O FitzGerald

St Vincent's University Hospital, Dublin, Leinster, Ireland

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Publications (226)1011.53 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is a spondyloarthritis with a comorbid association with psoriasis. Without appropriate treatment it can be progressive, severe, deforming and destructive. It has long been recognized that subsets of PsA patients exist, characterized by different patterns of joint involvement. Associations between development of PsA and certain human leukocyte antigens (HLA) have been established. Evidence now suggests that progression of PsA is also genetically determined. The presence of one allele (HLA-B*27) has been associated with a distinct phenotype characterized by early joint involvement, whereas development of musculoskeletal symptoms is much slower in patients with another allele, C*06. Dermatologists need to consider what these differences in genotypes and phenotypes mean for clinical practice. Delay in the diagnosis of PsA is a significant contributor to poor patient outcomes, but there is evidence that PsA is underdiagnosed among psoriasis patients attending dermatology clinics. Dermatologists need to identify PsA symptoms among their psoriasis patients and refer for rheumatological assessment where appropriate. Treatment should address all aspects of the disease, including skin, nail and joint symptoms as well as physical functioning and quality of life. The existence of distinct phenotypic and genetic PsA subsets means dermatologists need to consider which drugs are likely to be most efficacious in which patient populations. Stratification of PsA according to susceptibility genes may in future help identify patients requiring more aggressive treatment to prevent progression. Biologic therapies show efficacy in PsA, but the patient populations of clinical trials are not always representative of patients treated with biologics in clinical practice.
    Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology 08/2013; · 2.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Current recommendations for the management of axial spondyloarthritis (SpA) and psoriatic arthritis are to monitor disease activity and adjust therapy accordingly. However, treatment targets and timeframes of change have not been defined. An international expert panel has been convened to develop 'treat-to-target' recommendations, based on published evidence and expert opinion. OBJECTIVE: To review evidence on targeted treatment for axial and peripheral SpA, as well as for psoriatic skin disease. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature search covering Medline, Embase and Cochrane, conference abstracts and studies in http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. RESULTS: Randomised comparisons of targeted versus routine treatment are lacking. Some studies implemented treatment targets before escalating therapy: in ankylosing spondylitis, most trials used a decrease in Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index; in psoriatic arthritis, protocols primarily considered a reduction in swollen and tender joints; in psoriasis, the Modified Psoriasis Severity Score and the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index were used. Complementary evidence correlating these factors with function and radiographic damage at follow-up is sparse and equivocal. CONCLUSIONS: There is a need for randomised trials that investigate the value of treat-to-target recommendations in SpA and psoriasis. Several trials have used thresholds of disease activity measures to guide treatment decisions. However, evidence on the effect of these data on long-term outcome is scarce. The search data informed the expert committee regarding the formulation of recommendations and a research agenda.
    Annals of the rheumatic diseases 06/2013; · 8.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: We investigated access to biologic and synthetic disease modifying drugs (bDMARDs and sDMARDs) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) across Europe. METHODS: A cross-sectional study at national level was performed in 49 European countries. A questionnaire was sent to one expert, addressing the number of approved and reimbursed bDMARDs and sDMARDs, prices and co-payments, as well as acceptability of bDMARDs (barriers). Data on socio-economic welfare (gross domestic product per capita (GDP), health expenditure, income) were retrieved from web-based sources. Data on health status of RA patients were retrieved from an observational study. Dimensions of access (availability, affordability and acceptability) were correlated with the country's welfare and RA health status. RESULTS: In total, 46 countries (94%) participated. Six countries did not reimburse any of the five sDMARDs surveyed, and in ten countries no bDMARDs were reimbursed. While the price of annual treatment with an average sDMARD was never higher than GPD, the price of one year treatment with a bDMARD exceeded GPD in 26 countries. Perceived barriers for access to bDMARDs were mainly found among financial and administrative restrictions. All dimensions of access were positively correlated with the country's economic welfare (coefficients 0.69 to 0.86 for overall access scores). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with RA in lower income European countries have less access to bDMARDs and sDMARDs, with particularly striking unaffordability of bDMARDs in some of these countries. When accepting that sDMARDs and bDMARDs are equally needed across countries to treat RA, our data point to inequities in access to pharmacological treatment for RA in Europe.
