G Faa

Università degli studi di Cagliari, Cagliari, Sardinia, Italy

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Publications (229)523.91 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Proteomics and metabolomics are emerging in recent years as one of the most challenging topics in neonatology. They are characterized by a large amount of data that reflect the complexity of all biological systems more accurately than traditional methods utilized in clinical chemistry. In this review paper we present the modifications of the salivary proteome, which represents an easy and non-invasive method that offers the opportunity to investigate changes in the metabolism of preterm infants and in pediatric patients. Moreover, we present the metabolomics-histologic correlations in newborn piglets at baseline and following normocapnic hypoxia and reoxygenation. A new method of data analysis, here summarized as the "triple-I" approach will be finally discussed: interdisciplinary, intersectorial, interactive.
    10/2014; 27 Suppl 2:58-60.
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Objective: The cytochrome P450 (CYP450) superfamily is implicated in important life processes, including metabolism of many molecules. CYP3A account for the largest portion of CYP450 proteins in human, including CYP3A4, CYP3A5 and CYP3A7. The purpose of this study was to investigate the immunohistochemical expression of CYP3A4 and CYP3A7 in human liver at different post-conceptional (PC) ages. Methods: Human liver samples from 30 fetuses and newborns were, clustered according with the PC age, routinely processed for immunohistochemical analysis of CYP3A4 and CYP3A7. Results: CYP3A4 was positive in all but two cases, CYP3A7 was positive in all but one case, which was negative also for CYP3A4. Conclusions: Our data on immunohistochemical detection of CYP3A4 and CYP3A7 during development show that CYP3A4 expression is not restricted to the post-natal age, being the immunostaining for both CYP3A4 and CYP3A7 identical after 25 weeks of PC age, thus the relationship between these CYP450 isoforms should be considered much more complex than previous thought. A high interindividual variability was observed among subjects at all gestational age. The variable CYP3A expression suggests the existence of a marked interindividual variability in drug metabolism during the intrauterine life and in perinatal period.
    Journal of Maternal-Fetal and Neonatal Medicine. 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The development of the mammalian kidney is a complex and in part unknown process which requires interactions between pluripotential/stem cells, undifferentiated mesenchymal cells, epithelial and mesenchymal components, eventually leading to the coordinate development of multiple different specialized epithelial, endothelial and stromal cell types within the kidney architectural complexity. We will describe the embryology and molecular nephrogenetic mechanisms, a fascinating traffic of cells and tissues which takes place in five stages: (1) ureteric bud (UB) development; (2) cap mesenchyme formation; (3) mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET); (4) glomerulogenesis and tubulogenesis; (5) interstitial cell development. In particular, we will analyze the multiple cell types involved in these dramatic events as characters moving between different worlds, from the mesenchymal to the epithelial world and back, and will start to define the multiple factors that propel these cells during their travels throughout the developing kidney. Moreover, according with the hypothesis of renal perinatal programing, we will present the results reached in the fields of immunohistochemistry and molecular biology, by means of which we can explain how a loss or excess of molecular factors governing nephrogenesis may cause the onset of pathologies of different gravity, in some cases leading to a chronic kidney disease at different times from birth.
    International Urology and Nephrology 09/2014; · 1.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nephron number at birth has a relevant clinical importance with implications for long-term renal health. In recent years, the podocyte depletion hypothesis has emerged as an important concept in kidney pathology. This study was aimed at verifying if human podocyte number changes significantly during intrauterine life. To this end, sixty-two subjects with gestational age ranging from 20 up to 41 weeks were examined. Kidney sections were stained with H&E and digitally scanned at 400X magnification. Subjects were subdivided into: fetuses (gestational age ≤ 24 weeks, n=5), preterms (gestational age ≥25 and ≤ 36 weeks, n=39), and at term (gestational age ≥ 37 weeks, n=18) infants. An average podocyte number of 1908 ± 645, 1394 ± 498 and 1126 ± 256 was respectively observed in fetuses, preterms and at term infants. A significant main effect (P=0.0051) of gestational age on podocyte number was observed with a significantly lower number in at term infants than in fetuses (P<0.001). An intra-group variability was also observed. We may speculate that variations in podocyte number could be correlated to factors such as drugs and maternal diet occurred during intrauterine life. In conclusion, this study shows, for the first time, a decreasing trend in podocyte number during gestation.
