Melissa H Little

University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia

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Publications (118)564.24 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Developmental branching morphogenesis establishes organ architecture, and it is driven by iterative interactions between epithelial and mesenchymal progenitor cell populations. We describe an approach for analyzing this interaction and how it contributes to organ development. After initial in vivo cell labeling with the nucleoside analog 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) and tissue-specific antibodies, optical projection tomography (OPT) and confocal microscopy are used to image the developing organ. These imaging data then inform a second analysis phase that quantifies (using Imaris and Tree Surveyor software), models and integrates these events at a cell and tissue level in 3D space and across developmental time. The protocol establishes a benchmark for assessing the impact of genetic change or fetal environment on organogenesis that does not rely on ex vivo organ culture or section-based reconstruction. By using this approach, examination of two developmental stages for an organ such as the kidney can be undertaken by a postdoctoral-level researcher in 6 weeks, with a full developmental analysis in mouse achievable in 5 months.
    Nature Protocols 12/2014; 9(12):2859-79. · 7.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases-supported Kidney Research National Dialogue asked the scientific community to formulate and prioritize research objectives that would improve our understanding of kidney function and disease; >1600 participants from >30 countries posted >300 ideas and >500 comments covering all areas of kidney research. Smaller groups of investigators interrogated the postings and published a series of commentaries in CJASN. Additional review of the entire series identified six cross-cutting themes: (1) increase training and team science opportunities to maintain/expand the nephrology workforce, (2) develop novel technologies to assess kidney function, (3) promote human discovery research to better understand normal and diseased kidney function, (4) establish integrative models of kidney function to inform diagnostic and treatment strategies, (5) promote interventional studies that incorporate more responsive outcomes and improved trial designs, and (6) foster translation from clinical investigation to community implementation. Together, these cross-cutting themes provide a research plan to better understand normal kidney biology and improve the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of kidney disease, and as such, they will inform future research efforts supported by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases through workshops and initiatives.
    Clinical journal of the American Society of Nephrology : CJASN. 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Recent years have challenged the view that adult somatic cells reach a state of terminal differentiation. While the ultimate example of this, somatic cell nuclear transfer, has not proven feasible in humans, dedifferentiation of mature cell types to a more primitive state, direct reprogramming from one mature state to another and the reprogramming of any adult cell type to a pluripotent state via enforced expression of key transcription factors have all now been demonstrated. The implications of these findings for kidney disease include the recreation of key renal cell types from more readily available and expandable somatic cell sources. The feasibility of such an approach has been recently demonstrated with the dedifferentiation of proximal tubule cells to nephrogenic mesenchyme. In this review, we examine the technical challenges and clinical challenges that remain to such an approach and how new reprogramming approaches may also be useful for kidney disease.
    Seminars in Nephrology 07/2014; · 2.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We previously described a mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-like population within the adult mouse kidney that displays long-term colony-forming efficiency, clonogenicity, immunosuppression, and panmesodermal potential. Although phenotypically similar to bone marrow (BM)-MSCs, kidney MSC-like cells display a distinct expression profile. FACS sorting from Hoxb7/enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP) mice identified the collecting duct as a source of kidney MSC-like cells, with these cells undergoing an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition to form clonogenic, long-term, self-renewing MSC-like cells. Notably, after extensive passage, kidney MSC-like cells selectively integrated into the aquaporin 2-positive medullary collecting duct when microinjected into the kidneys of neonatal mice. No epithelial integration was observed after injection of BM-MSCs. Indeed, kidney MSC-like cells retained a capacity to form epithelial structures in vitro and in vivo, and conditioned media from these cells supported epithelial repair in vitro. To investigate the origin of kidney MSC-like cells, we further examined Hoxb7(+) fractions within the kidney across postnatal development, identifying a neonatal interstitial GFP(lo) (Hoxb7(lo)) population displaying an expression profile intermediate between epithelium and interstitium. Temporal analyses with Wnt4(GCE/+):R26(tdTomato/+) mice revealed evidence for the intercalation of a Wnt4-expressing interstitial population into the neonatal collecting duct, suggesting that such intercalation may represent a normal developmental mechanism giving rise to a distinct collecting duct subpopulation. These results extend previous observations of papillary stem cell activity and collecting duct plasticity and imply a role for such cells in collecting duct formation and, possibly, repair.
