[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Little is known of glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies (GAD-abs) in the paraneoplastic context. Clinical recognition of such cases will lead to prompt tumor diagnosis and appropriate treatment.
To report the clinical and immunological features of patients with paraneoplastic neurological syndromes (PNS) and GAD-abs.
Retrospective case series study and immunological investigations conducted in February 2014 in a center for autoimmune neurological disorders. Fifteen cases with GAD65-abs evaluated between 1995 and 2013 who fulfilled criteria of definite or possible PNS without concomitant onconeural antibodies were included in this study.
Analysis of the clinical records of 15 patients and review of 19 previously reported cases. Indirect immunofluorescence with rat hippocampal neuronal cultures and cell-based assays with known neuronal cell-surface antigens were used. One hundred six patients with GAD65-abs and no cancer served as control individuals.
Eight of the 15 patients with cancer presented as classic paraneoplastic syndromes (5 limbic encephalitis, 1 paraneoplastic encephalomyelitis, 1 paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration, and 1 opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome). When compared with the 106 non-PNS cases, those with PNS were older (median age, 60 years vs 48 years; P = .03), more frequently male (60% vs 13%; P < .001), and had more often coexisting neuronal cell-surface antibodies, mainly against γ-aminobutyric acid receptors (53% vs 11%; P < .001). The tumors more frequently involved were lung (n = 6) and thymic neoplasms (n = 4). The risk for an underlying tumor was higher if the presentation was a classic PNS, if it was different from stiff-person syndrome or cerebellar ataxia (odds ratio, 10.5; 95% CI, 3.2-34.5), or if the patient had coexisting neuronal cell-surface antibodies (odds ratio, 6.8; 95% CI, 1.1-40.5). Compared with the current series, the 19 previously reported cases had more frequent stiff-person syndrome (74% vs 13%; P = .001) and better responses to treatment (79% vs 27%; P = .005). Predictors of improvement in the 34 patients (current and previously reported) included presentation with stiff-person syndrome and the presence of a thymic tumor.
Patients with GAD-abs must be screened for an underlying cancer if they have clinical presentations different from those typically associated with this autoimmunity or develop classic PNS. The risk for cancer increases with age, male sex, and the presence of coexisting neuronal cell-surface antibodies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Walking limitation is a key component of disability in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), but the information on daily walking activity and disability over time is limited. To determine, (1) the agreement between the standard measurements of MS-related disability [expanded disability status scale (EDSS), functional systems (FS) and ambulation index (AI)] obtained by conventional and remote evaluation using a multimedia platform; (2) the usefulness of monitoring 6-min walk test (6MWT) and average daily walking activity (aDWA) to better characterize patients disability. Twenty-five patients (EDSS score 1.0-6.5) were evaluated every 3 months for the first year, and aDWA repeated at year 2. Remote visits included the recording of a video with self-performed neurological examination and specific multimedia questionnaires. aDWA was measured by a triaxial accelerometer. All but two patients completed the study. Modest agreement between conventional and multimedia EDSS was found for EDSS ≤ 4.0 (kappa = 0.2) and good for EDSS ≥ 4.5 (kappa = 0.6). For the overall sample, pyramidal, cerebellar and brainstem FS showed the greatest agreement (kappa = 0.7). SR-AI showed a modest agreement for EDSS ≤ 4.0 and good for EDSS ≥ 4.5 (kappa = 0.3 and 0.6, respectively). There was a strong correlation between conventional and 6MWT measured by accelerometer (r = 0.76). The aDWA correlated strongly with the EDSS (r = -0.86) and a cut-off point of 3279.3 steps/day discriminated patients with ambulatory impairment. There was a significant decline in aDWA over 2 years in patients with ambulatory impairment that were not observed by standard measurements of disability. MS clinical monitoring by telemedicine is feasible, but the observed lower agreement in less disabled patients emphasizes the need to optimize the assessment methodology. Accelerometers capture changes that may indicate deterioration over time.
Journal of Neurology 05/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00415-015-7764-x · 3.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine sensitivity and specificity of a standardized recombinant cell-based indirect immunofluorescence assay (RC-IFA) for anti-Tr antibodies in comparison to a reference procedure.
