[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the relationship between bus stop characteristics and pedestrian-motor vehicle collisions.
This was a matched case-control study where the units of study were pedestrian crossings in Lima, Peru. We performed a random sample of 11 police commissaries in Lima, Peru. Data collection occurred from February 2011 to September 2011. A total of 97 intersection cases representing 1134 collisions and 40 mid-block cases representing 469 collisions that occurred between October 2010 and January 2011, and their matched controls, were included. The main exposures assessed were presence of a bus stop and specific bus stop characteristics. The main outcome measure was occurrence of a pedestrian-motor vehicle collision.
Intersections with bus stops were three times more likely to have a pedestrian-vehicle collision (OR 3.28, 95% CI 1.53 to 7.03), relative to intersections without bus stops. Formal and informal bus stops were associated with higher odds of a collision at intersections (OR 6.23, 95% CI 1.76 to 22.0 and OR 2.98, 1.37 to 6.49). At mid-block sites, bus stops on a bus-dedicated transit lane were also associated with collision risk (OR 2.36, 95% CI 1.02 to 5.42). All bus stops were located prior to the intersection, contrary to practices in most high-income countries.
In urban Lima, the presence of a bus stop was associated with a threefold increase in risk of a pedestrian collision. The highly competitive environment among bus companies may provide an economic incentive for risky practices, such as dropping off passengers in the middle of traffic and jockeying for position with other buses. Bus stop placement should be considered to improve pedestrian safety.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study aimed to determine the prevalence and predictors of poor 3- and 12-month quality of life outcomes in a cohort of pediatric patients with isolated mild TBI. We conducted a prospective cohort study of children <18 years treated for an isolated mild TBI, defined as no radiographically apparent intracranial injury or an isolated skull fracture, and no other clinically significant non-head injuries. The main outcome measure was the change in quality of life from baseline at 3 and 12 months following injury, as measured by the Pediatric Quality of Life index (PedsQL). Poor functioning was defined as a decrease in total PedsQL score of more than 15 points between baseline and follow-up scores (at 3 and 12 months). Of the 329 patients who met inclusion criteria, 11.3% (95% CI 8.3%-15.3%) at 3 months and 12.9% (95% CI 9.6%-17.2%) at 12 months following injury had relatively poor functioning. Significant predictors of poor functioning included less parental education, Hispanic ethnicity (at 3 months following injury, but not 12 months); low household income (at 3 and 12 months), and Medicaid insurance (at 12 months only). Children sustaining a mild TBI who are socioeconomically disadvantaged may require additional intervention to mitigate the effects of mild TBI on their functioning.
Journal of neurotrauma 12/2013; · 4.25 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many new therapies for dementia target a specific pathologic process and must be applied early. Selection of specific therapy is based on the clinical etiologic diagnosis. We sought to determine the stability of the clinical etiologic diagnosis over time and to identify factors associated with instability. We identified 4141 patients with dementia or mild cognitive impairment who made at least 2 visits approximately a year apart to a dementia research center, receiving a clinical etiologic diagnosis on each visit. We assessed concordance of etiologic diagnoses across visits, κ-statistics, and transition probabilities among diagnoses. The primary clinical etiologic diagnosis remained stable for 91% of patients but with a net shift toward dementia with Lewy bodies and Alzheimer's disease. Lower diagnostic stability was significantly associated with older age, nonwhite race, milder disease at presentation, more underlying conditions contributing to cognitive decline, lack of a consistent spouse/partner informant, and being evaluated by different clinicians on different visits. Multistate Markov modeling generally confirmed these associations. Clinical etiologic diagnoses were generally stable. However, several readily ascertained characteristics were associated with higher instability. These associations may be useful to clinicians for anticipating when an etiologic diagnosis may be more prone to future change.
