[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To study endotoxin release from two strains of Escherichia coli after exposure to two repeated doses of cefuroxime in an in vitro kinetic model.
Cefuroxime in concentrations simulating human pharmacokinetics was added to the bacterial solution with a repeated dose after 12 h. In another experiment, tobramycin was given concomitantly with the second dose of cefuroxime. Samples for viable counts and endotoxin analyses were drawn before the addition of antibiotics and at 2 and 4 h after each dose.
The propensity to release endotoxin, expressed as log10 endotoxin release (EU)/log10 killed bacteria, was higher after the second than after the first dose, 0.80+/-0.04 and 0.65+/-0.01, respectively, in the ATCC strain and 0.80+/-0.04 and 0.65+/-0.02, respectively, in the clinical strain (P<0.001). Endotoxin was released earlier after the second dose (P<0.001). Addition of tobramycin at the second dose reduced the endotoxin release in comparison with that of cefuroxime alone (P<0.001).
The propensity to liberate endotoxin is higher after the second dose of cefuroxime than after the first, resulting in a higher release of endotoxin than expected from bacterial count. The release after the second dose can be reduced by the addition of tobramycin.
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 08/2007; 60(2):328-33. · 5.34 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to develop and validate a new in-vitro kinetic model for the combination of two drugs with different half-lives, and to use this model for the study of the pharmacodynamic effects of amphotericin B and voriconazole, alone or in combination, against a strain of Candida albicans. Bolus doses of voriconazole and amphotericin B were administered to a starting inoculum of C. albicans. Antifungal-containing medium was eliminated and replaced by fresh medium using a peristaltic pump, with the flow-rate adjusted to obtain the desired half-life of the drug with the shorter half-life. A computer-controlled dosing pump compensated for the agent with the longer half-life. Voriconazole and amphotericin B half-lives were set to 6 and 24 h, respectively. Pharmacokinetic parameters were close to target values when both single doses and sequential doses were simulated. Voriconazole and amphotericin B administered alone demonstrated fungistatic and fungicidal activity, respectively. Simultaneous administration resulted in fungicidal activity, whereas pre-exposure of C. albicans to voriconazole, followed by amphotericin at 8 and 32 h, resulted in fungistatic activity similar to that observed with voriconazole alone. Using this model, which allowed a combination of antifungal agents with different half-lives, it was possible to demonstrate an antagonistic effect of voriconazole on the fungicidal activity of amphotericin B. The characteristics and clinical relevance of this interaction require further investigation.
Clinical Microbiology and Infection 07/2007; 13(6):613-9. · 4.58 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Newer quinolones are highly active against Legionella pneumophila. Since this pathogen is intracellular, standard in vitro susceptibility tests may not accurately predict clinical efficacy. Few models for studies of intracellular Legionella have been described. In this study, we determined the pharmacodynamic activity of moxifloxacin against intracellular L. pneumophila in comparison with erythromycin.
A kinetic model for intracellular studies was constructed in which human pharmacokinetics could be simulated. The model consisted of a glass chamber with two exits and a metal rack fitting cell culture inserts. The inserts had a bottom membrane where cells could be cultured while nutrients and antibiotics passed through. The inserts were prepared with a monolayer of HEp-2 cells, which were exposed to a culture of L. pneumophila. At regular intervals cells were harvested and lysed, viable intracellular bacteria counted and compared with untreated controls.
The MICs were 0.0156 mg/L for moxifloxacin and 0.5 mg/L for erythromycin. The human pharmacokinetics were simulated in the model with a mean initial antibiotic concentration of 2.4 mg/L for moxifloxacin and 8.4 mg/L for erythromycin. The mean half-life was 9 h for moxifloxacin and 3.4 h for erythromycin. At 12 h, a 2 log(10) reduction in bacterial counts was seen in cells treated with moxifloxacin and no regrowth was detected at 24 h. Cells treated with erythromycin showed no reduction in intracellular L. pneumophilia at 12 h or 24 h. In experiments using static concentrations of 9 mg/L of erythromycin, similar results were obtained.