Delta/Notch-like epidermal growth factor-related receptor (DNER) was expressed in HEK293 and used as a substrate for RC-IFA. HEK293 control cells expressing CDR2/Yo and CDR2L as well as mock-transfected HEK293 cells were used as controls. Serum samples from 38 patients with anti-Tr antibodies (33 with paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration [PCD] and Hodgkin lymphoma), 66 patients with anti-Tr-negative PCD, 53 patients with Hodgkin lymphoma without neurologic symptoms, 40 patients with rheumatic diseases, and 42 healthy blood donors were tested for anti-DNER reactivity in the RC-IFA. In addition, RC-IFA results were compared to those from a commercial tissue-based IFA using monkey cerebellum.
Using the RC-IFA, anti-DNER was detected in all anti-Tr-positive patients but in none of the controls (sensitivity 100%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 92.8%-100%; specificity 100%, 95% CI 98.7%-100%). In comparison, anti-Tr was not detected in 4 samples with low-titer autoantibodies using the commercial tissue-based assay. Preadsorption of sera with either recombinant full-length DNER or its extracellular domain selectively abolished anti-Tr reactivity.
Anti-Tr antibodies bind to the extracellular domain of DNER and can be detected by RC-IFA using HEK293 cells expressing the recombinant receptor. The new method performs better than a frequently used commercial tissue-based indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) in samples with low-titer antibodies.
This study provides Class II evidence that RC-IFA accurately detects anti-Tr as compared to conventional IFA.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Antibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD-ab) associate to different neurological syndromes. It is unknown if the diversity in syndrome association represents epitopes in different immunodominant domains or co-existence of antibodies to other proteins of the inhibitory synapsis. We examined the serum and CSF of 106 patients with anti-GAD related syndromes (39 cerebellar ataxia, 32 stiff-person syndrome [SPS], 18 epilepsy, and 17 limbic encephalitis [LE]). GAD65-ab titres were quantified by ELISA. Immunoblot was used to determine if the antibody-targeted epitopes of GAD65 and GAD67 were linear. A cell-based assay (CBA) with HEK293 cells expressing the GAD65 N-terminal, central catalytic domain, or C-terminal was used to investigate the immunodominant domains. Antibodies to GAD67, gamma-aminobutyric acid A receptor (GABAaR), glycine receptor (GlyR), GABAaR-associated protein (GABARAP), and gephyrin were determined with CBA. GAD-ab internalization was investigated using cultured rat hippocampal neurons. CSF GAD65-ab titres were higher in patients with cerebellar ataxia and LE compared to those with SPS (p = 0.02). GAD67-ab were identified in 81% of sera and 100% of CSF. GAD65-ab recognized linear epitopes in 98% of the patients and GAD67-ab in 42% (p<0.001). The GAD65 catalytic domain was recognized by 93% of sera, and the three domains by 22% of sera and 74% of CSF (p<0.001). Six patients had GABAaR-ab and another 6 had GlyR-ab without association to distinctive symptoms. None of the patients had gephyrin- or GABARAP-ab. GAD65-ab were not internalized by live neurons. Overall, these findings show that regardless of the neurological syndrome, the CSF immune response against GAD is more widespread than that of the serum and that there is no specific association between clinical phenotype and the presence of antibodies against other proteins of the inhibitory synapsis.
PLoS ONE 03/2015; 10(3):e0121364. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0121364 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The role of antibodies against neuronal surface and synaptic proteins, which identify a group of encephalitides that usually improve with immunotherapy,(1) is not fully understood and neuropathology may help elucidate the immune mechanism involved.(2,3) Recently, antibodies against dipeptidyl-peptidase-like protein-6 (DPPX), an auxiliary subunit of Kv4.2 potassium channels involved in signal transduction, were identified in 7 patients with encephalitis.(4,5) We report the neuropathologic features of a new patient.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In patients with isolated optic neuritis (ON), the presence of antibodies to aquaporin 4 (AQP4) has diagnostic and prognostic value. In the same clinical setting, the significance of antibodies to myelin-oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) or the glycine receptor α1 subunit (GlyR) is unclear.
