 weeks after implantation to monitor tumor growth and metastases were performed using a fluorescence microscope and the reversible skin-flap technique. A staging and scoring system was developed to evaluate tumor progression, based on the TNM classification. Control animals developed end-stage disease with invasive cancer, metastases, and cachexia. Tumor growth and incidence of metastases were significantly reduced in all treated mice. However, combined treatment with LY293111 and gemcitabine was most effective. LY293111 is a novel therapeutic agent for pancreatic cancer, which improves the efficacy of gemcitabine. It is well tolerated and can be administered orally and, therefore, provides a new hope for patients suffering from pancreatic adenocarcinoma.
    Neoplasia 05/2005; 7(4):417-25. · 5.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) is a potent tumor promoter with wide ranging, diverse, and sometimes opposite cellular effects. Using oligonucleotide microarray analysis, we have identified a novel gene that is upregulated following treatment with TPA in the pancreatic cancer cell line CD18. Real-time PCR validated the microarray results in CD18 and HeLa cells, and showed that upregulation of the gene is time- and concentration-dependent. In silico analysis showed the gene product to be a single-pass transmembrane protein of 217 residues that is localized to the endoplasmic reticulum, thus the name TPA induced trans-membrane protein (TTMP). A luciferase reporter assay demonstrated that upregulation of TTMP by TPA is triggered at the promoter level.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 05/2005; 329(2):755-64. · 2.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), the inducible form of prostaglandin G/H synthase, is associated with several human cancers including pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) play a central role in the intense desmoplasia that surrounds pancreatic adenocarcinoma. The present study examined COX-2 expression in PSCs. PSCs isolated from normal rats, were cultured and exposed to conditioned medium (CM) from the human pancreatic cell line, PANC-1. COX-2 expression was evaluated by immunostaining and western blotting. Proliferation of PSCs was determined by thymidine incorporation and cell counting. COX-2 was found to be constitutively expressed in PSCs, and COX-2 protein was up-regulated by PANC-1 CM. Moreover, the induction of COX-2 by PANC-1 CM was prevented by U0126, an extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 inhibitor suggesting that activation of ERK 1/2 is needed for stimulation of COX-2. Finally, NS398, a selective COX-2 inhibitor, reduced the growth of PSCs by PANC-1 CM, indicating that activation of COX-2 is required for cancer stimulated PSC proliferation. The results suggest that COX-2 may play an important role in the regulation of PSC proliferation in response to pancreatic cancer.
    Molecular Cancer 02/2005; 4:27. · 5.13 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

933 Citations
142.90 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2002–2010
    • Northwestern University
      • • Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center
      • • Department of Surgery
      • • Feinberg School of Medicine
      Evanston, IL, United States
    • University of Illinois at Chicago
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
  • 2007
    • Technische Universität München
      München, Bavaria, Germany
  • 2005–2007
    • Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
    • Universität Heidelberg
      • Department of Spine Surgery
      Heidelberg, Baden-Wuerttemberg, Germany
    • Pusan National University
      • Department of Surgery
      Pusan, Busan, South Korea
  • 2004
    • Wenzhou Medical College
      Yung-chia, Zhejiang Sheng, China
  • 2001
    • Creighton University
      • Department of Biomedical Sciences
      Omaha, Nebraska, United States