Bernhard Schmekal

Allgemeines Krankenhaus Linz, Linz, Upper Austria, Austria

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Publications (29)27.02 Total impact

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    Annals of Hematology 02/2010; 89(10):1063-4. · 2.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The mortality of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is especially high after the start of dialysis therapy, especially in diabetic patients. A part of these patients die within three months after initiating renal replacement therapy (RRT). In the present retrospective study we evaluated all patients with ESRD requiring RRT who died within 3 months after initiating the first RRT. A total of 42 patients who died such early after the start of dialysis treatment during the years 1995–2001 were included in the study. Of them, 28 subjects (age 66 + 11 years) were diabetics and 14 non-diabetics (age 76 + 10 years). Indications for the start of dialysis were end-stage renal failure (creatinine clearance < 10–12 mL/min or < 12–14 mL/min in diabetic patients) or fluid lung associated with chronic renal failure (creatinine clearance < 20 mL/min). Hyperhydration with fluid lung was the most common indication for dialysis therapy in patients with diabetes (64.3% versus 14.3%, p < 0.05). The vascular risk factors blood pressure and serum-lipids were similar in both groups; however, diabetic patients were younger than non-diabetic subjects. The prevalence of vascular diseases tended to be higher in the diabetic group, but difference was not significant (see Figure 1). Severe heart failure (NYHA stage III-IV) was more common among diabetics (42.8% versus 14.3%, p < 0.05). The incidence of sepsis (17.9% versus 14.3%) did not significantly differ between the groups. The most common cause of death was cardiovascular events in both diabetic and non-diabetic patients (71.5% and 64.2%, respectively). Heart failure was a more common cause of death in diabetic patients (39.2% versus 21.4%, NS). In conclusion, early death after the initiation of dialysis treatment was more common in patients with type 2 diabetes, though, the diabetic patients were less old. In the diabetic group fluid lung was more often indication for initiating dialysis therapy than in the non-diabetic group. In both, diabetic and non-diabetic patients, the most common causes of death are cardiovascular events.
    07/2009; 29(1):49-53.
  • Renal Failure 01/2009; 31(5):419-20. · 0.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We evaluated the impact of smoking on the progression of macro-angiopathy as well as patient and graft survival in 35 type-1 diabetic patients with simultaneous kidney-pancreas transplantation (SKPT). According to their smoking history, the patients were divided into smokers (n = 12) and nonsmokers (n = 23). Mean observation period was 80 (12-168) vs. 84 (12-228) months. The prevalence of vascular diseases as well as the incidence of vascular complications during the observation period was evaluated in each group. Graft- and patient survival were calculated. The prevalence of all vascular diseases was higher in the smokers with prior SKPT at the start as also at the end of study; however, the differences were not significant. In addition, the incidence of vascular complications (stroke, myocardial infarction and amputation) during the follow-up period was higher in the smoking group. Taking all vascular complications together (events/patient/year) the difference was significant (0.105 vs. 0.066, P < 0.05). One- and 5-year patient survival was 100% and 75% for smokers vs. 100% and 91% for nonsmokers. One- and 5-year pancreas graft survival at the same time was 100% and 75% in living smokers as well as 100% and 83% in the nonsmokers: We conclude that smoking after SKPT is associated with a progression of macro-angiopathy. Additionally, mortality after SKPT tends to be higher in smoking patients.
    Transplant International 04/2008; 21(4):357-63. · 3.16 Impact Factor
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    NDT Plus 01/2008; 1(3):193-194.
  • Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 11/2007; 22(10):3094. · 3.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A 23-year old woman was admitted to our hospital because of severe edema due to steroid resistant minimal change nephritis (MCN). The diagnosis was proven by renal biopsy nine years ago. At that time, steroid therapy led to a complete remission. Seven years later, patient was 22 years old, a relapse with severe nephrotic syndrome occurred. The diagnosis MCN was confirmed by a second renal biopsy. A combined therapy with prednisolone and cyclosporine A (CSA) led only to a partial reduction of protein excretion, the edema did not disappear. After 3 months, patient declined further therapy with CSA. On admission to our hospital, one year later in December 2000, the woman showed a severe nephrotic syndrome with edema and fluid lung, despite high doses of furosemide. Urinary protein excretion was 12.5 g/day, serum creatinine was increased to 1.4 mg/dl, the serum protein was reduced to 47 g/l. A repeated renal biopsy confirmed again the diagnosis MCN. Once again, a steroid bolus monotherapy over 4 weeks and an immunosuppressive therapy with CSA over 6 weeks had no effect on proteinuria. Further therapy regimes with mofetil mycophenolat, azathioprine, chlorambucil and cyclophosphamide over a period of 6-12 weeks of each regime was not well tolerated, proteinuria remained high with > 10 g/day. Moreover the patient suffered from severe edema despite furosemide infusions. Therefore, an additional mechanical ultrafiltration was performed 2-4 times monthly. Three months after the last immunosuppressive therapy the edema disappeared spontaneously, the diuretic therapy could be stopped. Serum creatinine was 0.8 mg/dl, protein in urine was still high with 9.8 g/day but serum protein for the first time was normal with 65 g/l. Three months later, the protein excretion was reduced to 0.48 g/l, and all other laboratory data were normal. Meanwhile, the woman has now enjoyed a complete second spontaneous remission for a period of three years.
    Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift 08/2006; 156(13-14):421-5.
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    ABSTRACT: The progression of chronic renal insufficiency depends on the type of primary renal disease and blood pressure (BP) levels. We investigated the rate of decline of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) during 3 years prior to the start of dialysis therapy in type 2 diabetic patients with diabetic nephropathy (dNP) or vascular nephropathy (vNP). The aim of the study was to determine differences in the progression of renal insufficiency and the prevalence of vascular diseases in the two patient groups. In a retrospective study, we investigated type 2 diabetic patients with chronic renal insufficiency who were undergoing regular controls in our outpatient care unit for at least 3 years prior to the start of dialysis. We evaluated only patients who had already died under chronic dialysis therapy, and whose diagnosis of primary renal disease was histologically conformed at autopsy. A total of 40 type 2 diabetic patients were included in the study. Of these, 28 patients had dNP (age 62 +/- 8 years) and 12 had vNP (age 70 +/- 7 years). The following parameters were determined at 3- to 6-month intervals: body weight, BP, HbA1c, serum creatinine (Cr), Cr clearance (Cockroft formula), cholesterol and triglycerides. The prevalence of vascular disease in the two groups was also assessed. The average decrease in Cr clearance was 7.7 +/- 2.4 ml/min/year in patients with dNP and 7.7 +/- 2.1 ml/min/year in those with vNP (NS). During the entire observation period, mean HbA1c values (7.0 +/- 0.8 vs. 6.8 +/- 0.6%), systolic BP (137 +/- 8 vs. 138 +/- 11 mm Hg) and diastolic BP (86 +/- 4 vs. 87 +/- 7 mm Hg), cholesterol and triglycerides did not differ significantly in the two groups. The prevalence of vascular disease 3 years prior to and at the start of dialysis therapy was similar in patients with dNP and vNP. The progression of dNP and vNP is similar at least during 3 years before the start of dialysis therapy. Vascular risk factors and the prevalence of vascular diseases were not significantly different in the two patient groups. However, diabetic patients with ESRD secondary to dNP were significantly younger than those with vNP.
    Kidney and Blood Pressure Research 02/2006; 29(5):267-72. · 1.60 Impact Factor
  • Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift. 01/2006; 156:421-425.
  • B Schmekal, G Biesenbach
    Diabetologie Und Stoffwechsel - DIABETOL STOFFWECHS. 01/2006; 1.