In this model, moxifloxacin exerts a significantly better antibacterial effect against intracellular L. pneumophila compared with erythromycin.
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 08/2005; 56(1):240-2. · 5.34 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the basic pharmacodynamic properties of teicoplanin in vitro for Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Enterococcus faecium.
The following experiments were performed: (1) bacterial killing by teicoplanin at different concentrations; (2) bacterial killing by teicoplanin at 8 x MIC against the same strains with inocula of 5 x 10(3), 5 x 10(5) and 5 x 10(7) CFU/mL; (3) studies of the postantibiotic effect (PAE) and the postantibiotic sub-MIC effect (PASME) of teicoplanin; (4) studies of the killing by teicoplanin in an in vitro kinetic model following exposure to simulated human serum pharmacokinetic concentrations (6 mg/kg OD at steady state).
Concentration-dependent killing was noted against S. epidermidis, with a > 4 log10 difference in CFUs between 2 x MIC and 64 x MIC at 24 h. Also, against S. aureus there was slight concentration-dependent killing, which, however, did not reach 2 log10 CFU/mL. Teicoplanin exerted a similar killing rate at all inocula for S. epidermidis, except for slower initial killing up to 6 h at the highest inoculum. In contrast, overall slower killing at all inocula was seen for S. aureus, where an inoculum effect was noted at the highest inoculum. For E. faecium, only a bacteriostatic effect was noted at all concentrations and inocula. No or very short PAEs were noted for the investigated strains. However, when the strains in the postantibiotic phase were exposed to 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 x MIC of teicoplanin (PASME), substantial prolongation of the PAEs was seen. Although no significant killing was achieved in our kinetic model for any of the strains, regrowth of S. epidermidis was noted first after 8 h, despite a T > MIC24 of only 5% (1.2 h), illustrating the long post-MIC effect for this strain. For S. aureus, T > MIC was 38%, and regrowth occurred later than for S. epidermidis. Neither killing nor regrowth was seen for E. faecium with a T > MIC24 of 27%.
Teicoplanin exerted a concentration-dependent bactericidal effect against S. epidermidis, a less notable one against S. aureus, and a bacteriostatic effect against E. faecium. A reduced killing rate with increasing inocula was seen for S. aureus and also for S. epidermidis at the highest inoculum. No or very short PAEs were noted for the investigated strains, but were substantially prolonged with the addition of subinhibitory concentrations. When human pharmacokinetics was simulated (6 mg/kg OD at steady state) in the kinetic model, no net bactericidal effect was noted for any of the strains at 24 h.
Clinical Microbiology and Infection 09/2003; 9(9):930-7. · 4.58 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To study the pharmacodynamics of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid against different strains of Haemophilus influenzae in an in vitro kinetic model. The concentrations used corresponded to human serum levels obtained after 875 mg amoxicillin/clavulanic acid given b.i.d., 500/125 mg amoxicillin/clavulanic acid given t.i.d. and those obtained with a pharmacokinetically enhanced formulation containing 1125/125 mg amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (immediate release) and 875 mg amoxicillin (sustained release) given b.i.d.
Bacteria at an initial inoculum of 106 colony-forming units (CFU)/mL were exposed to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid with an initial concentration of approximately 15/3 mg/L, 8/3 mg/L simulating the peak levels in humans achieved after a dose of 875/125 mg and 500/125 mg with a half-life of 1 h. In addition, experiments with a 2000/125 mg pharmacokinetically enhanced formulation of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid given b.i.d. were performed. A repeated dose was given at 12 h after the initial dose of 875/125 mg and the pharmacokinetically enhanced formulation or at 8 and 16 h after the dose of 500/125 mg. The experiments were performed in an in vitro kinetic model, which consists of a spinner flask with a filter membrane fitted in between the upper part and the bottom part in order to prevent bacterial dilution. The medium is removed from the culture flask, through the filter, at a constant rate with a pump. Repeated samples were taken at intervals of 1-2 h up to 24 h during the experiments for viable counting. One of the strains of H. influenzae was also exposed to a constant concentration corresponding to the peak serum levels obtained after a dose of 500/125 mg.
