F Graus

IDIBAPS August Pi i Sunyer Biomedical Research Institute, Barcino, Catalonia, Spain

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Publications (379)2023.95 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Anti-N-methyl D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is a severe neuropsychiatric disorder that associates with prominent memory and behavioural deficits. Patients' antibodies react with the N-terminal domain of the GluN1 (previously known as NR1) subunit of NMDAR causing in cultured neurons a selective and reversible internalization of cell-surface receptors. These effects and the frequent response to immunotherapy have suggested an antibody-mediated pathogenesis, but to date there is no animal model showing that patients' antibodies cause memory and behavioural deficits. To develop such a model, C57BL6/J mice underwent placement of ventricular catheters connected to osmotic pumps that delivered a continuous infusion of patients' or control cerebrospinal fluid (flow rate 0.25 µl/h, 14 days). During and after the infusion period standardized tests were applied, including tasks to assess memory (novel object recognition in open field and V-maze paradigms), anhedonic behaviours (sucrose preference test), depressive-like behaviours (tail suspension, forced swimming tests), anxiety (black and white, elevated plus maze tests), aggressiveness (resident-intruder test), and locomotor activity (horizontal and vertical). Animals sacrificed at Days 5, 13, 18, 26 and 46 were examined for brain-bound antibodies and the antibody effects on total and synaptic NMDAR clusters and protein concentration using confocal microscopy and immunoblot analysis. These experiments showed that animals infused with patients' cerebrospinal fluid, but not control cerebrospinal fluid, developed progressive memory deficits, and anhedonic and depressive-like behaviours, without affecting other behavioural or locomotor tasks. Memory deficits gradually worsened until Day 18 (4 days after the infusion stopped) and all symptoms resolved over the next week. Accompanying brain tissue studies showed progressive increase of brain-bound human antibodies, predominantly in the hippocampus (maximal on Days 13-18), that after acid extraction and characterization with GluN1-expressing human embryonic kidney cells were confirmed to be against the NMDAR. Confocal microscopy and immunoblot analysis of the hippocampus showed progressive decrease of the density of total and synaptic NMDAR clusters and total NMDAR protein concentration (maximal on Day 18), without affecting the post-synaptic density protein 95 (PSD95) and α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors. These effects occurred in parallel with memory and other behavioural deficits and gradually improved after Day 18, with reversibility of symptoms accompanied by a decrease of brain-bound antibodies and restoration of NMDAR levels. Overall, these findings establish a link between memory and behavioural deficits and antibody-mediated reduction of NMDAR, provide the biological basis by which removal of antibodies and antibody-producing cells improve neurological function, and offer a model for testing experimental therapies in this and similar disorders.
    Brain : a journal of neurology. 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: We aimed to report the frequency and implications of antibodies to myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG-ab) in adults with demyelinating syndromes suspicious for neuromyelitis optica (NMO). METHODS: Samples from 174 patients (48 NMO, 84 longitudinally extensive myelitis (LETM), 39 optic neuritis (ON), and three acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) who presented initially with isolated LETM) were retrospectively examined for AQP4-ab and MOG-ab using cell-based assays. RESULTS: MOG-ab were found in 17 (9.8%) patients, AQP4-ab in 59 (34%), and both antibodies in two (1.1%). Among the 17 patients with MOG-ab alone, seven (41%) had ON, five (29%) LETM, four (24%) NMO, and one (6%) ADEM. Compared with patients with AQP4-ab, those with MOG-ab were significantly younger (median: 27 vs. 40.5 years), without female predominance (53% vs. 90%), and the clinical course was more frequently monophasic (41% vs. 7%) with a benign outcome (median Expanded Disability Status Scale: 1.5 vs. 4.0). In eight patients with paired serum-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples, five had MOG-ab in both samples and three only in serum. Antibody titres did not differ among clinical phenotypes or disease course. MOG-ab remained detectable in 12/14 patients (median follow-up: 23 months) without correlation between titres' evolution and outcome. CONCLUSION: MOG-ab identify a subgroup of adult patients with NMO, LETM and ON that have better outcome than those associated with AQP4-ab. MOG-ab are more frequently detected in serum than CSF and the follow-up of titres does not correlate with outcome.