American Journal of Alzheimer s Disease and Other Dementias 12/2013; 28(8):750-8. · 1.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:To compare the extent of disability in multiple areas of functioning after mild, moderate, and severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) between Hispanic and non-Hispanic white (NHW) children.METHODS:This was a prospective cohort study of children aged <18 years treated for a TBI between March 1, 2007, and September 30, 2008. Hispanic (n = 74) and NHW (n = 457) children were included in the study. Outcome measures were disability in health-related quality of life, adaptive skills, and participation in activities 3, 12, 24, and 36 months after injury compared with preinjury functioning. We compared change in outcome scores between Hispanic and NHW children at each follow-up time. All analyses were adjusted for age, gender, severity and intent of injury, insurance, family function at baseline, parental education, and income.RESULTS:The health-related quality of life for all children was lower at all follow-up times compared with baseline. Although NHW children showed some improvement during the first 3 years after injury, Hispanic children remained significantly impaired. Significant differences were also observed in the domains of communication and self-care abilities after TBI. Differences between groups in scores for participation in activities were also present but were only significant 3 months after injury.CONCLUSIONS:Hispanic children with TBI report larger and long-term reductions in their quality of life, participation in activities, communication, and self-care abilities compared with NHW children. The reasons for these differences need to be better understood and interventions implemented to improve the outcomes of these children.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to estimate differences in rates of functional decline in Alzheimer's disease (AD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), and vascular dementia (VaD) and whether differences vary by age or sex. METHODS: Data came from 32 U.S. Alzheimer's Disease Centers. The cohort of participants (n = 5848) were ≥60 years of age and had clinical dementia with a primary etiologic diagnosis of probable AD, DLB, or probable VaD; a Clinical Dementia Rating-Sum of Boxes score <16; and a duration of symptoms ≤10 years. Dementia diagnoses were assigned using standard criteria. Annual mean rate of change of the Functional Activities Questionnaire (FAQ) score was modeled using multiple linear regression with generalized estimating equations adjusted for demographics, comorbidities, years since onset, and cognitive status (mean follow-up = 2.0 years). RESULTS: FAQ declined more slowly over time in those with VaD compared with AD (difference in mean annual rate of change: -0.91; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -1.68, -0.14). VaD participants also declined at a slower rate than DLB participants, but this difference was not statistically significant (-0.61; 95% CI: -1.45, 0.24). There was no significant difference between DLB and AD. Within each group, rate of decline was more rapid for the youngest participants. CONCLUSIONS: In this sample, findings suggested that VaD patients declined in their functional abilities at a slower rate compared with AD patients and that there were no significant differences in rate of functional decline between patients with DLB compared with those with either AD or VaD. These results may provide guidance to clinicians about average expected rates of functional decline in three common dementia types.
Alzheimer's & dementia: the journal of the Alzheimer's Association 05/2013; · 5.90 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE
To study differences in glycemic control and HbA1c testing associated with use of secure electronic patient-provider messaging. We hypothesized that messaging use would be associated with better glycemic control and a higher rate of adherence to HbA1c testing recommendations.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
Retrospective observational study of secure messaging at Group Health, a large nonprofit health care system. Our analysis included adults with diabetes who had registered for access to a shared electronic medical record (SMR) between 2003 and 2006. We fit log-linear regression models, using generalized estimating equations, to estimate the adjusted rate ratio of meeting three indicators of glycemic control (HbA1c <7%, HbA1c <8%, and HbA1c >9%) and HbA1c testing adherence by level of previous messaging use. Multiple imputation and inverse probability weights were used to account for missing data.RESULTSDuring the study period, 6,301 adults with diabetes registered for access to the SMR. Of these individuals, 74% used messaging at least once during that time. Frequent use of messaging during the previous calendar quarter was associated with a higher rate of good glycemic control (HbA1c <7%: rate ratio, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.15-1.37) and a higher rate testing adherence (1.20 [1.15-1.25]).CONCLUSIONS
Among SMR users, recent and frequent messaging use was associated with better glycemic control and a higher rate of HbA1c testing adherence. These results suggest that secure messaging may facilitate important processes of care and help some patients to achieve or maintain adequate glycemic control.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: The volume-outcome relationship has not been well-defined in pediatric surgery. Our aim was to determine the association between hospital-volume and outcomes for common procedures in children. METHODS: Retrospective population-based cohort study of patients <18 years of age hospitalized between 1989 and 2009 for common surgical procedures in Washington State. The association between annual hospital case volume and post-operative outcomes (readmission and reoperation within 30-days, post-operative complications) was assessed using multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: The three most common procedures over the study period were appendectomy (n = 36,525), skin and soft tissue debridement (n = 9,813), and pyloromyotomy (n = 3,323). A greater proportion of patients with comorbidities were treated at higher-volume hospitals. After adjustment, outcomes did not differ significantly across hospital-volume quartiles except that debridement patients had lower odds of readmission (OR = 0.63, 95 % CI 0.46-0.88) and re-operation (OR = 0.53, 95 % CI 0.35-0.81) at medium-high-volume compared with high-volume centers. CONCLUSIONS: This work suggests that risks of readmission and post-operative complications for common procedures may be similar across hospital-volume categories, but appropriate risk-stratification is essential. In order to optimize safety, we must identify the resources required for low-, medium-, and high-risk surgical patients, and implement these standards into practice.
