Pratima Bose

The University of Scranton, Scranton, Pennsylvania, United States

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Publications (14)41.95 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Cranberry products and especially cranberry juice (CJ) have been consumed for health reasons primarily due to their effect on urinary tract infections. We investigated the quantity of both free and total (after hydrolysis) phenolic antioxidants in cranberry products using the Folin assay. The order of amount of total polyphenols in cranberry foods on a fresh weight basis was as follows: dried > frozen > sauce > jellied sauce. On a serving size basis for all cranberry products, the order was as follows: frozen > 100% juice > dried > 27% juice > sauce > jellied sauce. High fructose corn syrup (HFCS) is a major source of sugar consumption in the U.S. and contains both glucose and fructose, potential mediators of oxidative stress. We investigated the effect of the consumption of HFCS and ascorbate with CJ antioxidants or without CJ (control) given to 10 normal individuals after an overnight fast. Plasma antioxidant capacity, glucose, triglycerides, and ascorbate were measured 6 times over 7 h after the consumption of a single 240 mL serving of the two different beverages. The control HFCS caused a slight decrease in plasma antioxidant capacity at all time points and thus an oxidative stress in spite of the presence of ascorbate. CJ produced an increase in plasma antioxidant capacity that was significantly greater than control HFCS at all time points. Postprandial triglycerides, due to fructose in the beverages, were mainly responsible for the oxidative stress and were significantly correlated with the oxidative stress as measured by the antioxidant capacity. Cranberries are an excellent source of high quality antioxidants and should be examined in human supplementation studies.
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 07/2008; 56(14):5884-91. · 3.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chocolate today is often viewed as a food or snack with little nutritional value. The high saturated fat content of chocolate has also contributed to the belief that its consumption increases the risk of heart disease. However, recent human studies have proven that chocolate has beneficial effects on some pathogenic mechanisms of heart disease such as endothelial function and blood pressure. Although the antioxidant properties of chocolate have been known for some time, there has been no examination of its place in the U.S. diet as a source of antioxidants. This paper demonstrates that chocolate makes a significant contribution to U.S. per capita dietary antioxidants and by inference the European Community's. In the U.S. diet chocolate is the third highest daily per capita antioxidant source. An ex vivo study shows that epicatechin, a major polyphenol in chocolate and chocolate extracts, is a powerful inhibitor of plasma lipid oxidation due to polyphenols' ability to bind to lower density lipoproteins. Conversely, the fat from chocolate alone is a pro-oxidant in this model. This is also demonstrated in an in vivo human study. After consumption of dark chocolate and cocoa powder, the lower density lipoproteins isolated from plasma were protected from oxidation compared to the lipoproteins isolated after cocoa butter consumption, which were put under oxidative stress. In an animal model of atherosclerosis, cocoa powder at a human dose equivalent of two dark chocolate bars per day significantly inhibited atherosclerosis, lowered cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, and triglycerides, raised high-density lipoprotein, and protected the lower density lipoproteins from oxidation. Chocolate has thus been shown to have potential beneficial effects with respect to heart disease.
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 11/2006; 54(21):8071-6. · 3.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The goal of this work is to determine the amount and quality of phenol antioxidants in dried fruits and compare them with the corresponding fresh fruits; to compare the nutrients in fresh and dried fruits; to determine if figs are a source of in vivo antioxidants when eaten. Commercial samples of dried fruits and fresh fruits were compared in the in vitro studies using a colorimetric method to measure phenolic antioxidants. The quality of the antioxidants was measured by inhibition of lower density lipoprotein oxidation. Ten normal free-living subjects were tested in the human study. Fasting subjects were given 40 g of figs with or without a carbonated beverage and the plasma antioxidant capacity was measured for six hours using the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assay. Dates have the highest concentration of polyphenols among the dried fruits. Figs and dried plums have the best nutrient score among the dried fruits, and dates among the fresh fruits. Processing to produce the dried fruit significantly decreases the phenols in the fruits on a dry weight basis. Compared with vitamins C and E, dried fruits have superior quality antioxidants with figs and dried plums being the best. Fig antioxidants can enrich lipoproteins in plasma and protect them from subsequent oxidation. Figs produced a significant increase in plasma antioxidant capacity for 4 hours after consumption, and overcome the oxidative stress of consuming high fructose corn syrup in a carbonated soft drink. Dried fruits and especially figs, are a convenient and superior source of some nutrients, but in the American diet amount to less than 1% of total fruit consumed. Figs are in vivo antioxidants after human consumption. The findings suggest that dried fruits should be a greater part of the diet as they are dense in phenol antioxidants and nutrients, most notably fiber.