To investigate the frequency of antibodies to AQP4, MOG, and GlyR in patients with unilateral or bilateral, severe, or recurrent isolated ON and to determine their clinical and prognostic correlates.
Retrospective case-control study from November 1, 2005, through May 30, 2014 with the detection of autoantibodies in a neuroimmunology referral center. We included 51 patients with ON but without clinical and magnetic resonance imaging findings outside the optic nerves and 142 controls (30 healthy individuals, 48 patients with neuromyelitis optica, and 64 patients with multiple sclerosis).
Clinicoimmunologic analysis. We determined the presence of antibodies to AQP4, MOG, and GlyR using cell-based assays.
The median age of the patients at the onset of ON symptoms was 28 (range, 5-65) years; 36 patients (71%) were female. Antibodies were identified in 23 patients (45%), including MOG in 10 patients, AQP4 in 6 patients, and GlyR in 7 patients (concurrent with MOG in 3 and concurrent with AQP4 in 1). Patients with AQP4 antibodies (median visual score, 3.5 [range, 1-9]) had a worse visual outcome than patients with MOG antibodies alone (median visual score, 0 [range, 0-5]; P = .007), patients with seronegative findings (n = 28) (median visual score, 1.0 [range, 0-14]; P = .08), and patients with GlyR antibodies alone (n = 3) (median visual score, 0 [range, 0-2]; P = .10).The median age of the 7 patients with GlyR antibodies was 27 (range, 11-38) years; 5 (71%) of these were female. Among the 3 patients with GlyR antibodies alone, 1 patient had monophasic ON, 1 had recurrent isolated ON, and 1 had conversion to multiple sclerosis. The 3 patients with GlyR antibodies concurrent with MOG antibodies had recurrent isolated ON, and the patient with concurrent AQP4 antibodies had conversion to neuromyelitis optica. Of the 48 controls with neuromyelitis optica, 37 (77%) had AQP4 antibodies, 4 (8%) had MOG antibodies, 2 (4%) had AQP4 antibodies concurrent with MOG antibodies, and 5 (10%) were seronegative. Of the 64 controls with multiple sclerosis, 5 (8%) had GlyR antibodies.
Forty-five percent of patients with unilateral or bilateral, severe, or recurrent isolated ON had antibodies to MOG, AQP4, or GlyR. Patients with AQP4 antibodies had the poorest visual outcomes, whereas patients with MOG antibodies had a better outcome that was similar to that of patients with seronegative findings. The significance of GlyR antibodies in the setting of ON is unclear and deserves further study.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report on a serum autoantibody associated with cerebellar ataxia. Immunohistochemical studies of sera from four patients referred for autoantibody testing revealed binding of high-titer (up to 1:5,000) IgG antibodies, mainly IgG1, to the molecular layer, Purkinje cell layer, and white matter on mouse, rat, porcine, and monkey cerebellum sections. The antibody bound to PC somata, dendrites, and axons, resulting in a binding pattern similar to that reported for anti-Ca/anti-ARHGAP26, but did not react with recombinant ARHGAP26. Extensive control studies were performed to rule out a broad panel of previously described paraneoplastic and non-paraneoplastic anti-neural autoantibodies. The characteristic binding pattern as well as double staining experiments suggested inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 1 (ITPR1) as the target antigen. Verification of the antigen included specific neutralization of the tissue reaction following preadsorption with ITPR1 (but not ARHGAP26) and a dot-blot assay with purified ITPR1 protein. By contrast, anti-ARHGAP26-positive sera did not bind to ITPR1. In a parallel approach, a combination of histoimmunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry also identified ITPR1 as the target antigen. Finally, a recombinant cell-based immunofluorescence assay using HEK293 cells expressing ITPR1 and ARHGAP26, respectively, confirmed the identification of ITPR1. Mutations of ITPR1 have previously been implicated in spinocerebellar ataxia with and without cognitive decline. Our findings suggest a role of autoimmunity against ITPR1 in the pathogenesis of autoimmune cerebellitis and extend the panel of diagnostic markers for this disease.