Pediatric Surgery International 03/2013; · 1.22 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We sought to identify characteristics of individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) that are associated with a relatively high probability of reverting back to normal cognition, and to estimate the risk of future cognitive decline among those who revert.
We first studied 3,020 individuals diagnosed with MCI on at least 1 visit to an Alzheimer's Disease Center in the United States. All underwent standardized Uniform Data Set evaluations at their first visit with an MCI diagnosis and on a subsequent visit, about 1 year later, at which cognitive status was reassessed. Multiple logistic regression was used to identify predictors of reverting from MCI back to normal cognition. We then estimated the risk of developing MCI or dementia over the next 3 years among those who had reverted, compared with individuals who had not had a study visit with MCI.
About 16% of subjects diagnosed with MCI reverted back to normal or near-normal cognition approximately 1 year later. Five characteristics assessed at the first MCI visit contributed significantly to a model predicting a return to normal cognition: Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score, Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) score, MCI type, Functional Activities Questionnaire (FAQ) score, and APOE ε4 status. Survival analysis showed that the risk of retransitioning to MCI or dementia over the next 3 years was sharply elevated among those who had MCI and then improved, compared with individuals with no history of MCI.
Even in a cohort of patients seen at dementia research centers, reversion from MCI was fairly common. Nonetheless, those who reverted remained at increased risk for future cognitive decline.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives. We examined the burden of disability resulting from traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) among children younger than 18 years. Methods. We derived our data from a cohort study of children residing in King County, Washington, who were treated in an emergency department for a TBI or for an arm injury during 2007-2008. Disabilities 12 months after injury were assessed according to need for specialized educational and community-based services and scores on standardized measures of adaptive functioning and social-community participation. Results. The incidence of children receiving new services at 12 months was about 10-fold higher among those with a mild TBI than among those with a moderate or severe TBI. The population incidence of disability (defined according to scores below the norm means on the outcome measures included) was also consistently much larger (2.8-fold to 28-fold) for mild TBIs than for severe TBIs. Conclusions. The burden of disability caused by TBIs among children is primarily accounted for by mild injuries. Efforts to prevent these injuries as well as to decrease levels of disability following TBIs are warranted.
American Journal of Public Health 09/2012; 102(11):2074-2079. · 3.93 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract This study examined the outcome of 0- to 17-year-old children 36 months after traumatic brain injury (TBI), and ascertained if there was any improvement in function between 24 and 36 months. Controls were children treated in the emergency department for an arm injury. Functional outcome 36 months after injury was measured by the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL), the self-care and communication subscales of the Adaptive Behavior Assessment Scale-2nd edition (ABAS-II), and the Child and Adolescent Scale of Participation (CASP). At 36 months after TBI, those with moderate or severe TBI continued to have PedsQL scores that were 16.1 and 17.9 points, respectively, lower than at baseline, compared to the change seen among arm injury controls. Compared to the baseline assessment, children with moderate or severe TBI had significantly poorer functioning on the ABAS-II and poorer participation in activities (CASP). There was no significant improvement in any group on any outcomes between 24 and 36 months. Post-injury interventions that decrease the impact of these deficits on function and quality of life, as well as preventive interventions that reduce the likelihood of TBI, should be developed and tested.