    Multiple Sclerosis 10/2014; Oct 24. · 4.47 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Neuroimmunology. 10/2014; 275(s 1–2):2.
  • 09/2014; 13(9):864–865.
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    ABSTRACT: (1) To determine the characteristics of seizures and/or epilepsy among patients with adult onset type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), and (2) to determine glutamic acid decarboxylase antibody (antiGADab) titres and other autoimmune characteristics of T1DM patients with seizure and/or epilepsy.
    Journal of the neurological sciences. 08/2014;
  • Neurología. 08/2014; 29(6):382–384.
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    ABSTRACT: IMPORTANCE Current clinical and immunologic knowledge on cerebellar ataxia (CA) with glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 antibodies (GAD65-Abs) is based on case reports and small series with short-term follow-up data. OBJECTIVE To report the symptoms, additional antibodies, prognostic factors, and long-term outcomes in a cohort of patients with CA and GAD65-Abs. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Retrospective cohort study and laboratory investigations at a center for autoimmune neurologic disorders among 34 patients with CA and GAD65-Abs, including 25 with long-term follow-up data (median, 5.4 years; interquartile range, 3.1-10.3 years). MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Analysis of clinicoimmunologic features and predictors of response to immunotherapy. Immunochemistry on rat brain, cultured neurons, and human embryonic kidney cells expressing GAD65, GAD67, α1-subunit of the glycine receptor, and a repertoire of known cell surface autoantigens were used to identify additional antibodies. Twenty-eight patients with stiff person syndrome and GAD65-Abs served as controls. RESULTS The median age of patients was 58 years (range, 33-80 years); 28 of 34 patients (82%) were women. Nine patients (26%) reported episodes of brainstem and cerebellar dysfunction or persistent vertigo several months before developing CA. The clinical presentation was subacute during a period of weeks in 13 patients (38%). Nine patients (26%) had coexisting stiff person syndrome symptoms. Systemic organ-specific autoimmunities (type 1 diabetes mellitus and others) were present in 29 patients (85%). Twenty of 25 patients with long-term follow-up data received immunotherapy (intravenous immunoglobulin in 10 and corticosteroids and intravenous immunoglobulin or other immunosuppressors in 10), and 7 of them (35%) improved. Predictors of clinical response included subacute onset of CA (odds ratio [OR], 0.50; 95% CI, 0.25-0.99; P = .047) and prompt immunotherapy (OR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.96-0.99; P = .01). Similar frequencies of serum GAD67-Abs were found in patients with CA (24 of 34 patients [71%]) and in patients with stiff person syndrome (20 of 28 patients [71%]). However, GAD67-Abs were found in all of the cerebrospinal fluid samples examined (22 samples from patients with CA and 17 samples from patients with stiff person syndrome). Glycine receptor antibodies but not other cell surface antibodies were identified in 4 patients with CA. The presence of glycine receptor antibodies did not correlate with any specific clinical feature. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE In patients with CA and GAD65-Abs, subacute onset of symptoms and prompt immunotherapy are associated with good outcome. Persistent vertigo or brainstem and cerebellar episodes can herald CA and should lead to GAD65-Ab testing, particularly in patients with systemic organ-specific autoimmunities.
    JAMA Neurology 06/2014; · 7.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report a case of a woman who had two consecutive autoimmune neurological disorders, including an opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome (OMS) and limbic encephalitis (LE), with positive titers of GABAB receptor antibodies. The patient never developed seizures or had an underlying tumor after 4years of follow-up.
    Journal of neuroimmunology 04/2014; · 2.84 Impact Factor
  • Francesc Graus, Helena Ariño, Josep Dalmau
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    ABSTRACT: Paraneoplastic neurological syndromes (PNS) rarely associate with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL). Except for paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration (PCD) in HL and dermato/ polymyositis in both HL and NHL, other PNS are uncommon and have only been reported as isolated case reports or short series. There are several important differences in PNS when occurring in association with HL and NHL compared to those associated with solid tumors. First, some PNS such as sensory neuronopathy or Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS) rarely occur in lymphomas whereas others, such as granulomatous angiitis are only described in HL. Second, onconeural antibodies are absent in most PNS associated with lymphomas with the exceptions of Tr (DNER) in PCD and mGluR5 in limbic encephalitis (LE). The antigens recognized by these antibodies are not expressed in lymphoma cells suggesting the tumor itself does not trigger the PNS. Third, unlike patients with solid tumors in patients with lymphoma the PNS often develops at advanced stages of the disease. Furthermore, the type and frequency of PNS are different between HL and NHL; while LE and PCD occur almost exclusively in patients with HL, sensorimotor neuropathies and dermatomyositis are more frequent in NHL.
    Blood 04/2014; · 9.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Autoimmunity might be associated with or implicated in sleep and neurodegenerative disorders. We aimed to describe the features of a novel neurological syndrome associated with prominent sleep dysfunction and antibodies to a neuronal antigen. In this observational study, we used clinical and video polysomnography to identify a novel sleep disorder in three patients referred to the Sleep Unit of Hospital Clinic, University of Barcelona, Spain, for abnormal sleep behaviours and obstructive sleep apnoea. These patients had antibodies against a neuronal surface antigen, which were also present in five additional patients referred to our laboratory for antibody studies. These five patients had been assessed with polysomnography, which was done in our sleep unit in one patient and the recording reviewed in a second patient. Two patients underwent post-mortem brain examination. Immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry were used to characterise the antigen and develop an assay for antibody testing. Serum or CSF from 298 patients with neurodegenerative, sleep, or autoimmune disorders served as control samples. All eight patients (five women; median age at disease onset 59 years [range 52-76]) had abnormal sleep movements and behaviours and obstructive sleep apnoea, as confirmed by polysomnography. Six patients had chronic progression with a median duration from symptom onset to death or last visit of 5 years (range 2-12); in four the sleep disorder was the initial and most prominent feature, and in two it was preceded by gait instability followed by dysarthria, dysphagia, ataxia, or chorea. Two patients had a rapid progression with disequilibrium, dysarthria, dysphagia, and central hypoventilation, and died 2 months and 6 months, respectively, after symptom onset. In five of five patients, video polysomnography showed features of obstructive sleep apnoea, stridor, and abnormal sleep architecture (undifferentiated non-rapid-eye-movement [non-REM] sleep or poorly structured stage N2, simple movements and finalistic behaviours, normalisation of non-REM sleep by the end of the night, and, in the four patients with REM sleep recorded, REM sleep behaviour disorder). Four of four patients had HLA-DRB1*1001 and HLA-DQB1*0501 alleles. All patients had antibodies (mainly IgG4) against IgLON5, a neuronal cell adhesion molecule. Only one of the 298 controls, who had progressive supranuclear palsy, had IgLON5 antibodies. Neuropathology showed neuronal loss and extensive deposits of hyperphosphorylated tau mainly involving the tegmentum of the brainstem and hypothalamus in the two patients studied. IgLON5 antibodies identify a unique non-REM and REM parasomnia with sleep breathing dysfunction and pathological features suggesting a tauopathy. Fondo de Investigaciones Sanitarias, Centros de Investigación Biomédica en Red de enfermedades neurodegenerativas (CIBERNED) and Respiratorias (CIBERES), Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad, Fundació la Marató TV3, and the National Institutes of Health.
    The Lancet Neurology 04/2014; · 23.92 Impact Factor
  • Francesc Graus, Josep Dalmau
    JAMA neurology. 04/2014; 71(4):514-5.