    Journal of the American Society of Nephrology : JASN. 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Maternal hypoxia is a common perturbation that can disrupt placental and thus fetal development, contributing to neonatal impairments. Recently, evidence has suggested that physiological outcomes are dependent upon the sex of the fetus with males more susceptible to hypoxic insults than females. This study investigated the effects of maternal hypoxia during mid-late gestation on fetal growth and placental development and determined if responses were sex specific. CD1 mice were housed under 21% or 12% oxygen from embryonic day (E) 14.5 until tissue collection at E18.5. Fetuses and placentas were weighed before collection for gene and protein expression and morphological analysis. Hypoxia reduced fetal weight in both sexes at E18.5 by 7% but did not affect placental weight. Hypoxia reduced placental mRNA levels of the mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid receptors and reduced the gene and protein expression of the glucocorticoid metabolizing enzyme, HSD11B2. However, placentas of female fetuses responded differently to maternal hypoxia than did placentas of male fetuses. Notably, morphology was significantly altered in placentas from hypoxic female fetuses with a reduction in placental labyrinth blood spaces. In addition mRNA expression of Glut1, Igf2 and Igf1r were reduced in placentas of female fetuses only. In summary, maternal hypoxia altered placental formation in a sex specific manner through mechanisms involving placental vascular development, growth factor and nutrient transporter expression and placental glucocorticoid signalling. This study provides insight into how sex differences in offspring disease development may be due to sex specific placental adaptations to maternal insults.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
    The Journal of Physiology 05/2014; · 4.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although kidneys of equal size can vary 10-fold in nephron number at birth, discovering what regulates such variation has been hampered by a lack of quantitative parameters defining kidney development. Here we report a comprehensive, quantitative, multiscale analysis of mammalian kidney development in which we measure changes in cell number, compartment volumes, and cellular dynamics across the entirety of organogenesis, focusing on two key nephrogenic progenitor populations: the ureteric epithelium and the cap mesenchyme. In doing so, we describe a discontinuous developmental program governed by dynamic changes in interactions between these key cellular populations occurring within a previously unappreciated structurally stereotypic organ architecture. We also illustrate the application of this approach to the detection of a subtle mutant phenotype. This baseline program of kidney morphogenesis provides a framework for assessing genetic and environmental developmental perturbation and will serve as a gold standard for the analysis of other organs.
    Developmental Cell 04/2014; 29(2):188-202. · 12.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Kidney Research National Dialogue represents a novel effort by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases to solicit and prioritize research objectives from the renal research and clinical communities. The present commentary highlights selected scientific opportunities specific to the study of renal development, physiology, and cell biology. Describing such fundamental kidney biology serves as a necessary foundation for translational and clinical studies that will advance disease care and prevention. It is intended that these objectives foster and focus scientific efforts in these areas in the coming decade and beyond.
    Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 12/2013; · 5.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: With the prevalence of end-stage renal disease rising 8% per annum globally, there is an urgent need for renal regenerative strategies. The kidney is a mesodermal organ that differentiates from the intermediate mesoderm (IM) through the formation of a ureteric bud (UB) and the interaction between this bud and the adjacent IM-derived metanephric mesenchyme (MM). The nephrons arise from a nephron progenitor population derived from the MM (ref. ). The IM itself is derived from the posterior primitive streak. Although the developmental origin of the kidney is well understood, nephron formation in the human kidney is completed before birth. Hence, there is no postnatal stem cell able to replace lost nephrons. In this study, we have successfully directed the differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) through posterior primitive streak and IM under fully chemically defined monolayer culture conditions using growth factors used during normal embryogenesis. This differentiation protocol results in the synchronous induction of UB and MM that forms a self-organizing structure, including nephron formation, in vitro. Such hESC-derived components show broad renal potential ex vivo, illustrating the potential for pluripotent-stem-cell-based renal regeneration.