Journal of neurotrauma 07/2012; 29(15):2499-504. · 4.25 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The degree to which postinjury posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and/or depressive symptoms in adolescents are associated with cognitive and functional impairments at 12 and 24 months after traumatic brain injury (TBI) is not yet known. The current study used a prospective cohort design, with baseline assessment and 3-, 12-, and 24-month followup, and recruited a cohort of 228 adolescents ages 14-17 years who sustained either a TBI (n = 189) or an isolated arm injury (n = 39). Linear mixed-effects regression was used to assess differences in depressive and PTSD symptoms between TBI and arm-injured patients and to assess the association between 3-month PTSD and depressive symptoms and cognitive and functional outcomes. Results indicated that patients who sustained a mild TBI without intracranial hemorrhage reported significantly worse PTSD (Hedges g = 0.49, p = .01; Model R(2) = .38) symptoms across time as compared to the arm injured control group. Greater levels of PTSD symptoms were associated with poorer school (η(2) = .07, p = .03; Model R(2) = .36) and physical (η(2) = .11, p = .01; Model R(2) = .23) functioning, whereas greater depressive symptoms were associated with poorer school (η(2) = .06, p = .05; Model R(2) = .39) functioning.
Journal of Traumatic Stress 06/2012; 25(3):264-71. · 2.72 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: : This study tested the hypothesis that selected perinatal exposures are associated with Kawasaki Disease (KD) in later childhood.
: A retrospective, population-based, case-control study was performed. Children hospitalized for KD in Washington State from 1987 to 2007 (n = 995) were identified through hospital discharge records and were linked to birth certificates and birth hospitalization discharge records. Controls were randomly selected from remaining birth records. Maternal and infant exposure information was obtained from hospital discharge records. Unconditional logistic regression was used to obtain adjusted relative risk estimates and to explore the effect of gender on observed associations.
: After adjusting for race, gender and birth year, the following were significantly associated with KD: maternal age ≥35 years (odds ratio [OR] 1.65; [95% confidence interval: 1.20-2.27]); mother of foreign birth (OR 1.36; [1.06-1.75]); maternal Group B streptococcal colonization (OR 0.51; [0.26-0.97]); and early infancy hospitalization (OR 1.42; [1.04-1.93]). Early hospitalization for bacterial illness was associated with a 2.8-fold increased risk of KD (OR 2.84; [1.59-5.06]). There was weak evidence to suggest that the association between early hospitalization and KD varies by gender.
: This study provides preliminary evidence of association between certain perinatal exposures and KD and raises the possibility of late biological effects of immune exposures during infancy. The association between KD and early infectious exposures deserves further study.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Veterans with disabilities are at an increased risk of secondary impairments and may have difficulty accessing preventive services; accessibility may differ between Veterans who do and do not receive care at Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) facilities. We used data from the 2003 and 2004 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System surveys to evaluate associations between disability and receipt of preventive services in Veterans. Veterans with a disability were more likely to have received influenza vaccinations (VA users and nonusers), pneumococcal vaccinations (VA nonusers: p < 0.001; VA users: p = 0.073), weight management counseling (VA nonusers: p < 0.001; male VA users: p < 0.001), lower gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy (VA nonusers: 50-64 yr, p = 0.03; VA users: ≥65 yr, p = 0.085), mammography (VA users: p = 0.097), and serum cholesterol screening (VA nonusers: p < 0.001). Receipt was similar by disability status for fecal occult blood test (FOBT), lower GI endoscopy (VA users: 50-64 yr), human immunodeficiency virus testing, and cervical cancer screening. For no measure was there significantly lower receipt in those with versus without a disability, although there was marginal evidence in VA nonusers for overall colorectal cancer screening (i.e., lower GI endoscopy or FOBT: p = 0.063). Among Veterans, having a disability did not appear to be a barrier to receiving appropriate preventive care.
The Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development 05/2012; 49(3):339-50. · 1.78 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of acquired disability in children and adolescents.
To demonstrate the association between specific findings on initial noncontrast head CT and long-term outcomes in children who have suffered TBI.