  • Bernhard Schmekal
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    ABSTRACT: Most physicians do not consider peritoneal dialysis (PD) to be the treatment of choice in obese patients with end-stage renal failure. In some but not all studies the incidence of infectious complications (catheter-associated infections and peritonitis) is higher than in patients with normal body mass index (BMI). Although mathematical models show that even continuous ambulatory PD with a daily dialysate treatment volume of 12 litres does not provide sufficient clearances in patients weighing 80 kg, adequate dialysis has been achieved in clinical studies in patients with BMI up to 46 kg/m2. Residual renal function is a very important factor for survival in patients undergoing PD and might be influenced by body weight; however, data are controversial, showing either a negative influence of high BMI on renal clearance or no association. The incidence of peritoneal leaks in PD is higher in obese patients than in other patients, because of the raised intra-abdominal pressure. In contrast, hernias do not occur more frequently in overweight PD patients and the risk of hernias seems to be greater in patients with lower BMI. It is well known that mortality rates of overweight patients on hemodialysis are lower than in those with normal body weight, but data on the influence of BMI on survival in PD patients are more controversial. In conclusion, there is no evidence that PD is absolutely contraindicated in patients with high BMI, especially if patients have a strong preference for this type of treatment.
    Wiener klinische Wochenschrift 02/2005; 117 Suppl 6:40-5. · 0.81 Impact Factor
  • Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift. 01/2005; 155:26-29.
  • Johann Loipl, Bernhard Schmekal, Georg Biesenbach
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    ABSTRACT: There are only a few data in the literature concerning metabolic control in insulin-treated diabetic patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD). The aim of the study was to find out the long-term impact of hemodialysis on glycemic control and lipid values in type 2 diabetic patients. Twenty insulin-treated type 2 diabetic patients (age 62 +/- 9 years, f:m=6:14) were evaluated. We compared HbAlc, fasting blood glucose (FBG), body weight, serum lipids, insulin requirement, and blood-pressure (BP) 12 and 6 months before dialysis, at the start of dialysis, and 6 as well as 12 months after the start. RESULTS: The mean HbA1c- and FBG-values were not significantly different before and after the start of dialysis therapy. The average insulin requirement was 26 +/- 10 IU/day in the predialysis period, 25 +/- 12 IU/day at the start, and 24 +/- 13 as well as 22 +/- 13 IU/day after the start of dialysis. The mean cholesterol level fell significantly from 199 +/- 63 and 190 +/- 49 mg/dL in the predialysis phase to 167 +/- 62 and 157 +/- 38 mg/dL after dialysis began. The triglyceride concentrations decreased only slightly after the start of dialysis. The incidence of hypoglycemia (n/patient/month) was markedly lower in the predialysis phase (0.4 vs. 0.6, NS) than after start of dialysis. In patients with residual diuresis (<500 mL urine/day) the needed insulin doses decreased significantly by 29% compared to patients with higher residual diuresis, whose insulin requirement remained unchanged. In summary, hemodialysis had no significant long-term effect on glycemic control in insulin-treated type 2 diabetic patients, but incidence of hypoglycemia tended to be higher under hemodialysis than in the predialysis period. Lipid levels tended to be lower after the initiation of dialysis therapy. Insulin requirement under hemodialysis decreased only in patients with loss of residual urine volume (below 500 mL urine/day).
    Renal Failure 01/2005; 27(3):305-8. · 0.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It is well-known that elderly patients with insulin therapy need an age-adapted diabetes teaching program (DTP). In this study we investigated how many newly insulinized type 2-diabetic patients aged over 80 years were not fit for a structured DTP and why. Moreover, we evaluated the vascular risk profile and the prevalence of vascular diseases in the patients with and without DTP. In addition, we compared the metabolic control after 3 months and the patient survival after 2 years in both patient groups. All type 2-diabetic patients aged 80 years and beyond, in whom insulin therapy was initiated in our hospital during the year 2000, were recruited for the study. Patients who participated in DTP performed metabolic self-monitoring at home. In patients who were not fit for DTP, metabolic control and insulin therapy were performed by mobile nurses. The ability of patients to participate in DTP was judged by the diabetes teaching team (teaching doctor and nurse) at the start of insulin therapy. A total of 43 patients were included in the study; patients were separated into two groups, with and without DTP. We measured vascular risk factors, and compared the prevalence of vascular diseases. Twenty one (49%) of the newly insulin-treated type 2 diabetic patients > or = 80 years participated in the DTP, 22 patients (51%) did not due to impaired cognitive function (n = 19) and/or reduced compliance (n = 3). In both patient groups there was no difference between the mean HbA1c- and blood pressure values or cholesterol- and triglyceride levels. In addition, the prevalence of vascular complications and diabetic nephropathy was not significantly different in either group. Those diabetic patients who participated in DTP performed blood glucose measurements more frequently than the patients without DTP (1.3 +/- 0.5 versus 0.9 +/- 0.2 controls/day p < 0.05). The HbA1c-values after 3 months were 8.3 +/- 1.2 versus 8.1 +/- 1.2% (NS), the incidence of hypoglycemia was the same in both groups. The 2-year survival was 52 versus 48% (NS). Approximately 50% of newly insulin-treated type 2 diabetic patients aged over 80 years were suitable for participation in DTP. The prevalence of vascular risk profile and vascular diseases was the same in both groups. Blood glucose self-monitoring was performed more frequently in patients with DTP, but the quality of metabolic control was similar in patients with and without DTP. The 2-year survival rate was equally low in both groups.
    Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift 01/2005; 155(1-2):26-9.
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    ABSTRACT: Diabetes is known to be a risk factor for the severity of anemia in non-dialyzed patients with renal failure. The aim of this study was to evaluate differences in hemoglobin (Hb) response to erythropoietin (EPO) in diabetic and nondiabetic patients on chronic hemodialysis (CHD). Sixty-four patients on CHD were included in the study: 24 type 2 diabetics (mean age, 59+/-11 years; 10 men, 14 women) and 40 nondiabetics (age, 53+/-14 years; 21 men, 19 women). All patients received a fixed dose of 50 mg ferric saccharate and EPO per week, dosed individually to achieve a target Hb level of 12 g/dl. Hb levels, ferritin, transferrin saturation (TSAT), EPO requirement (IU/kg/week), folic acid, vitamin B12 and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured every two months. Additionally, the incidence of infectious diseases during the observation period of six months was evaluated, and a univariate correlation analysis of CRP and EPO requirements was performed in both groups. Patients with and without diabetes were divided into two groups each: those with normal CRP and those with elevated CRP. The EPO requirements of these groups were compared. Under identical iron substitution the mean Hb level increased more, but not significantly, in non-diabetic patients than in diabetic patients. After 6 months the mean Hb levels were 12.1+/-1.2 versus 11.5+/-1.2 g/dl (NS), although the actual EPO requirement was higher in diabetic than in non-diabetic subjects (244+/-122 versus 183+/-118 IU/kg/week; p<0.05). CRP after 6 months was significantly higher in diabetic than in non-diabetic patients (2.6+/-2.2 versus 1.5+/-1.3 mg/dl; p<0.05), as was the incidence of infectious disease (n/patient/month) (0.24 versus 0.08; p<0.05). The correlation coefficient between CRP and EPO requirements was statistically significant in both diabetic (r=0.547 p<0.01) and non-diabetic subjects (r=0.577; p<0.001). All other laboratory indices were similar in both groups. In the diabetic patients with normal CRP (n=6) the Hb levels achieved after six months were similar to those of non-diabetic patients (n=10) with normal CRP (11.9+/-1.1 versus 12.1+/-1.2%), and the required EPO was comparable. We conclude that the Hb response to EPO is reduced in diabetic patients on CHD. This elevated EPO requirement may be explained by a greater prevalence of infectious diseases, characterized by a significantly higher CRP level, in these patients. Other causes for the elevated EPO requirement could be excluded.