    Nature Cell Biology 12/2013; · 20.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The ureteric bud is an epithelial tube that undergoes branching morphogenesis to form the renal collecting system. Although development of a normal kidney depends on proper ureteric bud morphogenesis, the cellular events underlying this process remain obscure. Here, we used time-lapse microscopy together with several genetic labeling methods to observe ureteric bud cell behaviors in developing mouse kidneys. We observed an unexpected cell behavior in the branching tips of the ureteric bud, which we term "mitosis-associated cell dispersal." Premitotic ureteric tip cells delaminate from the epithelium and divide within the lumen; although one daughter cell retains a basal process, allowing it to reinsert into the epithelium at the site of origin, the other daughter cell reinserts at a position one to three cell diameters away. Given the high rate of cell division in ureteric tips, this cellular behavior causes extensive epithelial cell rearrangements that may contribute to renal branching morphogenesis.
    Developmental Cell 10/2013; · 12.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The growth of a well-formed epithelial structure is governed by mechanical constraints, cellular apico-basal polarity, and spatially controlled cell division. Here we compared the predictions of a mathematical model of epithelial growth with the morphological analysis of 3D epithelial structures. In both in vitro cyst models and in developing epithelial structures in vivo, epithelial growth could take place close to or far from mechanical equilibrium, and was determined by the hierarchy of time-scales of cell division, cell-cell rearrangements, and lumen dynamics. Equilibrium properties could be inferred by the analysis of cell-cell contact topologies, and the nonequilibrium phenotype was altered by inhibiting ROCK activity. The occurrence of an aberrant multilumen phenotype was linked to fast nonequilibrium growth, even when geometric control of cell division was correctly enforced. We predicted and verified experimentally that slowing down cell division partially rescued a multilumen phenotype induced by altered polarity. These results improve our understanding of the development of epithelial organs and, ultimately, of carcinogenesis.
    The Journal of Cell Biology 10/2013; · 10.82 Impact Factor
  • Minoru Takasato, Barbara Maier, Melissa H Little
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    ABSTRACT: Access to human pluripotent cells theoretically provides a renewable source of cells that can give rise to any required cell type for use in cellular therapy or bioengineering. However, successfully directing this differentiation remains challenging for most desired endpoints cell type, including renal cells. This challenge is compounded by the difficulty in identifying the required cell type in vitro and the multitude of renal cell types required to build a kidney. Here we review our understanding of how the embryo goes about specifying the cells of the kidney and the progress to date in adapting this knowledge for the recreation of nephron progenitors and their mature derivatives from pluripotent cells.
    Pediatric Nephrology 09/2013; · 2.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The growth of organs results from proliferation within distinct cellular compartments. Organ development also involves transitions between cell types and variations in cell cycle duration as development progresses, and is regulated by a balance between entry into the compartment, proliferation of cells within the compartment, acquisition of quiescence and exit from that cell state via differentiation or death. While it is important to understand how environmental or genetic alterations can perturb such development, most approaches employed to date are descriptive rather than quantitative. This is because the identification and quantification of such parameters, while tractable in vitro, is challenging in the context of a complex tissue in vivo. Here we present a new framework for determining cell turnover in developing organs in vivo that combines cumulative cell-labelling and quantification of distinct cell-cycle phases without assuming homogeneity of behaviour within that compartment. A mathematical model is given that allows the calculation of cell cycle length in the context of a specific biological example and assesses the uncertainty of this calculation due to incomplete knowledge of cell cycle dynamics. This includes the development of a two population model to quantify possible heterogeneity of cell cycle length within a compartment and estimate the aggregate proliferation rate. These models are demonstrated on data collected from a progenitor cell compartment within the developing mouse kidney, the cap mesenchyme. This tissue was labelled by cumulative infusion, volumetrically quantified across time, and temporally analysed for the proportion of cells undergoing proliferation. By combining the cell cycle length predicted by the model with measurements of total cell population and mitotic rate, this approach facilitates the quantification of exit from this compartment without the need for a direct marker of that event. As a method specifically designed with assumptions appropriate to developing organs we believe this approach will be applicable to a range of developmental systems, facilitating estimations of cell cycle length and compartment behaviour that extend beyond simple comparisons of mitotic rates between normal and perturbed states.