    Journal of the American College of Nutrition 03/2005; 24(1):44-50. · 1.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The free phenols have been measured in 15 lagers, 6 porters and ales, and 11 light and nonalcoholic beers. Phenols were measured colorimetrically using an oxidation-reduction reaction with Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and catechin as the standard. The order of phenol concentration was ales > lagers > low calorie > nonalcoholic. The quality of antioxidants of the major phenols in beers and the quality of beer antioxidants were measured by (1) dose-response inhibition of lower density lipoprotein oxidation and (2) concentration of phenols in the beers at which 50% of the peroxide was destroyed in a luminescent assay for antioxidant activity. The beers' lipoprotein antioxidant quality was clearly superior to that of vitamin antioxidants and to that of the phenol ingredients, suggesting synergism among the antioxidants in the mixture. The average per capita consumption of beer in the United States in 2000 was 225 mL/day, equivalent to 42 mg/day of catechin equivalents. Beer provides more antioxidants per day than wine in the U.S. diet. A dark beer and a lager beer were given at two concentrations to cholesterol-fed hamsters, an animal model of atherosclerosis. At the high dose ((1)/(2)-diluted beer) both lager and dark beer significantly inhibited atherosclerosis compared to a control of 2% alcohol. At the high dose, lager significantly decreased cholesterol and triglycerides, and both beers acted as in vivo antioxidants by decreasing the oxidizability of lower density lipoproteins. At the low dose ((1)/(10)-diluted beer) only the lager beer significantly decreased atherosclerosis compared to the 0.4% alcohol control. The polyphenols in the beers appear to be responsible for the benefits of beer in this model. Lager beer inhibited atherosclerosis at a human equivalent dose in this hamster model of atherosclerosis.
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 08/2003; 51(18):5528-33. · 3.11 Impact Factor
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    J A Vinson, X Su, L Zubik, P Bose
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    ABSTRACT: The free and bound phenols have been measured in 20 fruits commonly consumed in the American diet. Phenols were measured colorimetrically using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent with catechin as the standard after correction for ascorbic acid contribution. On a fresh weight basis, cranberry had the highest total phenols, and was distantly followed by red grape. Free and total phenol quality in the fruits was analyzed by using the inhibition of lower density lipoprotein oxidation promoted by cupric ion. Ascorbate had only a minor contribution to the antioxidants in fruits with the exception of melon, nectarine, orange, white grape, and strawberry. The fruit extracts' antioxidant quality was better than the vitamin antioxidants and most pure phenols, suggesting synergism among the antioxidants in the mixture. Using our assay, fruits had significantly better quantity and quality of phenol antioxidants than vegetables. Fruits, specifically apples and cranberries, have phenol antioxidants that can enrich lower density lipoproteins and protect them from oxidation. The average per capita consumption of fruit phenols in the U.S. is estimated to be 255 mg/day of catechin equivalents.
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 12/2001; 49(11):5315-21. · 3.11 Impact Factor
  • J A Vinson, J Proch, P Bose
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    ABSTRACT: The methods described in this article are quick, simple, and inexpensive to perform. The Folin quantitation method can determine both free and total polyphenol antioxidants in foods and beverages as described, as well as botanical extracts. This assay may also be used to estimate the daily per capita consumption of polyphenols in foods. The dose-response in vitro lower density lipoprotein antioxidant activity measurement (IC50) can be employed to compare antioxidants as pure compounds, or in mixtures after quantitating the polyphenols. The ex vivo lipoprotein-binding antioxidant activity can be measured simply and rapidly to determine possible in vivo binding of pure compounds or extracts from foods. Supplementation and epidemiology studies can utilize the rapid and inexpensive affinity column isolation method of lower density lipoproteins for the determination of lipoprotein oxidative susceptibility.