Journal of Neuroinflammation 12/2014; 11(1):206. DOI:10.1186/s12974-014-0206-3 · 4.90 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Uncontrolled studies of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in multiple sclerosis suggested some beneficial effect. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover phase II study we investigated their safety and efficacy in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients. Efficacy was evaluated in terms of cumulative number of gadolinium-enhancing lesions (GEL) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 6 months and at the end of the study.
Patients unresponsive to conventional therapy, defined by at least 1 relapse and/or GEL on MRI scan in past 12 months, disease duration 2 to 10 years and Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) 3.0-6.5 were randomized to receive IV 1-2×106 bone-marrow-derived-MSCs/Kg or placebo. After 6 months, the treatment was reversed and patients were followed-up for another 6 months. Secondary endpoints were clinical outcomes (relapses and disability by EDSS and MS Functional Composite), and several brain MRI and optical coherence tomography measures. Immunological tests were explored to assess the immunomodulatory effects.
At baseline 9 patients were randomized to receive MSCs (n = 5) or placebo (n = 4). One patient on placebo withdrew after having 3 relapses in the first 5 months. We did not identify any serious adverse events. At 6 months, patients treated with MSCs had a trend to lower mean cumulative number of GEL (3.1, 95% CI = 1.1-8.8 vs 12.3, 95% CI = 4.4-34.5, p = 0.064), and at the end of study to reduced mean GEL (-2.8±5.9 vs 3±5.4, p = 0.075). No significant treatment differences were detected in the secondary endpoints. We observed a non-significant decrease of the frequency of Th1 (CD4+ IFN-γ+) cells in blood of MSCs treated patients.
Bone-marrow-MSCs are safe and may reduce inflammatory MRI parameters supporting their immunomodulatory properties. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01228266.
PLoS ONE 12/2014; 9(12):e113936. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0113936 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is a severe but treatable autoimmune encephalitis affecting mainly young adults and children. The lack of suitable biomarkers of disease activity makes treatment decisions and identification of relapses challenging.
To determine the levels of the B-cell-attracting C-X-C motif chemokine 13 (CXCL13) in serum samples and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis and whether they can be used as biomarkers of treatment response and outcome.
Retrospective cohort study of 167 patients consecutively diagnosed as having anti-NMDAR encephalitis between May 1, 2008, and January 31, 2013. Concentration of CXCL13 was determined with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in all available patients' samples (272 CSF and 55 serum samples). Samples from 25 patients with noninflammatory neurological disorders and 9 with neuroborreliosis served as controls. Expression of CXCL13 in the brain biopsy of a patient with anti-NMDAR encephalitis was determined by immunohistochemistry.
Percentage of patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis and elevated CXCL13 in CSF.
Compared with control individuals, 70% of patients with early-stage anti-NMDAR encephalitis had increased CXCL13 in CSF (>7 pg/mL; P < .001) but none in serum samples (>1047 pg/mL; P > .99). High concentration of CSF CXCL13 was associated with the presence of prodromal fever or headache (P = .01), limited response to therapy (P = .003), clinical relapses (P = .03), and intrathecal NMDAR-antibody synthesis (P < .001). Among patients with monophasic disease assessed 2 to 6 months after starting treatment, 10 of 15 with limited treatment response vs 0 of 13 with favorable response had increased CSF CXCL13 (specificity, 100%; 95% CI, 75-100 and sensitivity, 67%; 95% CI, 38-88; P = .02). Six of 12 patients had elevated CSF CXCL13 at relapse including 3 with previously normal levels. In brain, abundant mononuclear cells in perivascular infiltrates and scattered intraparenchymal microglia expressed CXCL13.