    Annals of the rheumatic diseases 03/2013; · 8.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cited By (since 1996):1, Export Date: 23 March 2014, Source: Scopus, Art. No.: ket189
    Rheumatology (United Kingdom). 01/2013; 52(9):1572-1582.
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    ABSTRACT: To compare the pattern of joint responses in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and psoriatic arthritis treated with TNF inhibitor (TNFi) therapy. A total of 182 PsA/Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients attending the rheumatology unit of a tertiary referral centre in Ireland were recruited and prospectively followed up by the attendant rheumatologists. Clinical progress of the patients was noted at baseline and 6 months after starting TNFi therapy. A total of 114 RA and 68 PsA patients were assessed; 20% of the patients had one of either tender joints or swollen joints after 6 months of therapy. Rheumatoid arthritis patients had a significantly higher proportion of non-tender swollen joints compared with PsA patients, whereas PsA patients had a higher proportion of tender non-swollen joints (p < 0.05). Residual joint swelling was found more commonly in RA patients than in PsA patients following TNFi therapy, whereas residual tender joints occurred more frequently in PsA; this may reflect enthesiopathy or periostitis.
    International Journal of Clinical Practice 02/2012; 66(2):128-31. · 2.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is a clinically heterogeneous disease. Clear consensual treatment guidance focused on the musculoskeletal manifestations of PsA would be advantageous. The authors present European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) recommendations for the treatment of PsA with systemic or local (non-topical) symptomatic and disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARD). The recommendations are based on evidence from systematic literature reviews performed for non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID), glucocorticoids, synthetic DMARD and biological DMARD. This evidence was discussed, summarised and recommendations were formulated by a task force comprising 35 representatives, and providing levels of evidence, strength of recommendations and levels of agreement. Ten recommendations were developed for treatment from NSAID through synthetic DMARD to biological agents, accounting for articular and extra-articular manifestations of PsA. Five overarching principles and a research agenda were defined. These recommendations are intended to provide rheumatologists, patients and other stakeholders with a consensus on the pharmacological treatment of PsA and strategies to reach optimal outcomes, based on combining evidence and expert opinion. The research agenda informs directions within EULAR and other communities interested in PsA.
    Annals of the rheumatic diseases 09/2011; 71(1):4-12. · 8.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis (PsA) affect skin, and/or joints and quality of life (QoL). To better assess the success in multiple attributes in subjects with both active psoriasis and PsA, the objective was to quantify the proportion of those who achieved substantial improvement in a composite measure of skin symptoms, joint manifestations, and QoL, on one of two treatment regimens. Subjects (n=752) with psoriasis and PsA (mean age: 46.5 years, 62.9% male) received etanercept (ETN) 50mg twice weekly (BIW; n = 379) or 50 mg weekly (QW; n=373) for 12 weeks, followed by open-label ETN 50mg QW for 12 weeks. Skin and joint symptoms and QoL were assessed using psoriasis area and severity index (PASI), American College of Rheumatology criteria (ACR) and Euro-QoL (EQ-5D), respectively.   By week 24, 30.6% and 25.8% of subjects receiving ETN 50 mg BIW/QW and ETN 50 mg QW/QW, respectively (P = 0.198) achieved the composite measure of efficacy for skin plus joints plus QoL (PASI 75 + ACR 50 + EQ-5D VAS >82). At 24 weeks, 25.8-30.6% met the triad of rigorous efficacy outcomes. Evaluation of treatment efficacy should address the multiple components of this disease complex; therefore it may be important to consider this composite measure in future trials.
    Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology 05/2011; 25(5):559-64. · 2.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hypoxia is a microenvironmental feature in the inflamed joint, which promotes survival advantage for cells. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship of partial oxygen pressure in the synovial tissue (tPO(2)) in patients with inflammatory arthritis with macroscopic/microscopic inflammation and local levels of proinflammatory mediators. Patients with inflammatory arthritis underwent full clinical assessment and video arthroscopy to quantify macroscopic synovitis and measure synovial tPO(2) under direct visualisation. Cell specific markers (CD3 (T cells), CD68 (macrophages), Ki67 (cell proliferation) and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labelling (cell apoptosis)) were quantified by immunohistology. In vitro migration was assessed in primary and normal synoviocytes (synovial fibroblast cells (SFCs)) using a wound repair scratch assay. Levels of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha), interleukin 1beta (IL1beta), interferon gamma (IFNgamma), IL6, macrophage inflammatory protein 3alpha (MIP3alpha) and IL8 were quantified, in matched serum and synovial fluid, by multiplex cytokine assay and ELISA. The tPO(2) was 22.5 (range 3.2-54.1) mm Hg and correlated inversely with macroscopic synovitis (r=-0.421, p=0.02), sublining CD3 cells (-0.611, p<0.01) and sublining CD68 cells (r=-0.615, p<0.001). No relationship with cell proliferation or apoptosis was found. Primary and normal SFCs exposed to 1% and 3% oxygen (reflecting the median tPO(2) in vivo) induced cell migration. This was coupled with significantly higher levels of synovial fluid tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha), IL1beta, IFNgamma and MIP3alpha in patients with tPO(2) <20 mm Hg (all p values <0.05). This is the first study to show a direct in vivo correlation between synovial tPO(2), inflammation and cell migration, thus it is proposed that hypoxia is a possible primary driver of inflammatory processes in the arthritic joint.
    Annals of the rheumatic diseases 07/2010; 69(7):1389-95. · 8.11 Impact Factor
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    RC Adams, S Schmitz, O Fitzgerald, C Walsh, M Barry
    Value in Health 01/2010; 13(7). · 2.19 Impact Factor
  • Annals of the rheumatic diseases 01/2010; 69(1):313-4. · 8.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the effectiveness of adalimumab in patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA) and identify predictors of good clinical response for joint and skin lesions. Patients received adalimumab 40 mg every other week in addition to standard therapy in this prospective, 12-week, open-label, uncontrolled study. Four definitions of good clinical response were used: > or =50% improvement in American College of Rheumatology response criteria (ACR50), good response according to European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) guidelines, a > or =3-grade improvement in Physician Global Assessment of psoriasis (PGA) and a > or =50% improvement in the Nail Psoriasis Severity Index (NAPSI). Response predictors were determined by logistic regression with backward elimination (selection level was 5%). Of 442 patients, 94% completed 12 weeks of treatment. At week 12, 74%, 51% and 32% of the patients had achieved ACR20, 50 and 70, respectively; 87% and 61% experienced moderate and good responses according to EULAR criteria, respectively. The percentage of patients with PGA results of "clear/almost clear" increased from 34% (baseline) to 68%. The mean NAPSI score was reduced by 44%. No new safety signals were detected. A lower Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index (HAQ-DI) score, greater pain assessment, male sex and absence of systemic glucocorticoid therapy were strongly associated with achievement of ACR50 and good response according to EULAR criteria. In addition, greater C-reactive protein concentration and polyarthritis predicted ACR50, and non-involvement of large joints predicted a good response according to EULAR criteria. Adalimumab was effective in patients with PsA. Lower impairment of physical function, greater pain, male sex and no systemic treatment with glucocorticoids were factors that increased the chance of achieving a good clinical response.
    Annals of the rheumatic diseases 10/2009; 69(2):394-9. · 8.11 Impact Factor
  • Irish medical journal 07/2009; 102(6):170-2. · 0.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Infliximab, a chimeric monoclonal antibody to tumour necrosis factor alpha, is administered as an intravenous infusion requiring a costly hospital day case or inpatient admission. An audit of all current therapies given by intravenous infusions in an outpatient setting in St Vincent's University Hospital (SVUH) was undertaken. Furthermore, in conjunction with TCP homecare, we established in a general practise health clinic, the first Irish community infusion centre for the administration of infliximab in August 2006. All outpatient departments indicated that they would favour a centralized hospital infusion unit. There were no adverse events and the mean global satisfaction improved in the community infliximab infusion pilot programme of seven patients. This study suggests efficiencies in providing centralized infusion facilities, while the community based infusion of infliximab is feasible and safe in this small cohort and identifies the community infusion unit as a viable and cost efficient alternative for administration of infliximab.