The concentrations of amoxicillin in the in vitro kinetic model were as expected. At the end of the experiment (24 h), there was a tendency for a greater bactericidal effect with 500/125 mg t.i.d., as compared to 875/125 b.i.d., with differences in CFUs between the two dosing regimens of 2.6 log10 CFU for H. influenzae LH 2803 and 1.8 log10 CFU for the other clinical strains. However, these differences did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.075 and 0.10, respectively). A statistically significant higher bactericidal effect was seen in the experiments with the pharmacokinetically enhanced formulation in comparison with the b.i.d. regimen both at 8, 16 and 24 h and at 8 and 16 h with the t.i.d. regimen. With the new formulation, no regrowth was seen at 24 h, similar to the results obtained with a constant concentration.
Neither of the standard dosing regimens of amoxicillin (875/125 mg b.i.d. or 500/125 mg) used in our study, in which the time that the free (non-protein-bound) concentration the MIC (T > MIC) exceeding was less than 50%, was sufficient to achieve a complete bactericidal effect during the first 24 h of treatment. However, a statistically significant difference in bactericidal activity was seen at 8, 16 and 24 h vs. the b.i.d. regimen and at 8 and 16 h vs. the t.i.d. regimen with the pharmacokinetically enhanced formulation. This formulation gave a longer T > MIC (73-79%) of amoxicillin even though the concentration of clavulanic acid was only detectable for 45% of the dosing interval, and complete killing of all strains was obtained after 24 h.
Clinical Microbiology and Infection 10/2002; 8(10):646-53. · 4.58 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An in vitro kinetic model was used to study the relation between pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) parameters for antimicrobial effect, e.g., the time above MIC (T>MIC), maximum concentration in serum (C(max)), and area under the concentration-time curve (AUC). Streptococcus pyogenes and Escherichia coli were exposed to cefotaxime, and the activity of amoxicillin against four strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae with different susceptibilities to penicillin was studied. The drug elimination rate varied so that the T>MIC ranged from 20 to 100% during 24 h, while the AUC and/or the initial concentration (C(max)) were kept constant. For S. pyogenes and E. coli, the maximal antimicrobial effect (E(max)) at 24 h occurred when the antimicrobial concentration exceeded the MIC for 50 and 80% of the strains tested, respectively. The penicillin-susceptible pneumococci (MIC, 0.03 mg/liter) and the penicillin-intermediate strain (MIC, 0.25 mg/liter) showed maximal killing by amoxicillin at a T>MIC of 50%. For a strain for which the MIC was 2 mg/liter, C(max) needed to be increased to achieve the E(max). Under the condition that C(max) was 10 times the MIC, E(max) was obtained at a T>MIC of 60%, indicating that C(max), in addition to T>MIC, may be an important parameter for antimicrobial effect on moderately penicillin-resistant pneumococci. For the strain for which the MIC was 4 mg/liter, the reduction of bacteria varied from -0.4 to -3.6 log(10) CFU/ml at a T>MIC of 100%, despite an initial antimicrobial concentration of 10 times the MIC. Our studies have shown that the in vitro kinetic model is a useful complement to animal models for studying the PK-PD relationship for antimicrobial effect of antibiotics.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 09/2001; 45(9):2436-40. · 4.57 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Telithromycin (HMR 3647) is a new ketolide that belongs to a new class of semisynthetic 14-membered-ring macrolides which have expanded activity against multidrug-resistant gram-positive bacteria. The aim of the present study was to investigate different basic pharmacodynamic properties of this new compound. The following studies of telithromycin were performed: (i) studies of the rate and extent of killing of respiratory tract pathogens with different susceptibilities to erythromycin and penicillin exposed to a fixed concentration that corresponds to a dose of 800 mg in humans, (ii) studies of the rate and extent of killing of telithromycin at five different concentrations, (iii) studies of the rate and extent of killing of the same pathogens at three different inocula, (iv) studies