    American journal of physiology. Renal physiology 08/2014; · 3.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Iron and copper ions play important roles in many physiological functions of our body, even though the exact mechanisms regulating their absorption, distribution and excretion are not fully understood. Metal-related human pathology may be observed in two different clinical settings: deficiency or overload. The overload in liver cells of both trace elements leads to multiple cellular lesions. Here we report the main pathological changes observed at transmission electron microscopy in the liver of subjects affected by Beta-thalassemia and by Wilson's disease. The hepatic iron overload in beta-thalassemia patients is associated with haemosiderin storage both in Kupffer cells and in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes. Haemosiderin granules are grouped inside voluminous lysosomes, also called siderosomes. Other ultrastructural changes are fat droplets, proliferation of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum and fibrosis. Apoptosis of hepatocytes and infiltration of sinusoids by polymorphonucleates is also detected in beta-thalassemia. Ultrastructural changes in liver biopsies from Wilson's disease patients are characterized by severe mitochondrial changes, associated with an increased number of perossisomes, cytoplasmic lipid droplets and the presence of lipolysosomes, characteristic cytoplasmic bodies formed by lipid vacuoles surrounded by electron-dense lysosomes. In patients affected by Wilson's disease, nuclei are frequently involved, with disorganization of the nucleoplasm and with glycogen inclusions. On the contrary, no significant changes are detected in Kupffer cells. Our data show that iron and copper, even though are both transition metals, are responsible of different pathological changes at ultrastructural level. In particular, copper overload is associated with mitochondrial damage, whereas iron overload only rarely may cause severe mitochondrial changes. These differences underlay the need for further studies in which biochemical analyses should be associated with ultrastructural data, in order to better understand the molecular ways associated with iron- and copper-related pathology at subcellular level.
    Current medicinal chemistry. 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: In recent years, evidence is growing on the role played by gestational factors in shaping brain development and on the influence of intrauterine experiences on later development of neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson's (PD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). The nine months of intrauterine development and the first three years of postnatal life are appearing to be extremely critical for making connections among neurons and among neuronal and glial cells that will shape a lifetime of experience. Here, the multiple epigenetic factors acting during gestation - including maternal diet, malnutrition, stress, hypertension, maternal diabetes, fetal hypoxia, prematurity, low birth weight, prenatal infection, intrauterine growth restriction, drugs administered to the mother or to the baby - are reported, and their ability to modulate brain development, resulting in interindividual variability in the total neuronal and glial burden at birth is discussed. Data from recent literature suggest that prevention of neurodegeneration should be identified as the one method to halt the diffusion of neurodegenerative diseases. The "two hits" hypothesis, first introduced for PD and successfully applied to AD and other neurodegenerative human pathologies, should focus our attention on a peculiar period of our life: the intrauterine and perinatal periods. The first hit to our nervous system occurs early in life, determining a PD or AD imprinting to our brain that will condition our resistance or, alternatively, our susceptibility to develop a neurodegenerative disease later in life. In conclusion, how early life events contribute to late-life development of adult neurodegenerative diseases, including PD and AD, is emerging as a new fascinating research focus. This assumption implies that research on prevention of neurodegenerative diseases should center on events taking place early in life, during gestation and in the perinatal periods, thus presenting a new challenge to perinatologists: the prevention of neurodegenerative human diseases.
    Current medicinal chemistry. 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: During the last years, human newborns have been overexposed to biologically reactive aluminum, with possible relevant consequences on their future health and on their susceptibility to a variety of diseases. Children, newborns and particularly preterm neonates are at an increased risk of aluminum toxicity because of their relative immaturity. Based on recent original publications and classical data of the literatures, we reviewed the aluminum content in mother's food during the intrauterine life as well as in breast milk and infant formula during lactation. We also determined the possible role of aluminum in parenteral nutrition solutions, in adjuvants of vaccines and in pharmaceutical products. A special focus is placed on the relationship between aluminum overexposure and the insurgence of bone diseases. Practical points of management and prevention are suggested. Aluminum sources that infants may receive during the first 6 months of life are presented. In the context of prevention of possible adverse effects of aluminum overload in fetal tissues during development, simple suggestions to pregnant women are described. Finally, practical points of management and prevention are suggested. Pediatricians and neonatologists must be more concerned about aluminum content in all products our newborns are exposed to, starting from monitoring aluminum concentrations in milk- and soybased formulas in which, on the basis of recent studies, there is still too much aluminum.