    Irish Journal of Medical Science 02/2009; 178(4):497-501. · 0.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To compare the performance of two interferon gamma release assays (IGRAs) and conventional screening tests in patients with inflammatory arthritis undergoing screening for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) before treatment with anti-tumour necrosis factor alpha (anti-TNFalpha) compounds. Successive patients were subjected to conventional LTBI screening, including a tuberculin skin test (TST). The T-SPOT.TB test was performed on all patients and the QuantiFERON-TB Gold test was performed on a large subset. The results of the IGRAs were compared with the results of conventional screening tests. A total 150 patients were evaluated. The majority (57.9%) had rheumatoid arthritis. Previous vaccination with Bacille Calmette-Guerin was confirmed in 82% of patients. No patient had received prior anti-TB treatment. A total of 57 patients (38.0%) had at least one positive conventional risk factor. In contrast, an unequivocally positive T-SPOT.TB test was seen in only 14/143 (9.8%). There was 98.2% agreement between the two IGRAs. Statistically significant associations were found between each of the IGRAs and both TST and risk history, but not chest x-ray (CXR). A positive IGRA result was significantly associated with increased age. TB was not reactivated in any patient during the follow-up period. Interpretation: This study suggests that IGRAs may be useful when screening for LTBI before anti-TNFalpha therapy in patients with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases. The observations reported here also highlight the inadequate performance of CXR as a marker of LTBI.
    Annals of the rheumatic diseases 02/2009; 69(1):181-5. · 8.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is the most common form of inflammatory disease, affecting 1-2% of the population. Posteroanterior (PA) and Brewerton projections are well established in radiographic practice for scoring and monitoring RA, but there is little evidence to demonstrate the diagnostic efficacy of these techniques. This work, by varying the positioning of a cadaveric hand, investigates whether an alternative radiographic projection could yield greater diagnostic information than the traditional techniques. Phase I of the study evaluated moving the hand 15 degrees from the anteroposterior position and then in 5 degrees increments in four directions: medial rotation, lateral rotation, flexion of the wrist and extension of the wrist. Phase II of the study took the optimum projections from Phase I and further manipulated these positions in a direction at right angles to the original position. Images were scored based on joint space visualisation in 29 joints. Results demonstrated that significantly higher diagnostic efficacy was evident with 15 degrees lateral rotation of the hand or 15 degrees flexion at the wrist compared to the Brewerton projection. Either projection is recommended, but on the basis of patient comfort, the latter of these novel positions, now known as the UCD projection, was chosen as the optimum procedure to replace the Brewerton projection. The value of using cadavers for the establishment of optimum radiographic procedures is highlighted.
    The British journal of radiology 02/2009; 82(979):554-60. · 2.11 Impact Factor
  • Bone 01/2009; 44. · 3.82 Impact Factor
  • Value in Health 01/2009; 12(7). · 2.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To develop comprehensive recommendations for the treatment of the various clinical manifestations of psoriatic arthritis (PsA) based on evidence obtained from a systematic review of the literature and from consensus opinion. Formal literature reviews of treatment for the most significant discrete clinical manifestations of PsA (skin and nails, peripheral arthritis, axial disease, dactylitis and enthesitis) were performed and published by members of the Group for Research and Assessment of Psoriasis and Psoriatic Arthritis (GRAPPA). Treatment recommendations were drafted for each of the clinical manifestations by rheumatologists, dermatologists and PsA patients based on the literature reviews and consensus opinion. The level of agreement for the individual treatment recommendations among GRAPPA members was assessed with an online questionnaire. Treatment recommendations were developed for peripheral arthritis, axial disease, psoriasis, nail disease, dactylitis and enthesitis in the setting of PsA. In rotal, 19 recommendations were drafted, and over 80% agreement was obtained on 16 of them. In addition, a grid that factors disease severity into each of the different disease manifestations was developed to help the clinician with treatment decisions for the individual patient from an evidenced-based perspective. Treatment recommendations for the cardinal physical manifestations of PsA were developed based on a literature review and consensus between rheumatologists and dermatologists. In addition, a grid was established to assist in therapeutic reasoning and decision making for individual patients. It is anticipated that periodic updates will take place using this framework as new data become available.
    Annals of the rheumatic diseases 11/2008; 68(9):1387-94. · 8.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Z39Ig protein (complement receptor for C3b and iC3b) is expressed on resident tissue macrophages in various tissues. This study was undertaken to examine the distribution of Z39Ig+cells and their phenotypic features in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) synovium, in comparison with those of osteoarthritis (OA) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA) synovium. Monoclonal anti-Z39Ig antibody was produced by immunizing Z39Ig transfected murine pre B cells and used for the identification of Z39Ig+cells. Z39Ig+cells were further stained with antibodies to macrophages, fibroblast-like synoviocytes, complement receptors and dendritic cells by using the double immunostaining method in normal, RA, OA and PsA synovium. RA synovial mononuclear cells were double-stained using anti-Z39Ig and anti-CD11c antibodies and sorted into Z39Ig+CD11c+cells and Z39Ig+CD11c-cells. These cell populations were then analysed by electron microscopy. The expression of the Z39Ig protein was limited to intimal macrophages in normal, RA, OA and PsA synovium. The numbers of Z39Ig+CD11c+cells and the ratios of Z39Ig+CD11c+cells to Z39Ig+cells were increased in the synovial lining layer of RA as compared with those of OA and PsA. The ultrastructural analysis of Z39Ig+CD11c+cells showed the character of macrophages with many secondary lysosomes and swelling of mitochondria. Z39Ig+ cells appeared to be useful for identification of resident tissue macrophages in normal synovium and the corresponding macrophages in the synovial lining layer of inflammatory arthritis. Expansion of Z39Ig+CD11c+cells was characteristic of RA synovial lining layer.
    Clinical & Experimental Immunology 09/2008; 154(1):38-47. · 3.41 Impact Factor
  • E L Callaly, O FitzGerald, S Rogers
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    ABSTRACT: A patient developed toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), which was triggered by sun exposure while the patient was on long-term hydroxychloroquine. Phototoxic and photoallergic reactions are known to occur with hydroxychloroquine, but, to our knowledge, this is the first reported case of photo-induced TEN associated with the drug.
    Clinical and Experimental Dermatology 06/2008; 33(5):572-4. · 1.33 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

4k Citations
1,011.53 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1969–2012
    • St Vincent's University Hospital
      Dublin, Leinster, Ireland
  • 1943–2011
    • University College Dublin
      • School of Chemistry and Chemical Biology
      Dublin, Leinster, Ireland
  • 2005
    • St. Vincents University Hospital
      • Department of Rheumatology
      Dublin, Leinster, Ireland
  • 2003
    • St. James's Hospital
      • Department of Dermatology
      Dublin, Leinster, Ireland
    • Repatriation General Hospital
      Tarndarnya, South Australia, Australia
  • 1978–2003
    • St. Vincent Hospital
      Green Bay, Wisconsin, United States
  • 1960–2002
    • St. Vincent's Private Hospital
      Dublin, Leinster, Ireland
  • 1998
    • Dublin City University
      Dublin, Leinster, Ireland
  • 1976–1994
    • St. Vincent’s Hospital, Fairview
      Dublin, Leinster, Ireland
    • Port of Spain General Hospital
      City of Port-of-Spain, City of Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago
  • 1989–1991
    • Beaumont Hospital
      Dublin, Leinster, Ireland
  • 1980
    • Portiuncula Hospital, Ballinasloe
      Gaillimh, Connaught, Ireland