of the postantibiotic effect and the postantibiotic sub-MIC effect of telithromycin, and (v) determination of the rate and extent of killing of telithromycin in an in vitro kinetic model. In conclusion, telithromycin exerted an extremely fast killing of all strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae both with static concentrations and in the in vitro kinetic model. A slower killing of the strains of Streptococcus pyogenes was noted, with regrowth in the kinetic model of a macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B-inducible strain. The strains of Haemophilus influenzae were not killed at all at a concentration of 0.6 mg/liter due to high MICs. A time-dependent killing was seen for all strains. No inoculum effect was seen for the strains of S. pneumoniae, with a 99.9% reduction in the numbers of CFU for all inocula at both 8 h and 24 h. The killing of the strains of S. pyogenes was reduced by 1 log(10) CFU at 8 h and 2 to 3 log(10) CFU at 24 h when the two lower inocula were used but not at all at 8 and 24 h when the highest inoculum was used. For both of the H. influenzae strains there was an inoculum effect, with 1 to 2 log(10) CFU less killing for the inoculum of 10(8) CFU/ml in comparison to that for the inoculum of 10(6) CFU/ml. Overall, telithromycin exhibited long postantibiotic effects and postantibiotic sub-MIC effects for all strains investigated.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 02/2001; 45(1):23-9. · 4.57 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The bactericidal activities of vancomycin against two reference strains and two clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis were studied with five different concentrations ranging from 2x to 64x the MIC. The decrease in the numbers of CFU at 24 h was at least 3 log10 CFU/ml for all strains. No concentration-dependent killing was observed. The postantibiotic effect (PAE) was determined by obtaining viable counts for two of the reference strains, and the viable counts varied markedly: 1.2 h for S. aureus and 6.0 h for S. epidermidis. The determinations of the PAE, the postantibiotic sub-MIC effect (PA SME), and the sub-MIC effect (SME) for all strains were done with BioScreen C, a computerized incubator for bacteria. The PA SMEs were longer than the SMEs for all strains tested. A newly developed in vitro kinetic model was used to expose the bacteria to continuously decreasing concentrations of vancomycin. A filter prevented the loss of bacteria during the experiments. One reference strain each of S. aureus and S. epidermidis and two clinical isolates of S. aureus were exposed to an initial concentration of 10x the MIC of vancomycin with two different half-lives (t1/2s): 1 or 5 h. The post-MIC effect (PME) was calculated as the difference in time for the bacteria to grow 1 log10 CFU/ml from the numbers of CFU obtained at the time when the MIC was reached and the corresponding time for an unexposed control culture. The difference in PME between the strains was not as pronounced as that for the PAE. Furthermore, the PME was shorter when a t1/2 of 5 h (approximate terminal t1/2 in humans) was used. The PMEs at t1/2s of 1 and 5 h were 6.5 and 3.6 h, respectively, for S. aureus. The corresponding figures for S. epidermidis were 10.3 and less than 6 h. The shorter PMEs achieved with a t1/2 of 5 h and the lack of concentration-dependent killing indicate that the time above the MIC is the parameter most important for the efficacy of vancomycin.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 11/1998; 42(10):2739-44. · 4.57 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: L-749,345 is a new parenteral carbapenem with a very long half-life similar to that of ceftriaxone. The aim of the present study was to investigate different pharmacodynamic parameters of L-749,345 in comparison with those of ceftriaxone and imipenem. The following studies were performed: (i) comparative studies of the MICs of L-749, 345, imipenem, and ceftriaxone for 70 strains of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria; (ii) comparative studies of the rate of killing of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria by L-749,345, imipenem, and ceftriaxone; (iii) studies of the postantibiotic effects of L-749,345, imipenem, and ceftriaxone; and (iv) studies of the postantibiotic sub-MIC effects of L-749,345, imipenem, and ceftriaxone. Significantly lower MICs of L-749,345 compared with those of ceftriaxone were found for all gram-negative organisms except Haemophilus influenzae. The MICs of L-749,345 were similar to those of imipenem for all organisms except Pseudomonas aeruginosa and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, for which the MICs of L-749,345 were higher. A concentration-dependent killing of methicillin-resistant S. aureus but not methicillin-susceptible strains was noted for both L-749,345 and imipenem. All three of the investigated drugs exhibited a postantibiotic effect against the gram-positive strains but exhibited no postantibiotic effect against the gram-negative strains.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 10/1998; 42(9):2365-70. · 4.57 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Most antibiotics are known to be incapable of killing nongrowing or slowly growing bacteria with few exceptions. Bacterial cell division is inhibited during the postantibiotic phase (PA phase) after short exposure to antibiotics. Only scarce and conflicting data are available concerning the ability of antibiotics to kill bacteria in the PA phase. The aim of the present study was to investigate the killing effect of four different antibiotics on bacteria in the PA phase. A postantibiotic effect (PAE) was induced by exposing Streptococcus pyogenes and Haemophilus influenzae to 10x MICs of benzylpenicillin, cefuroxime, sparfloxacin, and azithromycin. The bacteria were thereafter reexposed to a 10x MIC of the same antibiotic used for the induction of the PAE at the beginning of and after 2 and 4 h in the PA phase. Due to a very long PAE, the bacteria in PA phase induced by azithromycin were also exposed to 10x MICs after 6 and 8 h. A previously unexposed culture exposed to a 10x MIC was used as a control. The results seem to be dependent on both the antibiotic used and the bacterial species. The antibiotics exhibiting a fork bactericidal action gave significantly reduced killing of the bacteria in PA phase (cefuroxime with S. pyogenes, P < 0.01, and sparfloxacin with H. influenzae, P < 0.001), which was restored at 4 h for cefuroxime with S. pyogenes. There was a tendency to restoration of the bactericidal activity also with sparfloxacin and H. influenzae, but there was still a significant difference in killing between the control and the test bacteria in PA phase at 4 h. However, in the combinations with a lesser bactericidal effect (benzylpenicillin with S. pyogenes and sparfloxacin with S. pyogenes), there was no difference in killing between the control and the test bacteria in PA phase. Azithromycin induced long PAEs in both S. pyogenes and H. influenzae and exhibited a slower bactericidal action on both the control and the bacteria in PA phase especially at the end of the PAE, when the killing was almost bacteriostatic. Our findings in this study support the concept that a long interval (> 12 h) between doses of azithromycin, restoring full bactericidal action, may be beneficial to optimize efficacy of this drug but is not necessary for the other antibiotics evaluated, since the bactericidal effect seems to be restored already at 4 h.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 11/1997; 41(11):2522-6. · 4.57 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The pharmacodynamic effects of benzylpenicillin against Streptococcus pyogenes were studied in a new in vitro kinetic model in which bacterial outflow was prevented by a filter membrane. Following the administration of an initial dose of antibiotic, decreasing concentrations were produced by dilution of the medium. A magnetic stirrer was placed above the filter to avoid blockage of the membrane and to ensure homogeneous mixing of the culture. Repeated samplings were easily provided through a silicon diaphragm. Streptococci were exposed to a single dose corresponding to 1.5, 10, 100, or 500 x the MIC of benzylpenicillin and also to an initial concentration of 10 x the MIC of benzylpenicillin, followed by exposure to a repeated dose after 8 h yielding 10 or 1.5 x the MIC. Experiments were also performed with 10 x the MIC of benzylpenicillin with a half-life of 3 h or an initial half-life of 1.1 h that was altered to 3 h at the time point at which the antibiotic concentrations and MIC intersected. Bacterial killing and regrowth were followed by determining viable counts. The post-MIC effect (PME) was defined as the difference in time for the numbers of CFU in the culture vessel to increase 1 log10 CFU/ml, calculated from the numbers obtained at the time when the antibiotic concentration had declined to the MIC, and the corresponding time for a control culture, grown in a glass tube without antibiotic, to increase 1 log10 CFU/ml. To determine how much of the PME was attributable to subinhibitory concentrations, penicillinase was added to a part of the culture drawn from the flask at the time when the antibiotic concentration had fallen to the MIC. The longest PME was found in the experiments in which the half-life was extended from 1.1 to 3 h at the MIC. This illustrated that sub-MICs are sufficient to prevent regrowth. However, when the half-life was 3 h during the whole experiment, the PME was shorter, indicating that when concentrations decline slowly penicillin-binding proteins will already be present in amounts sufficient for regrowth at the time when the MIC is reached. The PME may prove to be a more reliable factor than the in vitro postantibiotic effect or postantibiotic sub-MIC effect for the design of optimal dosing schedules, since the PME, like the in vivo postantibiotic effect, includes the effects of subinhibitory concentrations and therefore better reflects the clinical situation with fluctuating antibiotic concentrations.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 12/1996; 40(11):2478-82. · 4.57 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pharmacodynamic parameters have become increasingly important for the determination of the optimal dosing schedules of antibiotics. In this study, the postantibiotic effects (PAEs), the postantibiotic sub-MIC effects (PA SMEs), and the sub-MIC effects (SMEs) of roxithromycin, clarithromycin, and azithromycin on reference strains of Streptococcus pyogenes group A, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Haemophilus influenzae were investigated. The PAE was induced by 2x MICs (S. pneumoniae) or 10x MICs of the different drugs for 2 h, and the antibiotics were eliminated by washing and dilution. The PA SMEs were studied by addition of 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3x MICs during the postantibiotic phase of the bacteria, and the SMEs were studied by exposition of the bacteria to the drugs at the sub-MICs only. Growth curves were followed by viable counts for 24 h. The SMEs were generally very short. A PAE of 2.9 to 8 h was noted for all antibiotics against all strains. Clarithromycin induced a statistically significantly shorter PAE on S. pneumoniae than did roxithromycin and azithromycin and did so also against H. influenzae in comparison with azithromycin. The PA SMEs were long and varied at 0.3x MIC between 6.4 19.6 h. This pronounced suppression of regrowth of bacteria which are first treated with a suprainhibitory concentration of antibiotics and then reexposed to sub-MIC levels indicates that long dosing intervals for macrolides and azalides can be allowed.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 02/1995; 39(1):221-6. · 4.57 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It has been shown that bacteria in a postantibiotic (PA) phase exposed to subinhibitory concentrations (sub-MICs) of antibiotics show a long delay before regrowth. This effect has been named the PA sub-MIC effect (PA SME). In the present study, we have used a new method to demonstrate this phenomenon. A computerized incubator for bacteria, Bioscreen C (Lab Systems, Helsinki, Finland), which incubates the bacteria, measures growth continuously by vertical photometry, processes the data, and provides a printout of the results was used. With this method, one may easily test several antibiotics against different bacteria for PA effects (PAEs), PA SMEs, and SMEs. In this study, the effects of benzylpenicillin against beta-hemolytic streptococci and pneumococci were examined. The bacteria were exposed to 2, 10, or 50x MIC for 2 h, washed and diluted, incubated in the Bioscreen C incubator, and then exposed to 0.1 to 0.9x MIC. The regrowth was monitored for 20 h. The PAE was calculated as the difference in the time required for the exposed and unexposed bacteria to grow to a defined point (A50) on the absorbance curve. A50 was defined as 50% of the maximum absorbance for the control cultures. The PA SMEs were calculated as the difference in the time required for the reexposed cultures and the unexposed controls to reach A50. The PAEs ranged between 0.6 and 3.2 h and varied little with the concentration used for the induction of the PAEs. At 0.2x MIC, the PA SMEs were 2 to 3 h longer than the PAEs. Higher sub-MICs increased this delay before regrowth. Most cultures exposed to sub-MICs alone were only slightly affected compared with the controls.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 11/1993; 37(10):2200-5. · 4.57 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The sub-MIC effects (SMEs) and the postantibiotic sub-MIC effects (PA SMEs) of vancomycin, roxithromycin, and sparfloxacin for Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus pneumoniae and of amikacin for Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were investigated. A postantibiotic effect was induced by exposing strains to 10x the MIC of the antibiotic for 2 h in vitro. After the induction, the exposed cultures were washed to eliminate the antibiotics. Unexposed controls were treated similarly. Thereafter, the exposed cultures (PA SME) and the controls (SME) were exposed to different subinhibitory concentrations (0.1, 0.2, and 0.3x the MIC) of the same drug and growth curves for a period of 24 h were compared. In general, the PA SMEs were much more pronounced than the SMEs. However, for amikacin and E. coli the SME of 0.2 and 0.3x the MIC also had an initial bactericidal effect. The longest PA SMEs were demonstrated for the combinations with the most pronounced killing during the induction and for the combinations which exhibited the longest PAEs.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 10/1992; 36(9):1852-8. · 4.57 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The pharmacodynamic effects of subinhibitory concentrations of different beta-lactam antibiotics were investigated. A postantibiotic effect (PAE) was induced for different bacterial species by exposure to 10x MIC of several beta-lactam antibiotics for 2 h in vitro. The antibiotic-bacterial combinations used in this study were imipenem-Pseudomonas aeruginosa, benzylpenicillin-Streptococcus pneumoniae and -Streptococcus pyogenes, cefcanel-S. pyogenes, ampicillin-Escherichia coli, and piperacillin-E. coli. After the induction of the PAE, the exposed cultures as well as the unexposed controls were washed and diluted. Thereafter, the cultures in the postantibiotic phase (PA phase) and the cultures not previously treated with antibiotics were exposed to 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3x MIC of the relevant drug and the growth curves were compared. When bacteria in the PA phase were exposed to sub-MICs, a substantial prolongation of the time before regrowth was demonstrated, especially in antibiotic-bacterial combinations for which a PAE was found. In contrast, sub-MICs on cultures not previously exposed to suprainhibitory antibiotic concentrations yielded only a slight reduction in growth rate compared with the controls. Thus, it seems important to distinguish the direct effects of sub-MICs on bacteria not previously exposed to suprainhibitory concentrations from the effects of sub-MICs on bacteria in the PA phase.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 10/1991; 35(9):1834-9. · 4.57 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The postantibiotic effect (PAE) of cefcanel, a new oral cephalosporin with high in vitro activity against Gram-positive bacteria, was investigated. Ten clinical isolates of Streptococcus pyogenes group A and one reference strain (M12, P1800) were exposed to 5 X MIC of cefcanel for 2 h in vitro. The PAE was found to be 2.3 (range 1.7-3.2) h. To investigate the PAE in vivo, a newly developed animal model with implanted tissue cages in rabbits was used. The rabbits received different doses of cefcanel i.v. and unbound concentrations in the tissue cage fluid (TCF) were measured. The protein binding of cefcanel in TCF was approximately 98%. Above a certain dose level, unexpectedly high TCF concentrations were found, indicating that the albumin binding capacity for the drug was surpassed. A PAE in vivo of 0.9-2.6 h was confirmed for cefcanel when the free drug concentration in TCF exceeded 3 X MIC.
Scandinavian journal of infectious diseases. Supplementum 02/1990; 74:190-4.