    World Journal of Pediatrics 05/2014; 10(2):101-7. · 1.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The analysis of whole saliva of 32 subjects with diagnosis of schizophrenia (SZ), 17 with diagnosis of bipolar disorder (BD), and 31 healthy subjects divided in non smokers (HN; n=19) and smokers (HS; n=12) using an HPLC-ESI-MS top-down platform is reported in this study. Both SZ and BD revealed more than 10 fold mean increase of α-defensins 1-4, S100A12, cystatin A and S-derivatives of cystatin B levels with respect to the HN and HS control groups. No differences of protein levels were observed between SZ and BD groups and between HN and HS groups. Moreover, the correlations coefficients among the different proteins were significantly better in BD group than in SZ group. This study on whole saliva confirms a shizophrenia-associated dysregulation of immune pathway of peripheral white blood cells and suggests that the dysregulation of BD group could involve the activation of more specific cell type than those of SZ group.
    Journal of proteomics 03/2014; · 5.07 Impact Factor
  • BioMed Research International 03/2014; · 2.71 Impact Factor
  • A Faa, R Ambu, G Faa, V Fanos
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: evaluating the relationship between impaired growth during intrauterine life and adult cardiovascular disease risk and death. Materials: review of the most important contributions to the relationship between intrauterine fetal life and heart disease insurgence in childhood and adulthood, starting with a schematic representation of the principal steps of human heart development, discussing the new theory on the relevance of the number of cardiomyocytes that every heart shows at birth. Results: the intrauterine environment defines the epigenetic profile of newborns, with implications for the risk of developing diseases later in adult life. This means that the programming of cardiovascular risk and other pathologies, such as obesity, in adulthood takes place starting from intrauterine life. Conclusions: it can be hypothezised that preventing and eventually treating cardiovascular diseases in pediatric ages, when already present even at beginning and/or in a light forms, could be different and more effective in long term management of compliances than postponing the treatment in adult ages. The challenge for the next future in this fascinating field of clinical research is the discovery of the molecular mechanisms underlying the association between intrauterine growth restriction and fetal onset of cardiac adult disease, in order to let that a dream comes true: to implement the primary prevention of adult heart disease in the womb.
    Current Medicinal Chemistry 03/2014; · 3.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Thymosin beta 4 (Tβ4) and thymosin beta 10 (Tβ10) are two members of the beta-thymosin family involved in many cellular processes such as cellular motility, angiogenesis, inflammation, cell survival and wound healing. Recently, a role for beta-thymosins has been proposed in the process of carcinogenesis as both peptides were detected in several types of cancer. The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression pattern of Tβ4 and Tβ10 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). To this end, the expression pattern of both peptides was analyzed in liver samples obtained from 23 subjects diagnosed with HCC. Routinely formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded liver samples were immunostained by indirect immunohistochemistry with polyclonal antibodies to Tβ4 and Tβ10. Immunoreactivity for Tβ4 and Tβ10 was detected in the liver parenchyma of the surrounding tumor area. Both peptides showed an increase in granular reactivity from the periportal to the periterminal hepatocytes. Regarding HCC, Tβ4 reactivity was detected in 7/23 cases (30%) and Tβ10 reactivity in 22/23 (97%) cases analyzed, adding HCC to human cancers that express these beta-thymosins. Intriguing finding was seen looking at the reactivity of both peptides in tumor cells infiltrating the surrounding liver. Where Tβ10 showed a strong homogeneous expression, was Tβ4 completely absent in cells undergoing stromal invasion. The current study shows expression of both beta-thymosins in HCC with marked differences in their degree of expression and frequency of immunoreactivity. The higher incidence of Tβ10 expression and its higher reactivity in tumor cells involved in stromal invasion indicate a possible major role for Tβ10 in HCC progression.
    European journal of histochemistry: EJH 01/2014; 58(1):2242. · 2.41 Impact Factor
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    Journal of Pediatric and Neonatal Individualized Medicine. 01/2014; 3(2):e030239.