This was an IRB-approved prospective study of children ages 2-17 years treated in emergency departments for TBI and who underwent a head CT as part of the initial work-up (n = 347). The change in quality of life at 12 months after injury was measured by the PedsQL scale.
Children with TBI who had intracranial injuries identified on the initial head CT had a significantly lower quality-of-life scores compared to children with TBI whose initial head CTs were normal. In multivariate analysis, children whose initial head CT scans demonstrated intraventricular hemorrhage, parenchymal injury, midline shift ≥ 5 mm, hemorrhagic shear injury, abnormal cisterns or subdural hematomas ≥ 3 mm had lower quality of life scores 1 year after injury than children whose initial CTs did not have these same injuries.
Associations exist between findings from the initial noncontrast head CT and quality of life score 12 months after injury in children with TBI.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We determined if the installation of gun cabinets improved household firearm storage practices.
We used a wait list, randomized trial design with 2 groups. The "early" group received the intervention at baseline, and the "late" group received it at 12 months. Up to 2 gun cabinets were installed in each enrolled home, along with safety messages. In-person surveys were conducted at 12 and 18 months to determine the proportion of households reporting unlocked guns or ammunition. Direct observations of unlocked guns were also compared.
At baseline, 93% of homes reported having at least 1 unlocked gun in the home, and 89% reported unlocked ammunition. At 12 months, 35% of homes in the early group reported unlocked guns compared with 89% in the late group (P < .001). Thirty-six percent of the early homes reported unlocked ammunition compared with 84% of late homes (P < .001). The prevalence of these storage practices was maintained at 18 months. Observations of unlocked guns decreased significantly (from 20% to 8%) between groups (P < .03).
Gun cabinet installation in rural Alaskan households improved the storage of guns and ammunition. If these gains are sustained over time, it may lead to a reduction in gun-related injuries and deaths in this population.
American Journal of Public Health 03/2012; 102 Suppl 2:S291-7. · 3.93 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Birth order may play a role in autoimmune diseases and early childhood infections, both factors implicated in the etiology of narcolepsy. We investigated the association between birth order and narcolepsy risk in a population-based case-control study in which all study subjects were HLA-DQB1*0602 positive.
Subjects were 18-50 years old, residents of King County, Washington, and positive for HLA-DQB1*0602. Birth order was obtained from administered interviews. We used logistic regression to generate odds ratios adjusted for income and African American race.
Analyses included 67 cases (mean age 34.3 [SD=9.1], 70.2% female) and 95 controls (mean age 35.1 [SD=8.8], 58.1% female). Associations for birth order were as follows: first born (cases 38.8% vs. controls 50.2%, OR=1.0; reference), second born (cases 29.9% vs. controls 32.9%, OR=1.6; 95% CI 0.7, 3.7), and third born or higher (cases 31.3% vs. controls 16.8%, OR=2.5; 95% CI 1.0, 6.0). A linear trend was significant (p<0.05). Sibling number, sibling gender, having children, and number of children did not differ significantly between narcolepsy cases and controls.
Narcolepsy risk was significantly associated with higher birth order in this population-based study of genetically susceptible individuals. This finding supports an environmental influence on narcolepsy risk through an autoimmune mechanism, early childhood infections, or both.
Sleep Medicine 03/2012; 13(3):310-3. · 3.49 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study aimed to examine the prevalence and trajectory of sleep disturbances and their associated risk factors in children up to 24 months following a traumatic brain injury (TBI). In addition, the longitudinal association between sleep disturbances and children's functional outcomes was assessed. This was a prospective study of a cohort of children with TBI and a comparison cohort of children with orthopedic injury (OI). Parental reports of pre-injury sleep disturbances were compared to reports of post-injury changes at 3, 12, and 24 months. Risk factors for sleep disturbances were examined, including severity of TBI, presence of psychosocial problems, and pain. Sleep disturbances were also examined as a predictor of children's functional outcomes in the areas of adaptive behavior skills and activity participation. Both cohorts (children with TBI and OI) displayed increased sleep disturbances after injury. However, children with TBI experienced higher severity and more prolonged duration of sleep disturbances compared to children with OI. Risk factors for disturbed sleep included mild TBI, psychosocial problems, and frequent pain. Sleep disturbances emerged as significant predictors of poorer functional outcomes in children with moderate or severe TBI. Children with TBI experienced persistent sleep disturbances over 24 months. Findings suggest a potential negative impact of disturbed sleep on children's functional outcomes, highlighting the need for further research on sleep in children with TBI.
Journal of neurotrauma 01/2012; 29(1):154-61. · 4.25 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Since the rapid scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) programs in sub-Saharan Africa, electronic patient tracking systems (EPTS) have been deployed to respond to the growing demand for program monitoring, evaluation and reporting to governments and donors. These routinely collected data are often used in epidemiologic and operations research studies intended to improve programs. To ensure accurate reporting and good quality for research, the reliability and completeness of data systems need to be assessed and reported. We assessed the completeness and reliability of EPTS used in 16 HIV care and treatment clinics in Manica and Sofala provinces of Mozambique.
We conducted a cross-sectional study to assess the completeness and reliability of key variables in the electronic data system for patients enrolling in 16 public sector HIV treatment clinics between 1 July 2004 and 30 June 2008. Data from the electronic database was compared with data abstracted from a stratified random sample of 520 patient charts. Percent agreement, kappa scores and concordance correlation coefficients were calculated for specified variables. Percentile bootstrap confidence intervals were calculated to account for the stratified nature of our sampling.
A total of 16,149 patients with a median age of 33 years and a median CD4 count of 151 enrolled in these 16 clinics between 1 July 2004 and 30 June 2008. The level of completeness was high for most variables with height (18.6%) and weight (11.5%) having the highest amount of missing data. The level of agreement for available data was also high with reliability statistics of 0.95 (95% CI: 0.92-0.98) for gender, 0.91 (95% CI: 0.80-1.00) for pre-ART CD4 value and 0.97 (95% CI: 0.95-0.99) for patient retention.
Electronic patient tracking systems have been deployed to respond to the growing monitoring, evaluation and reporting requirements. In our cross-sectional study of clinics in Manica and Sofala provinces of Mozambique, we found high levels of completeness and reliability for key variables indicating that these electronic databases provided adequate data not only for monitoring and evaluation but also for research. Routine evaluations of the completeness and reliability of these databases need to occur to ensure high quality data are being used for reporting and research.
BMC Health Services Research 01/2012; 12:30. · 1.77 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To measure national variation in splenectomy rates, mortality, and costs for hospitalized patients with splenic injury and the impact of state trauma systems on these outcomes.
Using the HCUP State Inpatient Database for 2001, 2004, and 2007, all patients hospitalized with splenic injury were identified from 19 participating states. Multivariate regression was performed to compare splenectomy rates, inpatient mortality, and costs between states. Inclusiveness of statewide trauma systems was categorized based on the proportion of hospitals designated as a trauma center.
Of 33,131 patients, 26.2% underwent splenectomy, 6.1% died, and median hospital costs were $14,317. After adjusting for patient, injury, and hospital characteristics, there was a 1.7-fold variation (RR 1.67; 95% CI, 1.39-2.01) among the 19 states in rates of splenectomy. Adjusted inpatient mortality varied more than 2-fold between the highest and lowest states (RR 2.43; 95% CI, 1.76-3.37). Adjusted hospital costs varied over 60% between the highest and lowest states (cost ratio 1.61; 95% CI, 1.41-1.83). States with the most inclusive trauma systems had significantly lower splenectomy rate (RR 0.79; 95% CI, 0.68-0.92) and lower mortality (RR 0.71; 95% CI, 0.58-0.87), but similar hospital costs (CR 1.05; 95% CI, 0.95-1.16) compared to states with exclusive or no trauma systems.
Significant geographic variation in the management, outcome, and costs for splenic injury exists in the United States, and may reflect differences in quality of care. Inclusive trauma systems seem to improve outcomes without increasing hospital costs.
Annals of surgery 12/2011; 255(1):165-70. · 7.90 Impact Factor