Seventy percent of patients with early-stage anti-NMDAR encephalitis had increased CSF CXCL13 concentration that correlated with intrathecal NMDAR-antibody synthesis. Prolonged or secondary elevation of CXCL13 was associated with limited response to treatment and relapses. CXCL13 is a potentially useful biomarker of treatment response and outcome in anti-NMDAR encephalitis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Anti-N-methyl D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is a severe neuropsychiatric disorder that associates with prominent memory and behavioural deficits. Patients' antibodies react with the N-terminal domain of the GluN1 (previously known as NR1) subunit of NMDAR causing in cultured neurons a selective and reversible internalization of cell-surface receptors. These effects and the frequent response to immunotherapy have suggested an antibody-mediated pathogenesis, but to date there is no animal model showing that patients' antibodies cause memory and behavioural deficits. To develop such a model, C57BL6/J mice underwent placement of ventricular catheters connected to osmotic pumps that delivered a continuous infusion of patients' or control cerebrospinal fluid (flow rate 0.25 µl/h, 14 days). During and after the infusion period standardized tests were applied, including tasks to assess memory (novel object recognition in open field and V-maze paradigms), anhedonic behaviours (sucrose preference test), depressive-like behaviours (tail suspension, forced swimming tests), anxiety (black and white, elevated plus maze tests), aggressiveness (resident-intruder test), and locomotor activity (horizontal and vertical). Animals sacrificed at Days 5, 13, 18, 26 and 46 were examined for brain-bound antibodies and the antibody effects on total and synaptic NMDAR clusters and protein concentration using confocal microscopy and immunoblot analysis. These experiments showed that animals infused with patients' cerebrospinal fluid, but not control cerebrospinal fluid, developed progressive memory deficits, and anhedonic and depressive-like behaviours, without affecting other behavioural or locomotor tasks. Memory deficits gradually worsened until Day 18 (4 days after the infusion stopped) and all symptoms resolved over the next week. Accompanying brain tissue studies showed progressive increase of brain-bound human antibodies, predominantly in the hippocampus (maximal on Days 13-18), that after acid extraction and characterization with GluN1-expressing human embryonic kidney cells were confirmed to be against the NMDAR. Confocal microscopy and immunoblot analysis of the hippocampus showed progressive decrease of the density of total and synaptic NMDAR clusters and total NMDAR protein concentration (maximal on Day 18), without affecting the post-synaptic density protein 95 (PSD95) and α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors. These effects occurred in parallel with memory and other behavioural deficits and gradually improved after Day 18, with reversibility of symptoms accompanied by a decrease of brain-bound antibodies and restoration of NMDAR levels. Overall, these findings establish a link between memory and behavioural deficits and antibody-mediated reduction of NMDAR, provide the biological basis by which removal of antibodies and antibody-producing cells improve neurological function, and offer a model for testing experimental therapies in this and similar disorders.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:
We aimed to report the frequency and implications of antibodies to myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG-ab) in adults with demyelinating syndromes suspicious for neuromyelitis optica (NMO).
Samples from 174 patients (48 NMO, 84 longitudinally extensive myelitis (LETM), 39 optic neuritis (ON), and three acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) who presented initially with isolated LETM) were retrospectively examined for AQP4-ab and MOG-ab using cell-based assays.
MOG-ab were found in 17 (9.8%) patients, AQP4-ab in 59 (34%), and both antibodies in two (1.1%). Among the 17 patients with MOG-ab alone, seven (41%) had ON, five (29%) LETM, four (24%) NMO, and one (6%) ADEM. Compared with patients with AQP4-ab, those with MOG-ab were significantly younger (median: 27 vs. 40.5 years), without female predominance (53% vs. 90%), and the clinical course was more frequently monophasic (41% vs. 7%) with a benign outcome (median Expanded Disability Status Scale: 1.5 vs. 4.0). In eight patients with paired serum-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples, five had MOG-ab in both samples and three only in serum. Antibody titres did not differ among clinical phenotypes or disease course. MOG-ab remained detectable in 12/14 patients (median follow-up: 23 months) without correlation between titres' evolution and outcome.
MOG-ab identify a subgroup of adult patients with NMO, LETM and ON that have better outcome than those associated with AQP4-ab. MOG-ab are more frequently detected in serum than CSF and the follow-up of titres does not correlate with outcome.
Multiple Sclerosis 10/2014; Oct 24(7). DOI:10.1177/1352458514555785 · 4.86 Impact Factor