    Journal of Theoretical Biology 09/2013; · 2.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Direct reprogramming involves the enforced re-expression of key transcription factors to redefine a cellular state. The nephron progenitor population of the embryonic kidney gives rise to all cells within the nephron other than the collecting duct through a mesenchyme-to-epithelial transition, but this population is exhausted around the time of birth. Here, we sought to identify the conditions under which adult proximal tubule cells could be directly transcriptionally reprogrammed to nephron progenitors. Using a combinatorial screen for lineage-instructive transcription factors, we identified a pool of six genes (SIX1, SIX2, OSR1, EYA1, HOXA11, and SNAI2) that activated a network of genes consistent with a cap mesenchyme/nephron progenitor phenotype in the adult proximal tubule (HK2) cell line. Consistent with these reprogrammed cells being nephron progenitors, we observed differential contribution of the reprogrammed population into the Six2(+) nephron progenitor fields of an embryonic kidney explant. Dereplication of the pool suggested that SNAI2 can suppress E-CADHERIN, presumably assisting in the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) required to form nephron progenitors. However, neither TGFβ-induced EMT nor SNAI2 overexpression alone was sufficient to create this phenotype, suggesting that additional factors are required. In conclusion, these results suggest that reinitiation of kidney development from a population of adult cells by generating embryonic progenitors may be feasible, opening the way for additional cellular and bioengineering approaches to renal repair and regeneration.
    Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 06/2013; · 8.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been shown to play key regulatory roles in a range of biological processes, including cell differentiation and development. To identify miRNAs that participate in gonad differentiation, a fundamental and tightly regulated developmental process, we examined miRNA expression profiles at the time of sex determination and during the early fetal differentiation of mouse testes and ovaries using high-throughput sequencing. We identified several miRNAs that were expressed in a sexually dimorphic pattern, including several members of the let-7 family, miR-378 and miR-140-3p. We focused our analysis on the most highly expressed sexually dimorphic miRNA, miR-140-3p, and found that both miR-140-3p and its more lowly expressed counterpart, the previously annotated guide strand, miR-140-5p, are testis-enriched and expressed in testis cords. Analysis of the miR-140-5p/miR-140-3p null mouse revealed a significant increase in the number of Leydig cells in the developing XY gonad, strongly suggesting an important role for miR-140-5p/miR-140-3p in testis differentiation in mouse.
    Biology of Reproduction 04/2013; · 4.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Macrophages are traditionally associated with inflammation and host defence, however a greater understanding of macrophage heterogeneity is revealing their essential roles in non-immune functions such as development, homeostasis and regeneration. In organs including the brain, kidney, mammary gland and pancreas, macrophages reside in large numbers and provide essential regulatory functions that shape organ development and maturation. However, the role of macrophages in lung development and the potential implications of macrophage modulation in the promotion of lung maturation have not yet been ascertained. METHODS: Embryonic E12.5 mouse lungs were cultured as explants and macrophages associated with branching morphogenesis were visualised by wholemount immunofluorescence microscopy. Postnatal lung development and the correlation with macrophage number and phenotype were examined using Colony-stimulating factor-1 receptor-enhanced green fluorescent protein (Csf1r-EGFP) reporter mice. Structural histological examination was complemented with whole-body plethysmography assessment of postnatal lung functional maturation over time.Flow cytometry, real-time (q)PCR and immunofluorescence microscopy were performed to characterise macrophage number, phenotype and localisation in the lung during postnatal development. To assess the impact of developmental macrophage modulation, CSF-1 was administered to neonatal mice at postnatal day (P)1, 2 and 3, and lung macrophage number and phenotype were assessed at P5. EGFP transgene expression and in situ hybridisation was performed to assess CSF-1R location in the developing lung. RESULTS: Macrophages in embryonic lungs were abundant and densely