Barry I Freedman

Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, United States

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Publications (381)2105.94 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases-supported Kidney Research National Dialogue asked the scientific community to formulate and prioritize research objectives that would improve our understanding of kidney function and disease; >1600 participants from >30 countries posted >300 ideas and >500 comments covering all areas of kidney research. Smaller groups of investigators interrogated the postings and published a series of commentaries in CJASN. Additional review of the entire series identified six cross-cutting themes: (1) increase training and team science opportunities to maintain/expand the nephrology workforce, (2) develop novel technologies to assess kidney function, (3) promote human discovery research to better understand normal and diseased kidney function, (4) establish integrative models of kidney function to inform diagnostic and treatment strategies, (5) promote interventional studies that incorporate more responsive outcomes and improved trial designs, and (6) foster translation from clinical investigation to community implementation. Together, these cross-cutting themes provide a research plan to better understand normal kidney biology and improve the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of kidney disease, and as such, they will inform future research efforts supported by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases through workshops and initiatives.
    Clinical journal of the American Society of Nephrology : CJASN. 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Albuminuria and reduced kidney function are associated with cognitive impairment. Relationships between nephropathy and cerebral structural changes remain poorly defined, particularly in African Americans (AAs), a population at higher risk for both cognitive impairment and diabetes than European Americans. We examined the relationship between urine albumin:creatinine ratio (UACR), estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and cerebral MRI volumes in 263 AAs with type 2 diabetes.
    Diabetes care. 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The use of calcium supplements to prevent declines in bone mineral density and fractures is widespread in the United States, and thus reports of elevated cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in users of calcium supplements are a major public health concern. Any elevation in CVD risk with calcium supplement use would be of particular concern in individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D) because of increased risks of CVD and fractures observed in this population.
    American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 08/2014; · 6.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The effects of nephropathy risk variants in the apolipoprotein L1 gene (APOL1) on renal histopathology in African Americans with arterionephrosclerosis or putative 'hypertension-associated' nephropathy are unknown. APOL1 genotype-phenotype correlations were performed in a blinded manner from renal biopsies in 196 self-reported African Americans with arterionephrosclerosis on kidney biopsy at a large national nephropathology practice. Subjects had chronic kidney disease without nephrotic syndrome. A discovery analysis compared histopathologic changes in the glomerular and tubulointerstitial compartments in 58 subjects with 2 versus 56 subjects with 0 APOL1 risk variants. Validation was performed in biopsies from 82 additional subjects with 0, 1, and 2 risk variants. Two risk variant versus zero risk variant group genotype associations and subphenotypes were assessed by χ(2) analyses. ANOVA compared means of continuous variables. In discovery analyses, significantly less obsolescent glomerulosclerosis, more (solidified and disappearing) glomerulosclerosis, more thyroidization-type tubular atrophy, and more microcystic tubular dilatation were seen in patients with two versus zero APOL1 risk alleles. Greater degrees of arteriosclerosis were present in those with zero risk alleles. Segmental glomerulosclerosis did not differ significantly between groups. Presence of two of the following discriminatory histopathologic findings from discovery, that is, <50% obsolescent glomerulosclerosis, thyroidization-type tubular atrophy, and microcystic tubular dilatation, was specific for the presence of two APOL1 risk alleles in the validation phase. African Americans with arterionephrosclerosis who possess two APOL1 risk variants more often lack obsolescent glomerulosclerosis and have greater degrees of (solidified and disappearing) glomerulosclerosis, thyroidization-type tubular atrophy, and microcystic tubular dilation than patients with fewer than two risk variants. These findings support involvement of multiple cell types in subnephrotic forms of APOL1-associated nephropathy, particularly renal tubule cells with resultant tubulointerstitial disease.Modern Pathology advance online publication, 1 August 2014; doi:10.1038/modpathol.2014.92.
    Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc. 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is more prevalent in African Americans than in Europeans. However, little is known about the genetic risk in African Americans despite the recent identification of more than 70 T2D loci primarily by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in individuals of European ancestry. In order to investigate the genetic architecture of T2D in African Americans, the MEta-analysis of type 2 DIabetes in African Americans (MEDIA) Consortium examined 17 GWAS on T2D comprising 8,284 cases and 15,543 controls in African Americans in stage 1 analysis. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) association analysis was conducted in each study under the additive model after adjustment for age, sex, study site, and principal components. Meta-analysis of approximately 2.6 million genotyped and imputed SNPs in all studies was conducted using an inverse variance-weighted fixed effect model. Replications were performed to follow up 21 loci in up to 6,061 cases and 5,483 controls in African Americans, and 8,130 cases and 38,987 controls of European ancestry. We identified three known loci (TCF7L2, HMGA2 and KCNQ1) and two novel loci (HLA-B and INS-IGF2) at genome-wide significance (4.15×10-94<P<5×10-8, odds ratio (OR) = 1.09 to 1.36). Fine-mapping revealed that 88 of 158 previously identified T2D or glucose homeostasis loci demonstrated nominal to highly significant association (2.2×10-23 < locus-wide P<0.05). These novel and previously identified loci yielded a sibling relative risk of 1.19, explaining 17.5% of the phenotypic variance of T2D on the liability scale in African Americans. Overall, this study identified two novel susceptibility loci for T2D in African Americans. A substantial number of previously reported loci are transferable to African Americans after accounting for linkage disequilibrium, enabling fine mapping of causal variants in trans-ethnic meta-analysis studies.
    PLoS Genetics 08/2014; 10(8):e1004517. · 8.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Albuminuria and reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) associate with two apolipoprotein L1 gene (APOL1) variants in nondiabetic African Americans (AAs). Whether APOL1 associates with subclinical atherosclerosis and survival remains unclear. To determine this, 717 African American-Diabetes Heart Study participants underwent computed tomography to determine coronary artery-, carotid artery-, and aorta-calcified atherosclerotic plaque mass scores in addition to the urine albumin:creatinine ratio (UACR), eGFR, and C-reactive protein (CRP). Associations between mass scores and APOL1 were assessed adjusting for age, gender, African ancestry, body mass index (BMI), hemoglobin A1c, smoking, hypertension, use of statins and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, albuminuria, and eGFR. Participants were 58.9% female with mean age 56.5 years, eGFR 89.5 ml/min per 1.73 m(2), UACR 169.6 mg/g, and coronary artery-, carotid artery-, and aorta-calcified plaque mass scores of 610, 171, and 5378, respectively. In fully adjusted models, APOL1 risk variants were significantly associated with lower levels of carotid artery-calcified plaque (β=-0.42, s.e. 0.18; dominant model) and marginally lower coronary artery plaque (β=-0.36, s.e. 0.21; dominant model), but not with aorta-calcified plaque, CRP, UACR, or eGFR. By the end of a mean follow-up of 5.0 years, 89 participants had died. APOL1 nephropathy risk variants were significantly associated with improved survival (hazard ratio 0.67 for one copy; 0.44 for two copies). Thus, APOL1 nephropathy variants associate with lower levels of subclinical atherosclerosis and reduced risk of death in AAs with type 2 diabetes mellitus.Kidney International advance online publication, 23 July 2014; doi:10.1038/ki.2014.255.