    Wiener klinische Wochenschrift 01/2005; 116(24):844-8. · 0.81 Impact Factor
  • B Schmekal, G Biesenbach, O Janko
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    ABSTRACT: In insulin-treated patients with diabetes, kidney transplantation (KTP) may influence glycemic control, insulin requirements, as well as vascular risk profiles, but the data are controversial. In 10 selected insulin-treated diabetic patients with normally functioning kidney transplants, receiving cyclosporine for immunosuppression, we evaluated the fasting blood glucose, HbA1c, lipid levels, blood pressure, and insulin-requirement from 1 year before to 1 year after KTP. There were no significant differences in the mean HbA1c levels 6 and 3 months before transplantation (8.3 +/- 1.7 and 8.0 +/- 1.4%, respectively) and 3 and 12 months after transplantation (8.2 +/- 1.6 and 7.9 +/- 1.5%, respectively). The mean fasting blood glucose levels increased only transiently by 7% during the first week after transplantation (not significant). The insulin requirement was approximately the same at 3 and 6 months before (42 +/- 14 and 42 +/- 13 IU/d, respectively) and at 3 and 12 months after transplantation (44 +/- 13 and 41 +/- 13 IU/mL, respectively). Only 1 week after transplantation did the insulin requirement increase transiently by 14% to 48 +/- 14 IU/d (P < .05). The mean levels of cholesterol and triglycerides as well as mean blood pressure were not significantly different before and after transplantation. Only immediately after KTP did mean blood glucose and insulin requirement increase. At least 3 months after transplantation, glycemic control and insulin requirements as well as the vascular risk factors were approximately the same as before the procedure.
    Transplantation Proceedings 01/2005; 36(10):3012-5. · 0.95 Impact Factor
  • Bernhard Schmekal, Robert Pichler, Georg Biesenbach
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    ABSTRACT: Despite advanced techniques of renal replacement therapy the overall mortality of patients with ARF is still high. The majority of patients with ARF requiring dialysis are those with nontraumatic ARF. In a retrospective study we compared the causes of nontraumatic ARF, the risk factors for the development of renal failure and the mortality rates in patients with and without diabetes mellitus who received dialysis therapy in the years 1991-2000. A total of 232 patients were included in the study, 34 (14.6%) of them with and 198 patients (85.4%) without diabetes. The predominant causes of nontraumatic ARF like congestive heart failure (26.4 vs. 13.6, p < 0.05) and hypotension/hypovolemia (20.6 vs. 7.6%, p < 0.05) occurred more frequently in diabetic patients. The prevalence of sepsis (8.8 vs. 10.1%, NS), malignancy/ hypercalcemia (5.8 vs. 11.6%, NS) and other causes of nontraumatic ARF were similar in both groups. The prevalence of hepato-renal syndrome (5.8 vs. 13.6%, p < 0.05) and acute kidney graft failure (2.9 vs. 15.1%, p < 0.05) was higher in the nondiabetic individuals. Patients with diabetes showed more often chronic predictors for the onset of ARF like pre-existing hypertension (93.6 vs. 51.0%, p < 0.05), congestive heart failure (44.1 vs. 14.6%, p < 0.005), pre-existing renal insufficiency (76.4 vs. 46.9%, p < 0.05) and ACE-inhibitor therapy (32.3 vs. 9.6%, p < 0.005). Additionally, the prevalence of multiple organ failure (MOF) as prognostic factor was significantly higher in the diabetic patients (47.0 vs. 21.7%, p < 0.05). The mean number of dialyses therapy was 4.7 vs. 4.5 per patient. The overall mortality was 41.1 vs. 44.% (NS). In conclusion, the prevalence of the most common causes of nontraumatic ARF was different between the patients with and without diabetes. The diabetic individuals had more frequently predictors for the onset of ARF. The overall mortality was approximately the same in both groups.
    Renal Failure 01/2004; 26(1):39-43. · 0.94 Impact Factor
  • Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift - WIEN KLIN WOCHENSCHR. 01/2004; 116(24):844-848.