    Methods in Enzymology 02/2001; 335:103-14. · 2.00 Impact Factor
  • Joe A. Vinson, John Proch, Pratima Bose
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    ABSTRACT: Epidemiological studies have produced solid evidence that consumption of fruits results in a reduction of cancer and cardiovascular disease. Red wine has been hypothesized to reduce the risk of heart disease as a result of its antioxidant, endothelial relaxation, and antiplatelet aggregation mechanisms. We investigated a commercial California wine grapeseed extract, MegaNatural((R)) Gold, and compared it to grapes, grape juice, red wine, other grapeseed extracts, and commercial extracts with respect to antioxidant activity, using an oxidation-reduction colorimetric assay. The quality of the antioxidants was determined with the use of an in vitro model of heart disease, a dose-response inhibition of low-density lipoprotein oxidation. MegaNatural((R)) Gold had a superior quantity/quality antioxidant index compared with all other samples tested. In nine subjects given 600 mg of MegaNatural((R)) Gold, the plasma antioxidant activity as measured by the RANDOX assay was significantly increased by 12% after both 1 and 2 hours. This was equivalent to drinking 300 ml of red wine or consuming 1,250 mg of vitamin C, as found in a previous study. We then determined the dose-response human plasma bioavailability of one of the polyphenols in MegaNatural((R)) Gold (epicatechin) in nine human subjects after giving 200 and 300 mg of the product. The in vivo antioxidant activity was also measured. The higher dose was much more effective. A long-term human supplementation study with 2 x 300 mg/day of MegaNatural((R)) Gold was then done on 17 (9 normal and 8 hypercholesterolemic) subjects. Plasma cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations were significantly decreased in the subjects with high cholesterol. Triglycerides were significantly increased in the high-cholesterol subjects but were still in the normal range after supplementation. Plasma antioxidant capacity was significantly improved in the high-cholesterol subjects. There was no change in plasma lipids or antioxidant capacity in the normal subjects.
    Journal of medicinal food 02/2001; 4(1):17-26. · 1.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Starting from the inhibitory activity of the flavonoid Quercetin, a series of 4H-1-benzopyran-4-one derivatives was synthesized and tested for inhibition of aldose reductase, an enzyme involved in the appearance of diabetic complications. Some of the compounds obtained display inhibitory activity similar to that of Sorbinil but are more selective than Quercetin and Sorbinil with respect to the closely related enzyme, aldehyde reductase, and also possess antioxidant activity. Remarkably, these compounds possess higher pKa values than carboxylic acids, a characteristic which could make the pharmacokinetics of these compounds very interesting. Molecular modeling investigations on the structures of inhibitors bound at the active site of aldose reductase were performed in order to suggest how these new inhibitors might bind to the enzyme and also to interpret structure-activity relationships.
    Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 07/1999; 42(11):1881-93. · 5.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The in vitro accumulation of sorbitol by human erythrocytes incubated in a physiological glucose medium was found to be strongly reduced by the addition of ascorbic acid (AA). A maximal inhibition of sorbitol in the erythrocytes of 98.3% occurred when the concentration of AA was at its peak in the cells. After incubation, the erythrocyte sorbitol was found to be inversely correlated with the concentration of AA in the erythrocytes. A human supplementation study was conducted with 10 normoglycemic subjects. Each was given 500 mg/day AA alone or in a citrus fruit medium. Each supplementation lasted 2 wk and was followed by a 10-day washout. The citrus fruit medium produced a significantly greater increase in erythrocyte AA compared with AA alone. AA alone and in citrus fruit medium decreased erythrocyte sorbitol 12.6 and 27.2%, respectively, with the latter being significantly more effective. In a study with 4 subjects, 2000 mg/day AA resulted in a reduction in erythrocyte sorbitol of 56.1%. As in the in vitro study, there was an inverse relationship between erythrocyte AA and sorbitol. Two thousand milligrams of AA per day (AA or citrus fruit medium) was given to 8 diabetic subjects in a preliminary 3-wk supplementation trial in which erythrocyte sorbitol levels were decreased by 44.5%. These results suggest that AA supplementation for diabetic subjects may provide a simple means of preventing and ameliorating the complications of diabetes without the use of drugs.