located within branch points during branching morphogenesis. During postnatal development, structural and functional maturation of the lung was associated with an increase in lung macrophage number. In particular, the period of alveolarisation from P14-21 was associated with increased number of Csf1r-EGFP+ macrophages and upregulated expression of Arginase 1 (Arg1), Mannose receptor 1 (Mrc1) and Chemokine C-C motif ligand 17 (Ccl17), indicative of an M2 or tissue remodelling macrophage phenotype. Administration of CSF-1 to neonatal mice increased trophic macrophages during development and was associated with increased expression of the M2-associated Found in inflammatory zone (Fizz)1 and the growth regulator Insulin-like growth factor (Igf)1. The effects of CSF-1 were identified as macrophage-mediated, as the CSF-1R was found to be exclusively expressed on interstitial myeloid cells. CONCLUSIONS: This study identifies the presence of CSF-1R+ M2-polarised macrophages localising to sites of branching morphogenesis and increasing in number during the alveolarisation stage of normal lung development. Improved understanding of the role of macrophages in lung developmental regulation has clinical relevance for addressing neonatal inflammatory perturbation of development and highlights macrophage modulation as a potential intervention to promote lung development.
    Respiratory research 04/2013; 14(1):41. · 3.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The interactions between the nephrogenic mesenchyme and the ureteric bud during kidney development are well documented. While recent studies have shed some light on the importance of the stroma during renal development, many of the signals generated in the stroma, the genetic pathways and interaction networks involving the stroma are yet to be identified. Our previous studies demonstrate that retinoids are crucial for branching of the ureteric bud and for patterning of the cortical stroma. In the present study we demonstrate that autocrine retinoic acid (RA) signaling in stromal cells is critical for their survival and patterning, and show that Extracellular matrix 1, Ecm1, a gene that in humans causes irritable bowel syndrome and lipoid proteinosis, is a novel RA-regulated target in the developing kidney, which is secreted from the cortical stromal cells surrounding the cap mesenchyme and ureteric bud. Our studies suggest that Ecm1 is required in the ureteric bud for regulating the distribution of Ret which is normally restricted to the tips, as inhibition of Ecm1 results in an expanded domain of Ret expression and reduced numbers of branches. We propose a model in which retinoid signaling in the stroma activates expression of Ecm1, which in turn down-regulates Ret expression in the ureteric bud cleft, where bifurcation normally occurs and normal branching progresses.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(12):e84155. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Crim1 is a transmembrane protein which regulates the bioavailability of growth factors such as VEGFA. The Crim1(KST264/KST264) hypomorphic mice develop renal disease characterised by glomerular cysts and loss of endothelial integrity, progressing to peritubular and pericystic fibrosis. The peritubular capillary endothelial cells display morphological changes as well as detachment from the basement membrane. In this study, gene expression profiling of CD31(+) endothelial cells isolated from Crim1(KST264/KST264) kidneys showed upregulation of transcripts associated with fibrosis (Col3a1, Loxl1), endothelial dysfunction (Abp1, Dcn, Lcn2), biomarkers of renal damage (Lcn2, Havcr1/Kim1) as well as evidence for a TGFβ1/TNF associated inflammatory process. To determine whether the aberrant endothelium may in part contribute to the fibrogenic process, Tie2Cre-DsRed lineage tracing was undertaken in the Crim1(KST264/KST264) mice. Approximately 31% of de novo αSMA(+) myofibroblasts detected within the tubulointerstitium were Tie2(+) DsRed(+) . However, 5.3% were F4/80(+) DsRed(+) , indicating a small population of myofibroblasts of monocytic rather than endothelial origin. In contrast, only 12% of myofibroblasts located around glomerular cysts were Tie2(+) DsRed(+) with 7.7% being monocyte-derived (F4/80(+) DsRed(+) ). Collectively, this model supports the involvement of endothelial cells/monocytes in fibrosis within the tubulointerstitium, but also the heterogeneity of the fibrotic process even within distinct regions of the same kidney. Copyright © 2012 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    The Journal of Pathology 12/2012; · 7.