    Kidney international. 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Apolipoprotein L1 gene (APOL1) G1 and G2 coding variants are strongly associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD) in African Americans (AAs). Here APOL1 association was tested with baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), urine albumin:creatinine ratio (UACR), and prevalent cardiovascular disease (CVD) in 2571 AAs from the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT), a trial assessing effects of systolic blood pressure reduction on renal and CVD outcomes. Logistic regression models that adjusted for potentially important confounders tested for association between APOL1 risk variants and baseline clinical CVD (myocardial infarction, coronary, or carotid artery revascularization) and CKD (eGFR under 60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) and/or UACR over 30 mg/g). AA SPRINT participants were 45.3% female with a mean (median) age of 64.3 (63) years, mean arterial pressure 100.7 (100) mm Hg, eGFR 76.3 (77.1) ml/min per 1.73 m(2), and UACR 49.9 (9.2) mg/g, and 8.2% had clinical CVD. APOL1 (recessive inheritance) was positively associated with CKD (odds ratio 1.37, 95% confidence interval 1.08-1.73) and log UACR estimated slope (β) 0.33) and negatively associated with eGFR (β -3.58), all significant. APOL1 risk variants were not significantly associated with prevalent CVD (1.02, 0.82-1.27). Thus, SPRINT data show that APOL1 risk variants are associated with mild CKD but not with prevalent CVD in AAs with a UACR under 1000 mg/g.Kidney International advance online publication, 16 July 2014; doi:10.1038/ki.2014.254.
    Kidney international. 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Familial clustering and presumed genetic risk for type 2 diabetic (T2D) and non-diabetic end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) appear strong in African Americans. Examination of exome sequencing data in African American T2D-ESKD cases and non-diabetic non-nephropathy controls identified two low frequency variants in the RREB1 gene, a repressor of the angiotensinogen (AGT) gene previously associated with kidney function, as being associated with T2D-ESKD: rs9379084 (p=0.00087, OR=0.26; D1171N) and rs41302867 (p=0.00078, OR=0.21; splice site variant). Rs41302867 replicated association in an independent sample of African Americans with T2D-ESKD (rs41302867 p=0.033 [OR=0.50]), and a trend towards rs9379084 association was observed (p=0.070). In European Americans with T2D-ESKD compared to European American population based controls, both RREB1 variants replicated association (rs9379084 p=1.67x10(-4) [OR=0.54] and rs41302867 p=0.013 [OR=0.69]). Rs9379084 was not associated with non-T2D ESKD or T2D in African Americans (p=0.55 and p=0.37, respectively), but was associated with T2D in European Americans (p=0.014, OR=0.65). In African Americans, rs41302867 was associated with non-T2D ESKD (p=0.036 [OR=0.54]) and hypertension attributed ESKD (H-ESKD, p=0.029 [OR=0.50]). A meta-analysis combining African American and European American T2D-ESKD data revealed p=3.52x10(-7) and 3.70x10(-5) for rs9379084 and rs41302867 association, respectfully. A locus-wide analysis evaluating putatively functional SNPs revealed several nominal associations with T2D-ESKD, non-T2D ESKD, and T2D in African and European Americans. RREB1 is a large, complex gene which codes a multidomain zinc finger binding protein and transcription factor. We posit that variants in RREB1 modulate seemingly disparate phenotypes (ie, T2D, T2D-ESKD, and non-T2D ESKD) through altered activity resulting from splice site and missense variants.
    Human Molecular Genetics 07/2014; · 7.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although APOL1 gene variants are associated with nephropathy in African Americans, little is known about APOL1 protein synthesis, uptake, and localization in kidney cells. To address these questions, we examined APOL1 protein and mRNA localization in human kidney and human kidney-derived cell lines. Indirect immunofluorescence microscopy performed on nondiseased nephrectomy cryosections from persons with normal kidney function revealed that APOL1 protein was markedly enriched in podocytes (colocalized with synaptopodin and Wilms' tumor suppressor) and present in lower abundance in renal tubule cells. Fluorescence in situ hybridization detected APOL1 mRNA in glomeruli (podocytes and endothelial cells) and tubules, consistent with endogenous synthesis in these cell types. When these analyses were extended to renal-derived cell lines, quantitative RT-PCR did not detect APOL1 mRNA in human mesangial cells; however, abundant levels of APOL1 mRNA were observed in proximal tubule cells and glomerular endothelial cells, with lower expression in podocytes. Western blot analysis revealed corresponding levels of APOL1 protein in these cell lines. To explain the apparent discrepancy between the marked abundance of APOL1 protein in kidney podocytes observed in cryosections versus the lesser abundance in podocyte cell lines, we explored APOL1 cellular uptake. APOL1 protein was taken up readily by human podocytes in vitro but was not taken up efficiently by mesangial cells, glomerular endothelial cells, or proximal tubule cells. We hypothesize that the higher levels of APOL1 protein in human cryosectioned podocytes may reflect both endogenous protein synthesis and APOL1 uptake from the circulation or glomerular filtrate.
    Journal of the American Society of Nephrology : JASN. 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Not all individuals with type 2 diabetes and high coronary artery calcified plaque (CAC) experience the same risk for adverse outcomes. This study examined a subset of high-risk individuals based on CAC >1,000 mg (using a total mass score) and evaluated whether differences in a range of modifiable cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors provided further insights into risk for mortality.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We assessed contributors to all-cause mortality among 371 European American individuals with type 2 diabetes and CAC >1,000 from the Diabetes Heart Study (DHS) after 8.2 ± 3.0 years (mean ± SD) of follow-up. Differences in known CVD risk factors, including modifiable CVD risk factors, were compared between living (n = 218) and deceased (n = 153) participants. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to quantify risk for all-cause mortality.RESULTS: Deceased participants had a longer duration of type 2 diabetes (P = 0.02) and reduced use of cholesterol-lowering medications (P = 0.004). Adjusted analyses revealed that vascular calcified plaque scores were associated with increased risk for mortality (hazard ratio 1.31-1.63; 3.89 × 10(-5) < P < 0.03). Higher HbA1c, lipids, and C-reactive protein and reduced kidney function also were associated with a 1.1- to 1.5-fold increased risk for mortality (3.45 × 10(-6) < P < 0.03) after adjusting for confounding factors.CONCLUSIONS: Even in this high-risk group, vascular calcification and known CVD risk factors provide useful information for ongoing assessment. The use of cholesterol-lowering medication seemed to be protective for mortality.
    Diabetes care. 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Presumed genetic risk for diabetic and nondiabetic end stage renal disease is strong in African Americans.DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: Exome sequencing data from African Americans with type 2 diabetic end stage renal disease and nondiabetic, non-nephropathy controls in the T2D-GENES study (Discovery, n=529 patients and n=535 controls) were evaluated, focusing on missense variants in NPHS1. Associated variants were then evaluated in independent type 2 diabetic end stage renal disease (Replication, n=1305 patients and n=760 controls), nondiabetic end stage renal disease (n=1705), and type 2 diabetes-only, non-nephropathy samples (n=503). All participants were recruited from dialysis facilities and internal medicine clinics across the southeastern United States from 1991 to present. Additional NPHS1 missense variants were identified from exome sequencing resources, genotyped, and sequence kernel association testing was then performed.RESULTS: Initial analysis identified rs35238405 (T233A; minor allele frequency=0.0096) as associated with type 2 diabetic end stage renal disease (adjustment for admixture P=0.042; adjustment for admixture+APOL1 P=0.080; odds ratio, 2.89 and 2.36, respectively); with replication in independent type 2 diabetic end stage renal disease samples (P=0.018; odds ratio, 4.30) and nondiabetic end stage renal disease samples (P=0.016; odds ratio, 4.48). In a combined analysis (all patients with end stage renal disease versus all controls), T233A was associated with all-cause end stage renal disease (P=0.0038; odds ratio, 2.82; n=3270 patients and n=1187 controls). A P-value of <0.001 was obtained after adjustment for admixture and APOL1 in sequence kernel association testing. Two additional variants (H800R and Y1174H) were nominally associated with protection from end stage renal disease (P=0.036; odds ratio, 0.44; P=0.0084; odds ratio, 0.040, respectively) in the locus-wide single-variant association tests.CONCLUSIONS: Coding variants in NPHS1 are associated with both risk for and protection from common forms of nephropathy in African Americans.
    Clinical journal of the American Society of Nephrology : CJASN. 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Lupus nephritis is a manifestation of SLE resulting from glomerular immune complex deposition and inflammation. Lupus nephritis demonstrates familial aggregation and accounts for significant morbidity and mortality. We completed a meta-analysis of three genome-wide association studies of SLE to identify lupus nephritis-predisposing loci. Through genotyping and imputation, >1.6 million markers were assessed in 2000 unrelated women of European descent with SLE (588 patients with lupus nephritis and 1412 patients with lupus without nephritis). Tests of association were computed using logistic regression adjusting for population substructure. The strongest evidence for association was observed outside the MHC and included markers localized to 4q11-q13 (PDGFRA, GSX2; P=4.5×10(-7)), 16p12 (SLC5A11; P=5.1×10(-7)), 6p22 (ID4; P=7.4×10(-7)), and 8q24.12 (HAS2, SNTB1; P=1.1×10(-6)). Both HLA-DR2 and HLA-DR3, two well established lupus susceptibility loci, showed evidence of association with lupus nephritis (P=0.06 and P=3.7×10(-5), respectively). Within the class I region, rs9263871 (C6orf15-HCG22) had the strongest evidence of association with lupus nephritis independent of HLA-DR2 and HLA-DR3 (P=8.5×10(-6)). Consistent with a functional role in lupus nephritis, intra-renal mRNA levels of PDGFRA and associated pathway members showed significant enrichment in patients with lupus nephritis (n=32) compared with controls (n=15). Results from this large-scale genome-wide investigation of lupus nephritis provide evidence of multiple biologically relevant lupus nephritis susceptibility loci.
    Journal of the American Society of Nephrology : JASN. 06/2014;
  • Barry I Freedman, Karl Skorecki
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    ABSTRACT: Molecular genetics have revolutionized the understanding of susceptibility to the broad spectrum of kidney diseases with light microscopic appearance of FSGS, particularly in populations with recent African ancestry. These disorders include idiopathic FSGS, HIV-associated nephropathy, severe lupus nephritis, sickle cell nephropathy, and the primary kidney disorder focal global glomerulosclerosis, which had historically been ascribed to systemic hypertension. FSGS was once thought to include a multitude of unrelated disorders with similar histologic appearance. However, variation in the apolipoprotein L1 gene locus is now known to account for the vast majority of such cases in African Americans as well as nearly all the excess risk for FSGS and related forms of progressive nondiabetic nephropathy in populations with recent African ancestry, relative to European ancestry. Inheriting two coding apolipoprotein L1 gene nephropathy risk variants is necessary for susceptibility to CKD; however, these variants alone are insufficient to produce disease. This work reviews the evidence supporting second hits or modifying factors that affect risk for apolipoprotein L1 gene-associated nephropathy and produce the protean manifestations of this common and complex syndrome. Targeting modifiable second factors will lead to preventive therapies for slowing progression of nondiabetic nephropathy in many patients possessing two apolipoprotein L1 gene risk variants. This model of genetic risk coupled with modifiable second hits will serve as a paradigm applicable to patients with CKD of various etiologies as well as a host of other complex disorders.
    Clinical journal of the American Society of Nephrology : CJASN. 06/2014;
  • Barry I Freedman, Jasmin Divers, Kevin P High
    Kidney International 05/2014; 85(5):1242-1243. · 8.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a major cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor. Identification of genetic risk factors for CVD is important to understand disease risk. Two recent genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analyses in the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) consortium detected CVD-associated loci. Variants identified in CHARGE were tested for association with CVD phenotypes, including vascular calcification, and conventional CVD risk factors, in the Diabetes Heart Study (DHS) (n = 1208; >80% T2DM affected). This included 36 genotyped or imputed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from DHS GWAS data. 28 coding SNPs from 14 top CHARGE genes were also identified from exome sequencing resources and genotyped, along with 209 coding variants from the Illumina HumanExome BeadChip genotype data in the DHS were also tested. Genetic risk scores (GRS) were calculated to evaluate the association of combinations of variants with CVD measures. After correction for multiple comparisons, none of the CHARGE SNPs were associated with vascular calcification (p < 0.0014). Multiple SNPs showed nominal significance with calcification, including rs599839 (PSRC1, p = 0.008), rs646776 (CELSR2, p = 0.01), and rs17398575 (PIK3CG, p = 0.009). Additional COL4A2 and CXCL12 SNPs were nominally associated with all-cause or CVD-cause mortality. Three SNPs were significantly or nominally associated with serum lipids: rs3135506 (Ser19Trp, APOA5) with triglycerides (TG) (p = 5x10-5), LDL (p = 0.00070), and nominally with high density lipoprotein (HDL) (p = 0.0054); rs651821 (5[prime]UTR, APOA5) with increased TGs (p = 0.0008); rs13832449 (splice donor, APOC3) associated with decreased TGs (p = 0.0015). Rs45456595 (CDKN2A, Gly63Arg), rs5128 (APOC3, 3[prime]UTR), and rs72650673 (SH2B3, Glu400Lys) were nominally associated with history of CVD, subclinical CVD, or CVD risk factors (p < 0.010). From the exome chip, rs3750103 (CHN2, His204Arg/His68Arg) with carotid intima-medial thickness (IMT) (p = 3.9X10-5), and rs61937878 (HAL, Val549Met) with infra-renal abdominal aorta CP (AACP) (p = 7.1X10-5). The unweighted GRS containing coronary artery calcified plaque (CAC) SNPs was nominally associated with history of prior CVD (p = 0.033; OR = 1.09). The weighted GRS containing SNPs was associated with CAC and myocardial infarction (MI) was associated with history of MI (p = 0.026; OR = 1.15). Genetic risk factors for subclinical CVD in the general population (CHARGE) were modestly associated with T2DM-related risk factors and CVD outcomes in the DHS.
    Cardiovascular Diabetology 04/2014; 13(1):77. · 4.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Efforts to identify lupus-associated causal variants in the FAM167A/BLK locus on 8p21 are hampered by highly associated noncausal variants. In this report, we used a trans-population mapping and sequencing strategy to identify a common variant (rs922483) in the proximal BLK promoter and a tri-allelic variant (rs1382568) in the upstream alternative BLK promoter as putative causal variants for association with systemic lupus erythematosus. The risk allele (T) at rs922483 reduced proximal promoter activity and modulated alternative promoter usage. Allelic differences at rs1382568 resulted in altered promoter activity in B progenitor cell lines. Thus, our results demonstrated that both lupus-associated functional variants contribute to the autoimmune disease association by modulating transcription of BLK in B cells and thus potentially altering immune responses.
    The American Journal of Human Genetics 04/2014; 94(4):586-98. · 11.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Elderly patients require tunneled central vein dialysis catheters more often than younger patients. Little is known about the risk of catheter-related bloodstream infection in this population. This study identified 464 patients on hemodialysis with tunneled central vein dialysis catheters between 2005 and 2007 and excluded patients who accrued <21 catheter-days during this period. Outpatient and inpatient catheter-related bloodstream infection data were collected. A Cox proportional hazards regression analysis adjusting for sex, ancestry, comorbidites, dialysis vintage, dialysis unit, immunosuppression, initial catheter site, and first antimicrobial catheter lock solution was performed for risk of catheter-related bloodstream infection between nonelderly (18-74 years) and elderly (≥75 years) patients. In total, 374 nonelderly and 90 elderly patients with mean (SD) ages of 54.8 (12.3) and 81.3 (4.9) years and dialysis vintages of 1.8 (3.3) and 1.5 (2.9) years (P=0.47), respectively, were identified. Mean at-risk catheter-days were 272 (243) in nonelderly and 318 (240) in elderly patients. Between age groups, there were no significant differences in initial catheter site, type of catheter lock solution, or microbiology results. A total of 208 catheter-related bloodstream infection events occurred (190 events in nonelderly and 18 events in elderly patients), with a catheter-related bloodstream infection incidence per 1000 catheter-days of 1.97 (4.6) in nonelderly and 0.55 (1.6) in elderly patients (P<0.001). Relative to nonelderly patients, the hazard ratio for catheter-related bloodstream infection in the elderly was 0.33 (95% confidence interval, 0.20 to 0.55; P<0.001) after multivariate analysis. Elderly patients on hemodialysis using tunneled central vein dialysis catheters are at lower risk of catheter-related bloodstream infection than their younger counterparts. For some elderly patients, tunneled central vein dialysis catheters may represent a suitable dialysis access option in the setting of nonmaturing arteriovenous fistulae or poorly functioning synthetic grafts.
    Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 03/2014; · 5.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cognitive performance is an important component of healthy aging. Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is associated with negative outcomes for the brain and cognition, although causal mechanisms have not been definitely determined. Genetic risk factors warrant further consideration in this context. This study examined the heritability of cognitive function as assessed by (1) the Digit Symbol Substitution Task; (2) the Modified Mini-Mental State Examination; (3) the Stroop Task; (4) the Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Task; and (5) the Controlled Oral Word Association Task for Phonemic and Semantic Fluency, in the family-based, T2D-enriched, Diabetes Heart Study sample (n = 550 participants from 257 families). The genetic basis of these cognitive measures was further evaluated by association analysis with candidate single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and genome-wide SNP data. Measures of cognitive function were significantly heritable (hˆ(2) = 0.28-0.62) following adjustment for age, gender, and education. A total of 31 SNPs (from 26 genes/regions) selected to form an a priori set of candidate SNPs showed limited evidence of association with cognitive function when applying conservative metrics of significance. Genome-wide assessment of both noncoding and coding variants revealed suggestive evidence of association for several coding variants including rs139509083 in CNST (p = 4.9 × 10(-9)), rs199968569 in PLAA (p = 4.9 × 10(-9)) and rs138487371 in PCDH8 (p = 3.7 × 10(-8)). The identification of a heritable component to cognitive performance in T2D suggests a role for genetic contributors to cognitive performance even in the presence of metabolic disease and other associated comorbidities and is supported by the identification of genetic association signals in functionally plausible candidates.
    Neurobiology of aging 03/2014; · 5.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mutations in the complement factor H gene (CFH) region associate with renal-limited mesangial proliferative forms of glomerulonephritis including IgA nephropathy (IgAN), dense deposit disease (DDD) and C3 glomerulonephritis (C3GN). Lack of kidney biopsies could lead to under diagnosis of CFH-associated end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) in African Americans (AAs), with incorrect attribution to other causes. A prior genome-wide association study in AAs with non-diabetic ESKD implicated an intronic CFH single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). Thirteen CFH SNPs (8 exonic, 2 synonymous, 2 3'UTR, and the previously associated intronic variant rs379489) were tested for association with common forms of non-diabetic and type 2 diabetes-associated (T2D) ESKD in 3770 AAs (1705 with non-diabetic ESKD, 1305 with T2D-ESKD, 760 controls). Most cases lacked kidney biopsies; those with known IgAN, DDD or C3GN were excluded. Adjusting for age, gender, ancestry and apolipoprotein L1 gene risk variants, single SNP analyses detected 6 CFH SNPs (5 exonic and the intronic variant) as significantly associated with non-diabetic ESKD (P = 0.002-0.01), three of these SNPs were also associated with T2D-ESKD. Weighted CFH locus-wide Sequence Kernel Association Testing (SKAT) in non-diabetic ESKD (P = 0.00053) and T2D-ESKD (P = 0.047) confirmed significant evidence of association. CFH was associated with commonly reported etiologies of ESKD in the AA population. These results suggest that a subset of cases with ESKD clinically ascribed to the effects of hypertension or glomerulosclerosis actually have CFH-related forms of mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis. Genetic testing may prove useful to identify the causes of renal-limited kidney disease in patients with ESKD who lack renal biopsies.
    Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 02/2014; · 3.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In chronic kidney disease, vascular calcification, renal osteodystrophy, and phosphate contribute substantially to cardiovascular risk and are components of CKD-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD). The cause of this syndrome is unknown. Additionally, no therapy addresses cardiovascular risk in CKD. In its inception, CKD-MBD is characterized by osteodystrophy, vascular calcification, and stimulation of osteocyte secretion. We tested the hypothesis that increased production of circulating factors by diseased kidneys causes the CKD-MBD in diabetic mice subjected to renal injury to induce stage 2 CKD (CKD-2 mice). Compared with non-CKD diabetic controls, CKD-2 mice showed increased renal production of Wnt inhibitor family members and higher levels of circulating Dickkopf-1 (Dkk1), sclerostin, and secreted klotho. Neutralization of Dkk1 in CKD-2 mice by administration of a monoclonal antibody after renal injury stimulated bone formation rates, corrected the osteodystrophy, and prevented CKD-stimulated vascular calcification. Mechanistically, neutralization of Dkk1 suppressed aortic expression of the osteoblastic transcription factor Runx2, increased expression of vascular smooth muscle protein 22-α, and restored aortic expression of klotho. Neutralization of Dkk1 did not affect the elevated plasma levels of osteocytic fibroblast growth factor 23 but decreased the elevated levels of sclerostin. Phosphate binder therapy restored plasma fibroblast growth factor 23 levels but had no effect on vascular calcification or osteodystrophy. The combination of the Dkk1 antibody and phosphate binder therapy completely treated the CKD-MBD. These results show that circulating Wnt inhibitors are involved in the pathogenesis of CKD-MBD and that the combination of Dkk1 neutralization and phosphate binding may have therapeutic potential for this disorder.
    Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 02/2014; · 8.99 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

8k Citations
2,105.94 Total Impact Points


  • 1997–2014
    • Wake Forest School of Medicine
      • • Section of Molecular Medicine
      • • Department of Internal Medicine
      • • Department of Biochemistry
      • • Center for Cancer Genomics
      • • Department of Radiology
      Winston-Salem, North Carolina, United States
  • 2013
    • University of California, Los Angeles
      • Division of Rheumatology
      Los Angeles, CA, United States
  • 1989–2013
    • Wake Forest University
      • • Department of Biochemistry
      • • Department of Cardiology
      • • Department of Internal Medicine
      • • School of Medicine
      Winston-Salem, North Carolina, United States
  • 2012
    • Washington University in St. Louis
      • Division of Biostatistics
      Saint Louis, MO, United States
    • David H. Murdock Research Institute
      North Carolina, United States
    • Oakwood Hospital & Medical Center
      Dearborn, Michigan, United States
  • 2011
    • Winston-Salem State University
      Winston-Salem, North Carolina, United States
    • Asahi Kasei
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 2010
    • The University of Hong Kong
      • Department of Medicine
      Hong Kong, Hong Kong
  • 2007–2010
    • Case Western Reserve University
      • • Department of Physiology and Biophysics
      • • Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics
      Cleveland, OH, United States
    • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
      • Department of Epidemiology
      Chapel Hill, NC, United States
    • Pennsylvania State University
      University Park, Maryland, United States
  • 2006–2009
    • Emory University
      • Department of Epidemiology
      Atlanta, GA, United States
  • 2005
    • University of Missouri
      • Department of Radiology
      Columbia, MO, United States