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    ABSTRACT: In the presence of impaired renal function, patients require less insulin mainly because insulin clearance is prolonged. The aim of this study was to evaluate the insulin requirement related to glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in nephropathic Type 1 and Type 2 diabetic patients. In a retrospective study we compared insulin requirement in 20 nephropathic Type 1 diabetic patients and 20 insulin-treated Type 2 diabetic patients from the onset of overt nephropathy until the final stage of renal disease. All patients had proteinuria > 0.5 g/24 h and creatinine clearance >/= 80 ml/min per 1.73 m2 at baseline. Creatinine clearance, urinary protein excretion, glycated haemoglobin and the required insulin doses were determined 3- to 6-monthly, basal C-peptide was measured at the beginning and the end of the observation period. The required insulin doses were evaluated at creatinine clearance rates of 80, 60, 40, 20 and 10 ml/min per 1.73 m2 (or at the initiation of dialysis treatment). The insulin requirement of patients with Type 1 diabetes was reduced from 0.72 +/- 0.16 IU/kg per day at a creatinine clearance rate of 80 ml/min, to 0.45 +/- 0.13 IU/kg per day at a creatinine clearance rate of 10 ml/min (decrement of 38%, P < 0.001). The insulin dose required by Type 2 diabetic patients was reduced from 0.68 +/- 0.28 IU/kg per day at a creatinine clearance rate of 80 ml/min to 0.33 +/- 0.19 IU/kg per day at a clearance rate of 10 ml/min (decrement 51%, P < 0.001). The fall in GFR, urinary protein excretion and glycated haemoglobin levels was similar in the two groups. In patients with Type 2 diabetes, C-peptide levels at the beginning and the end of renal function impairment were 2.2 (0.4-7.3) vs. 2.7 (0.1-4.9) ng/ml (NS). The reduction in insulin requirement was approximately the same in patients with an initial C-peptide level < 1.0 and in those >/= 1.0 ng/ml (decrement 57% vs. 46%). The reduction in insulin requirement in renal insufficiency is similar in Type 1 and insulin-treated Type 2 diabetic patients. In subjects with Type 2 diabetes, the residual insulin secretion has no impact on the reduction in insulin requirement dependent on the GFR.
    Diabetic Medicine 08/2003; 20(8):642-5. · 3.24 Impact Factor
  • Georg Biesenbach, Otmar Janko, Bernhard Schmekal
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    ABSTRACT: Despite advanced techniques of renal replacement therapy as well as improved medical care and control over the last decade, the overall mortality of patients with "internal" nontraumatic acute renal failure (ARF) requiring replacement therapy is still high. In a retrospective study we compared causes of nontraumatic ARF, risk factors for the development of renal failure and mortality rates in patients with nontraumatic ARF, who received hemodialysis therapy from 1981 to 1990 and from 1991 to 2000. 510 patients with nontraumatic ANV requiring hemodialysis were evaluated, 278 patients in 1981-1990 and 232 patients in 1991-2000. In both groups the chronic risk factors for ANV such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, chronic cardiac failure, chronic hepatic failure and pre-existing renal impairment and the causes of a traumatic ARF were compared. In addition, concomitant sepsis and multi-organ failure as prognostic parameters as well as mortality rates dependent on the causes of ARF were evaluated. In the latter period, there was a significant reduction in the prevalence of acute glomerulonephritis (3.0 versus 8.3%, p < 0.05) and acute interstitial nephritis (2.6 versus 7.6%, p < 0.05) as well as acute pancreatitis (1.7 versus 7.6%, p < 0.01) as causes of ARF. On the other hand, the prevalence of drug-induced ARF increased during the latter period (10.8 versus 4.7%, p < 0.05). Other etiologies of nontraumatic ARF did not significantly differ between the two decades. Patients treated from 1991 to 2000 had chronic risk factors for the development of ARF, namely diabetes (14.6 versus 6.8%), coronary artery disease (28.0 versus 9.3%) and pre-existing renal impairment (51.7 versus 17.6%, p < 0.001), more frequently than did patients dialysed from 1981-1990. The prevalence of sepsis and multi-organ failure was approximately the same in both periods. The overall mortality (41.8 versus 44.6%, NS) and mortality secondary to causes of nontraumatic ARF were similar in both periods. In summary: the prevalence of several causes of nontraumatic ARF has changed during the last decades. Furthermore, patients treated in the 90's had chronic risk factors for renal failure, namely diabetes and pre-existing renal impairment as well as coronary artery disease, more frequently than did subjects treated in the preceding time period. The prognosis of the patients has not been significantly improved.
    Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift 01/2003; 153(23-24):530-3.