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cells resembling bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have been isolated from many organs but their functional relationships have not been thoroughly examined. Here we compared the immunophenotype, gene expression, multipotency and immunosuppressive potential of MSC-like colony-forming cells from adult murine bone marrow (bmMSC), kidney (kCFU-F) and heart (cCFU-F), cultured under uniform conditions. All populations showed classic MSC morphology and in vitro mesodermal multipotency. Of the two solid organ-specific CFU-F, only kCFU-F displayed suppression of T-cell alloreactivity in vitro, albeit to a lesser extent than bmMSC. Quantitative immunophenotyping using 81 phycoerythrin-conjugated CD antibodies demonstrated that all populations contained high percentages of cells expressing diagnostic MSC surface markers (Sca1, CD90.2, CD29, CD44), as well as others noted previously on murine MSC (CD24, CD49e, CD51, CD80, CD81, CD105). Illumina microarray expression profiling and bioinformatic analysis indicated a correlation of gene expression of 0.88-0.92 between pairwise comparisons. All populations expressed approximately 66% of genes in the pluripotency network (Plurinet), presumably reflecting their stem-like character. Furthermore, all populations expressed genes involved in immunomodulation, homing and tissue repair, suggesting these as conserved functions for MSC-like cells in solid organs. Despite this molecular congruence, strong biases in gene and protein expression and pathway activity were seen, suggesting organ-specific functions. Hence, tissue-derived MSC may also retain unique properties potentially rendering them more appropriate as cellular therapeutic agents for their organ of origin.
    Stem Cell Research 07/2012; 8(1):58-73. · 4.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Lengthy developmental programs generate cell diversity within an organotypic framework, enabling the later physiological actions of each organ system. Cell identity, cell diversity and cell function are determined by cell type-specific transcriptional programs; consequently, transcriptional regulatory factors are useful markers of emerging cellular complexity, and their expression patterns provide insights into the regulatory mechanisms at play. We performed a comprehensive genome-scale in situ expression screen of 921 transcriptional regulators in the developing mammalian urogenital system. Focusing on the kidney, analysis of regional-specific expression patterns identified novel markers and cell types associated with development and patterning of the urinary system. Furthermore, promoter analysis of synexpressed genes predicts transcriptional control mechanisms that regulate cell differentiation. The annotated informational resource ( will facilitate functional analysis of the mammalian kidney and provides useful information for the generation of novel genetic tools to manipulate emerging cell populations.
    Development 05/2012; 139(10):1863-73. · 6.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Crim1 is a developmentally expressed, transmembrane protein essential for normal embryonic development. We generated mice engineered to contain a Crim1 conditional null allele by flanking exons three and four of Crim1 with unidirectional LoxP sites. After crossing Crim1(+/FLOX) mice with a CMV-Cre line, a Crim1(+/Δflox) colony was established after germline transmission of the deleted allele. We then analyzed genomic DNA, mRNA transcripts, and protein expression from Crim1(Δflox/Δflox) null mice to confirm the nature of the genomic lesion. Crim1(Δflox/Δflox) mice displayed phenotypes similar to those previously described for a Crim1 gene-trap mutant, Crim1(KST264/KST264) , including perinatal lethality, digit syndactyly, eye, and kidney abnormalities, with varying penetrance and severity. The production of a conditional mutant allele represents a valuable resource for the study of the tissue-specific roles for Crim1, and for understanding the pleimorphic phenotypes associated with Crim1 mutation. genesis 50:711-716, 2012. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    genesis 04/2012; 50(9):711-6. · 2.58 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
564.24 Total Impact Points


  • 1996–2014
    • University of Queensland
      • • Institute for Molecular Bioscience
      • • Department of Molecular and Cellular Pathology
      Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
  • 2012
    • The University of Edinburgh
      • Centre for Integrative Physiology
      Edinburgh, SCT, United Kingdom
  • 2011–2012
    • Monash University (Australia)
      • Monash Immunology and Stem Cell Laboratories (MISCL)
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia