[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bottom-up proteomics (analyzing peptides that result from protein digestion) has demonstrated capability for broad proteome coverage and good throughput. However, due to incomplete sequence coverage, this approach is not ideally suited to the study of modified proteins. The modification complement of a protein can best be elucidated by analyzing the intact protein. 2-DE, typically coupled with the analysis of peptides that result from in-gel digestion, is the most frequently applied protein separation technique in MS-based proteomics. As an alternative, numerous column-based liquid phase techniques, which are generally more amenable to automation, are being investigated. In this work, the combination of size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) fractionation with RPLC-Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR)-MS is compared with the combination of RPLC fractionation with CIEF-FTICR-MS for the analysis of the Shewanella oneidensis proteome. SEC-RPLC-FTICR-MS allowed the detection of 297 proteins, as opposed to 166 using RPLC-CIEF-FTICR-MS, indicating that approaches based on LC-MS provide better coverage. However, there were significant differences in the sets of proteins detected and both approaches provide a basis for accurately quantifying changes in protein and modified protein abundances.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This review provides a broad overview of recent Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) applications and technological developments relevant to the field of proteomics. Both the "bottom up" (peptide level) and "top down" (intact protein level) approaches are discussed and illustrated with examples. "Bottom up" topics include peptide fragmentation, the accurate mass and time (AMT) tag approach and dynamic range extension technology, aspects of quantitative proteomics measurements, post-translational modifications, and developments in FTICR operation software focused on peptide and protein identification. Topics related to the "top down" approach include various aspects of high mass measurements, protein tandem mass spectrometry, methods for the study of protein conformations, and protein complexes as well as advanced technologies that may become of practical utility in the coming years. Finally, early examples of the integration of both FTICR approaches to biomedical proteomics applications are presented, along with an outlook for future directions.
Mass Spectrometry Reviews 03/2005; 24(2):168-200. · 7.74 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report on the use of a jet disrupter electrode in an electrodynamic ion funnel as an electronic valve to regulate the intensity of the ion beam transmitted through the interface of a mass spectrometer in order to perform automatic gain control (AGC). The ion flux is determined by either directly detecting the ion current on the conductance limiting orifice of the ion funnel or using a short mass spectrometry acquisition. Based upon the ion flux intensity, the voltage of the jet disrupter is adjusted to alter the transmission efficiency of the ion funnel to provide a desired ion population to the mass analyzer. Ion beam regulation by an ion funnel is shown to provide control to within a few percent of a targeted ion intensity or abundance. The utility of ion funnel AGC was evaluated using a protein tryptic digest analyzed with liquid chromatography Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (LC-FTICR) mass spectrometry. The ion population in the ICR cell was accurately controlled to selected levels, which improved data quality and provided better mass measurement accuracy.
Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry 03/2005; 16(2):244-53. · 3.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In proteomics, effective methods are needed for identifying the relatively limited subset of proteins displaying significant changes in abundance between two samples. One way to accomplish this task is to target for identification by MS/MS only the "interesting" proteins based on the abundance ratio of isotopically labeled pairs of peptides. We have developed the software and hardware tools for online LC-FTICR MS/MS studies in which a set of initially unidentified peptides from a proteome analysis can be selected for identification based on their distinctive changes in abundance following a "perturbation". We report here the validation of this method using a mixture of standard proteins combined in different ratios after isotopic labeling. We also demonstrate the application of this method to the identification of Shewanella oneidensis peptides/proteins exhibiting differential abundance in suboxic versus aerobic cell cultures.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We describe methods for mass spectrometric identification of heme-containing peptides from c-type cytochromes that contain the CXXCH (X=any amino acid) sequence motif. The heme fragment ion yielded the most abundant MS/MS peak for standard heme-containing peptides with one amino acid difference for both 2+ and 3+ peptide charge states; both sequence and charge affect the extent of heme loss. Application to Shewanella oneidenis demonstrated the utility of this approach for identifying c-type heme-containing peptides from complex proteome samples.
Journal of Proteome Research 01/2005; 4(3):846-54. · 5.06 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ion transfer and storage using inhomogeneous radio frequency (RF) electric fields in combination with gas-assisted ion cooling and focusing constitutes one of the basic techniques in mass spectrometry today. The RF motion of ions in the bath gas environment involves a large number of ion-neutral collisions that leads to the internal activation of ions and their effective "heating" (when a thermal distribution of internal energies results). The degree of ion activation required in various applications may range from a minimum level (e.g., slightly raising the average internal energy) to an intense level resulting in ion fragmentation. Several research groups proposed using the effective temperature as a measure of ion activation under conditions of multiple ion-neutral collisions. Here we present approximate relationships for the effective ion temperature relevant to typical operation modes of RF multipole devices. We show that RF ion activation results in near-thermal energies for ions occupying an equilibrium position at the center of an RF trap, whereas increased ion activation can be produced by shifting ions off-center, e.g., by means of an external DC electric field. The ion dissociation in the linear quadrupole ion trap using the dipolar DC ion activation has been observed experimentally and interpreted in terms of the effective ion temperature.
Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry 12/2004; 15(11):1616-28. · 3.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A new collision-induced dissociation (CID) technique based on broadband tailored noise waveform (TNW) excitation of ions stored in a linear ion trap has been developed. In comparison with the conventional sustained off-resonance irradiation (SORI) CID method commonly used in Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS), this MS/MS technique increases throughput by eliminating the long pump-down delay associated with gas introduction into the high vacuum ICR cell region. In addition, the TNW-CID method speeds spectrum acquisition since it does not require Fourier transformation, calculation of resonant frequencies and generation of the excitation waveforms. We demonstrate TNW-CID coupled with on-line capillary reverse-phase liquid chromatography separations for the identification of peptides. The experimental results are compared with data obtained using conventional quadrupole ion trap MS/MS and SORI-CID MS/MS in an ICR cell.
Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry 02/2004; 18(22):2682-90. · 2.51 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This work focuses on the development of a multidimensional electrokinetic-based separation/concentration platform coupled with electrospray ionization-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI-FTICR-MS) for achieving the high resolution and ultrasensitive analysis of complex protein/peptide mixtures. A microdialysis junction is employed as the interface for on-line combination of capillary isoelectric focusing (CIEF) with transient capillary isotachophoresis/zone electrophoresis (CITP/CZE) in an integrated platform. Besides the excellent resolving power afforded by both CIEF and CZE separations, the electrokinetic focusing/stacking effects of CIEF and CITP greatly enhance the dynamic range and detection sensitivity of MS for protein identification. The constructed multidimensional separation/concentration platform is demonstrated for the analysis of Shewanella oneidensis proteome, which has considerable implications toward the bioremediation of environmental pollutants. The electrokinetic-based platform offers the overall peak capacity comparable to those obtained using multidimensional chromatography systems, but with a much shorter run time and no need for column regeneration. Most importantly, a total of 1174 unique proteins, corresponding to 26.5% proteome coverage, are identified from the cytosolic fraction of S. oneidensis, while requiring <500 ng of proteolytic digest loaded in the CIEF capillary. The ultrasensitive capabilities of electrokinetic-based proteome approach are attributed to the concentration effect in CIEF, the electrokinetic stacking of CITP, the nanoscale peak volume in CZE, the "accurate mass tag" strategy for protein/peptide identification, and the high-sensitivity, high-resolution, and high-mass measurement accuracy of FTICR-MS.