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To report the clinical, radiological, and immunological association of demyelinating disorders with anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis. Methods: Clinical and radiological analysis of a cohort of 691 patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis. Determination of antibodies to NMDAR, aquaporin-4 (AQP4) and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) was performed using brain immunohistochemistry and cell-based assays. Results: Twenty-three of 691 patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis had prominent MRI and/or clinical features of demyelination. Group 1 included 12 patients in whom anti-NMDAR encephalitis was preceded or followed by independent episodes of NMO-spectrum disorder (5 cases, 4 anti-AQP4-positive), or brainstem or multifocal demyelinating syndromes (7 cases, all anti-MOG-positive). Group 2 included 11 patients in whom anti-NMDAR encephalitis occurred simultaneously with MRI and symptoms compatible with demyelination (5 AQ4-positive, 2 MOG-positive). Group 3 (136 controls) included 50 randomly selected patients with typical anti-NMDAR encephalitis, 56 with NMO, and 30 with multiple sclerosis: NMDAR-antibodies were detected only in the 50 anti-NMDAR patients, MOG-antibodies in 3/50 anti-NMDAR and 1/56 NMO patients, and AQP4-antibodies in 48/56 NMO and 1/50 anti-NMDAR patients (p<0.0001 for all comparisons with Groups 1 and 2). Most patients improved with immunotherapy, but compared with anti-NMDAR encephalitis the demyelinating episodes required more intensive therapy and resulted in more residual deficits. Only 1/23 NMDAR patients with signs of demyelination had ovarian teratoma compared with 18/50 anti-NMDAR controls (p=0.011) Interpretation: Patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis may develop concurrent or separate episodes of demyelinating disorders, and conversely patients with NMO or demyelinating disorders with atypical symptoms (e.g., dyskinesias, psychosis) may have anti-NMDAR encephalitis. ANN NEUROL 2014. © 2014 American Neurological Association.
    Annals of Neurology 02/2014; · 11.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Antibodies against a protein complex that includes voltage-gated potassium channels (VGKC) have been reported in patients with limbic encephalitis, peripheral nerve hyperexcitability, Morvan's syndrome, and a large variety of neurological syndromes. In this article, a review is presented of the syndromes associated with antibodies against VGKC-related proteins and the main antigens of this protein complex, the proteins LGI1 (leucine rich glioma inactivated protein 1) and Caspr2 (contactin-associated protein-like 2). The conceptual problems and clinical implications of the description of antibodies against VGKC-related proteins other than LGI1 and Caspr2 are also discussed. Although initial studies indicated the occurrence of antibodies against VGKC, recent investigations have shown that the main antigens are a neuronal secreted protein known as LGI1 which modulates synaptic excitability, and a protein called Caspr2 located on the cell surface and processes of neurons of different brain regions, and at the juxtaparanodal region of myelinated axons. While antibodies against LGI1 preferentially associate with classical limbic encephalitis, antibodies against Caspr2 associate with a wider spectrum of symptoms, including Morvan's syndrome, peripheral nerve hyperexcitability or neuromyotonia, and limbic or more extensive encephalitis. In addition there are reports of patients with antibodies against VGKC-related proteins that are different from LGI1 or Caspr2. In these cases, the identity and location of the antigens are unknown, the syndrome association is not specific, and the response to treatment uncertain. The discovery of antigens such as LGI1 and Caspr2 has resulted in a clinical and molecular definition of the broad group of diseases previously attributed to antibodies against VGKC. Considering the literature that describes the presence of antibodies against VGKC other than LGI1 and Caspr2 proteins, we propose a practical algorithm for the diagnosis and treatment of these patients.
    Neurologia 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: To describe the characteristics of patients presenting a paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration without classical onconeural antibodies (seronegative PCD). Thirty-nine seronegative PCD patients from the Paraneoplastic Neurological Syndrome Euronetwork were retrospectively analyzed and compared with 180 patients with PCD associated with classical onconeural antibodies (seropositive PCD). No patient had anti-CASPR2 or anti-mGluR1 antibodies. No significant difference between the clinical characteristics of seronegative and seropositive PCD patients was observed. Yet the frequency of associated tumors was different. Lymphoma was more frequent in seronegative than in seropositive women (24% vs. 2%, P = 0.002) whilst gynecological cancer were less frequent (38% vs. 74%, P = 0.002). In comparison with seropositive men, seronegative men more frequently had a non-small-cell lung cancer (27% vs. 6%, P = 0.08) or a genitourinary cancer (22% vs. 0%, P = 0.04) but less frequently a small-cell lung cancer (23% vs. 74%, P = 0.002). Seronegative and seropositive PCD patients with similar tumors had a similar overall survival. The clinical characteristics of seronegative and seropositive PCD are similar but the spectrum of associated tumors is different. The immunological scenario of seronegative PCD seems to be different from that of limbic encephalitis with only few patients harboring anti-neuropile antibodies.
    European Journal of Neurology 01/2014; · 4.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Primary central nervous system post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (CNS PTLD) is a serious complication after solid organ transplantation that has not received much attention so far. However, it could become a more frequent problem with the introduction of new biological agents. We identified five cases with CNS PTLD in our center who were transplanted between 1986 and 2007, three men and two women, with a mean age of 55.9 years (range 42-74). Three patients had received only kidney transplant and two patients had received a kidney-pancreas transplant. The mean time from first symptoms until diagnosis was 3.5 months (2-6). One patient was diagnosed post-mortem in autopsy. The mean time from transplantation to onset of neurological symptoms was 73.8 months (31-144). The initial clinical manifestation was heterogeneous: all five cases showed headache, four cases presented with gait disturbance, one with dysarthria and two with a confusional state. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) immunoglobulin (Ig)G serology was positive in four out of five cases; in situ hybridization for EBV in brain biopsy samples was positive in three cases, negative in one and not available in one. In four patients, EBV polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was positive in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). After diagnosis, overall immunosuppressive load was lowered in all patients (n = 4). Three patients died at 8-104 weeks (mean 40 weeks) after diagnosis and one patient is still alive 20 months after diagnosis. CNS PTLD is a complication difficult to diagnose, frequently diagnosed too late and often refractory to treatment. A more aggressive screening might be necessary in patients even with mild CNS symptoms.
    Journal of nephrology 01/2014; · 2.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration (PCD) is a common cause of subacute cerebellar ataxia caused by widespread loss of the Purkinje cells of the cerebellum. PCD diagnosis can be confirmed by detection of onconeural antibodies that may also indicate the underlying tumor type [1]. Most onconeural antibodies associated with PCD recognize intracellular antigens in Purkinje cells [2]. These antigens are supposed to induce, besides the antibody synthesis, an antigen-specific cytotoxic T-cell attack that probably is responsible of the Purkinje cell death and limited response to treatment [3,4]. The most common onconeural antibody in PCD is the Yo antibody that associates with breast and ovarian cancer [4]. In a previous case report, we identified a new antibody, targeting the intracellular Purkinje cell protein carbonic anhydrase-related protein VIII (CARPVIII), in a patient with PCD and melanoma [5]. We provide further evidence for the association of CARP VIII antibodies with PCD by demonstrating a second patient with these antibodies, who had an ovarian adenocarcinoma and developed cerebellar ataxia.
    Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology 01/2014; · 4.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Increasing evidence suggests that seizures and status epilepticus can be immune-mediated. We aimed to describe the clinical features of a new epileptic disorder, and to establish the target antigen and the effects of patients' antibodies on neuronal cultures. In this observational study, we selected serum and CSF samples for antigen characterisation from 140 patients with encephalitis, seizures or status epilepticus, and antibodies to unknown neuropil antigens. The samples were obtained from worldwide referrals of patients with disorders suspected to be autoimmune between April 28, 2006, and April 25, 2013. We used samples from 75 healthy individuals and 416 patients with a range of neurological diseases as controls. We assessed the samples using immunoprecipitation, mass spectrometry, cell-based assay, and analysis of antibody effects in cultured rat hippocampal neurons with confocal microscopy. Neuronal cell-membrane immunoprecipitation with serum of two index patients revealed GABAA receptor sequences. Cell-based assay with HEK293 expressing α1/β3 subunits of the GABAA receptor showed high titre serum antibodies (>1:160) and CSF antibodies in six patients. All six patients (age 3-63 years, median 22 years; five male patients) developed refractory status epilepticus or epilepsia partialis continua along with extensive cortical-subcortical MRI abnormalities; four patients needed pharmacologically induced coma. 12 of 416 control patients with other diseases, but none of the healthy controls, had low-titre GABAA receptor antibodies detectable in only serum samples, five of them also had GAD-65 antibodies. These 12 patients (age 2-74 years, median 26·5 years; seven male patients) developed a broader spectrum of symptoms probably indicative of coexisting autoimmune disorders: six had encephalitis with seizures (one with status epilepticus needing pharmacologically induced coma; one with epilepsia partialis continua), four had stiff-person syndrome (one with seizures and limbic involvement), and two had opsoclonus-myoclonus. Overall, 12 of 15 patients for whom treatment and outcome were assessable had full (three patients) or partial (nine patients) response to immunotherapy or symptomatic treatment, and three died. Patients' antibodies caused a selective reduction of GABAA receptor clusters at synapses, but not along dendrites, without altering NMDA receptors and gephyrin (a protein that anchors the GABAA receptor). High titres of serum and CSF GABAA receptor antibodies are associated with a severe form of encephalitis with seizures, refractory status epilepticus, or both. The antibodies cause a selective reduction of synaptic GABAA receptors. The disorder often occurs with GABAergic and other coexisting autoimmune disorders and is potentially treatable. The National Institutes of Health, the McKnight Neuroscience of Brain Disorders, the Fondo de Investigaciones Sanitarias, Fundació la Marató de TV3, the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (Veni-incentive), the Dutch Epilepsy Foundation.
    The Lancet Neurology 01/2014; · 23.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction Antibodies against a protein complex that includes voltage-gated potassium channels (VGKC) have been reported in patients with limbic encephalitis, peripheral nerve hyperexcitability, Morvan's syndrome, and a large variety of neurological syndromes. Review summary In this article, a review is presented of the syndromes associated with antibodies against VGKC-related proteins and the main antigens of this protein complex, the proteins LGI1 (leucine rich glioma inactivated protein 1) and Caspr2 (contactin-associated protein-like 2). The conceptual problems and clinical implications of the description of antibodies against VGKC-related proteins other than LGI1 and Caspr2 are also discussed. Although initial studies indicated the occurrence of antibodies against VGKC, recent investigations have shown that the main antigens are a neuronal secreted protein known as LGI1 which modulates synaptic excitability, and a protein called Caspr2 located on the cell surface and processes of neurons of different brain regions, and at the juxtaparanodal region of myelinated axons. While antibodies against LGI1 preferentially associate with classical limbic encephalitis, antibodies against Caspr2 associate with a wider spectrum of symptoms, including Morvan's syndrome, peripheral nerve hyperexcitability or neuromyotonia, and limbic or more extensive encephalitis. In addition there are reports of patients with antibodies against VGKC-related proteins that are different from LGI1 or Caspr2. In these cases, the identity and location of the antigens are unknown, the syndrome association is not specific, and the response to treatment uncertain. Conclusions The discovery of antigens such as LGI1 and Caspr2 has resulted in a clinical and molecular definition of the broad group of diseases previously attributed to antibodies against VGKC. Considering the literature that describes the presence of antibodies against VGKC other than LGI1 and Caspr2 proteins, we propose a practical algorithm for the diagnosis and treatment of these patients.
    Neurología. 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor encephalitis is a severe but treatable autoimmune disorder which diagnosis depends on sensitive and specific antibody testing. We aimed to assess the sensitivity and specificity of serum and CSF antibody testing in patients with anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis, and the relation between titres, relapses, outcome, and epitope repertoire. In this observational study, we used rat brain immunohistochemistry and cell-based assays (CBA) with fixed or live NMDA receptor-expressing cells to determine the sensitivity and specificity of antibody testing in paired serum and CSF samples. Samples were obtained at diagnosis from patients with anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis and from control participants worldwide. We deemed a patient to be antibody positive if their serum, their CSF, or both tested positive with both immunohistochemistry and CBA techniques; we determined titres with serial sample dilution using brain immunohistochemistry. We examined samples from 45 patients (25 with good outcome [modified Rankin Scale, mRS 0-2], ten with poor outcome [mRS 3-6], and ten with relapses) at three or more timepoints. We determined the epitope repertoire in the samples of 23 patients with CBA expressing GluN1-NMDA receptor mutants. We analysed samples from 250 patients with anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis and 100 control participants. All 250 patients had NMDA receptor antibodies in CSF but only 214 had antibodies in serum (sensitivity 100·0% [98·5-100·0%] vs 85·6% [80·7-89·4%], p<0·0001). Serum immunohistochemistry testing was more often in agreement with CBA with fixed cells (77 [71%] of 108) than with CBA with live cells (63 [58%] of 108, p=0·0056). In multivariable analysis, CSF and serum titres were higher in patients with poor outcome than in those with good outcome (CSF dilution 340 vs 129, difference 211, [95% CI 1-421], p=0·049; serum dilution 7370 vs 1243, difference 6127 [2369-9885], p=0·0025), and in patients with teratoma than in those without teratoma (CSF 395 vs 110, difference 285 [134-437], p=0·0079; serum 5515 vs 1644, difference 3870 [548-7193], p=0·024). Over time there was a decrease of antibody titres in the 35 patients with good or poor outcome and samples followed at three timepoints regardless of outcome (from diagnosis to last follow-up: CSF 614 to 76, difference 538 [288-788]; serum 5460 to 1564, difference 3896 [2428-5362]; both p<0·0001). Relapses were associated with a change in titre more often in CSF than in serum (14 of 19 vs seven of 16, p=0·037). After recovery, 24 of 28 CSF samples and 17 of 23 serum samples from patients remained antibody positive. Patients' antibodies targeted a main epitope region at GluN1 aminoacid 369; the epitope repertoire did not differ between patients with different outcomes, and did not change during relapses. The sensitivity of NMDA receptor antibody testing is higher in CSF than in serum. Antibody titres in CSF and serum were higher in patients with poor outcome or teratoma than in patients with good outcome or no tumour. The titre change in CSF was more closely related with relapses than was that in serum. These findings emphasise the importance of including CSF in antibody studies, and that antibody titres can complement clinical assessments. Dutch Cancer Society, National Institutes of Health, McKnight Neuroscience of Brain Disorders award, the Fondo de Investigaciones Sanitarias, ErasmusMC fellowship, and Fundació la Marató de TV3.
    The Lancet Neurology 12/2013; · 23.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: IMPORTANCE Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) and autoimmune encephalitis with antibodies against neuronal surface antigens (NSA-abs) may present with similar clinical features. Establishing the correct diagnosis has practical implications in the management of care for these patients. OBJECTIVE To determine the frequency of NSA-abs in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with suspected CJD and in patients with pathologically confirmed (ie, definite) CJD. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A mixed prospective (suspected) and retrospective (definite) CJD cohort study was conducted in a reference center for detection of NSA-abs. The population included 346 patients with suspected CJD and 49 patients with definite CJD. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Analysis of NSA-abs in cerebrospinal fluid with brain immunohistochemistry optimized for cell-surface antigens was performed. Positive cases in the suspected CJD group were further studied for antigen specificity using cell-based assays. All definite CJD cases were comprehensively tested for NSA-abs, with cell-based assays used for leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 1 (LGI1), contactin-associated protein-like 2 (CASPR2), N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA), and glycine (GlY) receptors. RESULTS Neuronal surface antigens were detected in 6 of 346 patients (1.7%) with rapid neurologic deterioration suggestive of CJD. None of these 6 patients fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for probable or possible CJD. The target antigens included CASPR2, LGI1, NMDAR, aquaporin 4, Tr (DNER [δ/notch-like epidermal growth factor-related receptor]), and an unknown protein. Four of the patients developed rapidly progressive dementia, and the other 2 patients had cerebellar ataxia or seizures that were initially considered to be myoclonus without cognitive decline. The patient with Tr-abs had a positive 14-3-3 test result. Small cell lung carcinoma was diagnosed in the patient with antibodies against an unknown antigen. All patients improved or stabilized after appropriate treatment. None of the 49 patients with definite CJD had NSA-abs. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE A low, but clinically relevant, number of patients with suspected CJD had potentially treatable disorders associated with NSA-abs. In contrast, none of 49 patients with definite CJD had NSA-abs, including NMDAR-abs, GlyR-abs, LGI1-abs, or CASPR2-abs. These findings suggest that cerebrospinal fluid NSA-abs analysis should be included in the diagnostic workup of patients with rapidly progressive central nervous system syndromes, particularly when they do not fulfill the diagnostic criteria of probable or possible CJD.