    Diabetes 09/1989; 38(8):1036-41. · 7.90 Impact Factor
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    J A Vinson, P Bose
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    ABSTRACT: This study was performed to determine whether synthetic ascorbic acid (AA) alone or in a natural citrus extract containing bioflavonoids, proteins, and carbohydrates was more bioavailable to human subjects. The effect of a single 500-mg ascorbate dose of the two forms and a placebo citrus extract on plasma ascorbate was examined in eight fasting subjects. A comparison of the areas under the plasma concentration-time curves showed that the citrus extract was 35% more absorbed than AA (p less than 0.001) and was more slowly absorbed than AA (p less than 0.001). In six ascorbate-saturated male subjects the ascorbate in the citrus extract produced a greater ascorbate excretion than AA alone in 24-h post-dose urine (p less than 0.05). Citrus extract ascorbate was less excreted than AA (p less than 0.05) in 12 nonsaturated subjects. Ascorbate in the citrus extract was found to be more bioavailable than AA alone in human subjects.
    American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 10/1988; 48(3):601-4. · 6.50 Impact Factor
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    Joe A. Vinson, Pratima Bose
    Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 01/1987; 498:525-526. · 4.38 Impact Factor
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    J. A. Vinson, P. Bose
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    ABSTRACT: A new high potency organic chromium yeast was investigated for its effect on blood control and serum lipids in a group of 23 normal and diabetic subjects which were sub-divided into normals, hyperglycaemics, insulin-dependent diabetics and non- insulin dependent diabetics. Each volunteer daily took 100 mg of yeast containing 218 μg of chromium for a period of six months. The blood and serum was analysed before supplementation and periodically throughout the study. Transient improvements in the various parameters occurred in all the groups in the early portion of the study. However, after six months of supplementati on, the only group to statistically significantly benefit was the hyperglycaemic group. This group had improved blood glucose control, lowered serum lipids and a decreased risk of coronary heart disease.
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    J. A. Vinson, P. Bose
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    ABSTRACT: This study was undertaken to compare the bioavailabilities of synthetic ascorbic acid and a natural vitamin C which contains bioflavonoids. Adult male guinea pigs were orally dosed with 50 mg of ascorbate and the serum levels measured using a fluorometric method. The two forms of ascorbic acid gave similar peak concentrations of serum ascorbate but the natural vitamin C peaked later and remained in the serum for a longer time period. The bioavailability of the natural vitamin C was significantly greater (148%, p < 0.001) than that of the synthetic ascorbic acid.
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    J A Vinson, P Bose
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    ABSTRACT: The bioavailabililty of various forms of the trace elements selenium, manganese, zinc and iron has been investigated using rats as the test animal. Ten groups of 5 rats each were used for the study. For each element studied, all rats were fed a commercial trace element deficient diet for 2 to 4 weeks to produce a state of deficiency. Then each group was fed the element supplemented at one of three levels in one of 3 forms -inorganic salt, commercial amino acid chelate and yeast. After this period of supplementation, the rats were sacrificed and the concentration of the element determined in the blood and liver. The slope of the plot of element concentration in the diet vs. element concentration in the blood or liver gave the bioavailability. In the blood the order of decreasing bioavailability is yeast > inorganic salt > amino acid chelate. In the liver the order is yeast > amino acid chelate > inorganic salt. The results show that yeast is the most bioavailable form of the element. It is thus concluded that yeast is the best form for trace element supplementation. Introduction Although trace element deficiencies resulting in overt physiological changes are rare in the population of developed nations, the incidence of sub-optimal deficiencies may, in fact, be common. These slight deficiencies are a result of three factors: 1) soil deficiencies of trace elements in certain geographical areas. 2) declining level of trace elements in the soil due to repeated farming and the use of easily leachable inorganic fertilisers. 3) processing of foods prior to consumption.