    JAMA neurology. 11/2013;

Publication Stats

9k Citations
2,023.95 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1999–2014
    • IDIBAPS August Pi i Sunyer Biomedical Research Institute
      Barcino, Catalonia, Spain
    • University of Padova
      Padua, Veneto, Italy
  • 1988–2014
    • Hospital Clínic de Barcelona
      • Servicio de Neurología
      Barcino, Catalonia, Spain
  • 1987–2014
    • University of Barcelona
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Departament de Microbiologia
      Barcino, Catalonia, Spain
  • 2013
    • University Pompeu Fabra
      • Neuropharmacology Laboratory Research Group (Neurophar)
      Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain
  • 2011–2013
    • Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania
      • • Department of Neuroscience
      • • Department of Neurology
      Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States
    • Ospedale San Giovanni Battista, ACISMOM
      Torino, Piedmont, Italy
    • University of Geneva
      Genève, Geneva, Switzerland
  • 2004–2013
    • University of Pennsylvania
      • Department of Neurology
      Philadelphia, PA, United States
    • Ludwig-Maximilian-University of Munich
      • Institute for Clinical Neuroimmunology
      München, Bavaria, Germany
  • 1992–2013
    • Autonomous University of Barcelona
      Cerdanyola del Vallès, Catalonia, Spain
  • 2012
    • Hospital Juan Ramón Jiménez, Huelva
      Huelva, Andalusia, Spain
  • 2004–2012
    • Institut Marqués, Spain, Barcelona
      Barcino, Catalonia, Spain
  • 2009
    • Western General Hospital
      Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom
  • 2008
    • Hospital Arnau de Vilanova
      Valenza, Valencia, Spain
  • 1993–2008
    • Parc de Salut Mar
      Barcino, Catalonia, Spain
    • Hospital Clínico, Maracaibo
      Maracaibo, Estado Zulia, Venezuela
  • 2006
    • Hospital San Juan de Dios de León
      León, Castille and León, Spain
  • 2005
    • Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge
      l'Hospitalet de Llobregat, Catalonia, Spain
  • 2002–2004
    • Hospital Universitari i Politècnic la Fe
      • Department of Neurology
      Valenza, Valencia, Spain
  • 2003
    • Oxford University Hospitals NHS Trust
      Oxford, England, United Kingdom
    • University of Arkansas at Little Rock
      Little Rock, Arkansas, United States
  • 1995–2001
    • Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau
      • Neurology Services
      Barcino, Catalonia, Spain
    • University of Verona
      • Department of Neurological, Neuropsychological, Morphological and Movement Sciences
      Verona, Veneto, Italy
  • 2000
    • University of Glasgow
      Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom
    • University of Tampere
      • Department of Neurology
      Tampere, Western Finland, Finland
  • 1998
    • Institut Català d'Oncologia
      Barcino, Catalonia, Spain
    • Southern Medical Clinic
      San Fernando, City of San Fernando, Trinidad and Tobago
  • 1984–1997
    • Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center
      • Department of Neurology
      New York City, NY, United States