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    ABSTRACT: Objective. Evaluating the presence of endothelial changes in myocardial vessels in an experimental model of hypoxia and resuscitation in newborn piglets. Methods. Fifty male Landrace/Large White neonatal piglets were studied: ten of them were allocated in group A (control group, SHAM-operated). In group B (forty animals, experimental group) normocapnic hypoxia was induced by decreasing inspired concentration of O2 to 6%-8%. When the animals developed bradycardia or severe hypotension, reoxygenation was initiated. The animals of group B were allocated in 4 subgroups of 10, according to the concentration of O2 they were resuscitated with (groups 1, 2, 3, and 4 received 18%, 21%, 40%, and 100% O2, resp.). Results. Control group animals did not show any significant endothelial lesions. Contrarily, endothelial lesions were detected in all experimental group cases. When these lesions were analyzed in the different heart zones, no significant difference in their incidence was observed; analyzing the frequency in the animals of the 4 subgroups, only microthrombosis showed a higher frequency in animals in groups 4 and 3. Conclusions. Endothelial damage represents a diffuse pathological feature in the myocardial vessels of piglets subjected to normocapnic hypoxia and resuscitation suggesting a possible role of hyperoxygenation in aggravating endothelial damage.
    BioMed research international. 01/2014; 2014:619284.
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    ABSTRACT: Objective. Evaluation of neuronal changes in an animal experimental model of normocapnic hypoxia- reoxygenation. Materials and Methods. Fifty male piglets were the study subjects; normocapnic hypoxia was induced in 40 piglets and ten were sham-operated (controls). When bradycardia and/or severe hypotension occurred, reoxygenation was initiated. Animals were allocated in 4 groups according to the oxygen concentration, they were resuscitated with 18%, 21%, 40%, and 100% O2. Persisting asystole despite 10 minutes of cardiopulmonary resuscitation and return of spontaneous circulation were the endpoints of the experiment. Surviving animals were euthanized and brain cortex samples were collected, hematoxylin and eosin-stained, and examined for apoptotic bodies observing 10 consecutive high power fields. Results. Histological examination of the control group did not show any pathological change. On the contrary, apoptosis of neurons was found in 87.5% of treated animals. When specimens were examined according to the oxygen concentration used for resuscitation, we found marked intergroup variability; a higher percentage of apoptotic neurons was observed in piglets of group 4 (100% oxygen) compared to the others (P = 0.001). Conclusions. This preliminary data shows that normocapnic hypoxia and reoxygenation in Landrace/Large White piglets resulted in significant histological changes in the brain cortex. The degree of pathological changes in cortical neurons was significantly associated with the oxygen concentration used for reoxygenation, with a higher percentage of apoptotic neurons being observed in piglets reoxygenated with 100% compared to 18% O2 and to 21% O2.
    BioMed research international. 01/2014; 2014:476349.
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:Previous studies demonstrated that carotid plaques analyzed by CTA can show contrast plaque enhancement. The purpose of this preliminary work was to evaluate the possible association between the fissured fibrous cap and contrast plaque enhancement.MATERIALS AND METHODS:Forty-seven consecutive (men = 25; average age = 66.8 ± 9 years) symptomatic patients studied by use of a multidetector row CT scanner were prospectively analyzed. CTA was performed before and after contrast and radiation doses were recorded; analysis of contrast plaque enhancement was performed. Patients underwent carotid endarterectomy en bloc; histologic sections were prepared and evaluated for fissured fibrous cap and microvessel attenuation. The Mann-Whitney test was performed to evaluate the differences between the 2 groups. A multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the effect of fissured fibrous cap and microvessel attenuation on contrast plaque enhancement. Receiver operating characteristic curve and area under the curve were also calculated.RESULTS:Twelve patients had fissured fibrous cap. In 92% (11/12) of fissured fibrous cap-positive plaques, we found contrast plaque enhancement, whereas in 69% (24/35) of the plaques without fissured fibrous cap contrast plaque enhancement was found. The Mann-Whitney test showed a statistically significant difference between the contrast enhancement in plaques with fissured fibrous cap (Hounsfield units = 22.6) and without fissured fibrous cap (Hounsfield units = 12.9) (P = .011). On the regression analysis, both fissured fibrous cap and neovascularization were associated with contrast plaque enhancement (P = .0366 and P = .0001). The receiver operating characteristic curve confirmed an association between fissured fibrous cap and contrast plaque enhancement with an area under the curve of 0.749 (P = .005).CONCLUSIONS:The presence of fissured fibrous cap is associated with contrast plaque enhancement. Histologic analysis showed that the presence of fissured fibrous cap is associated with a larger contrast plaque enhancement compared with the contrast plaque enhancement of plaques without fissured fibrous cap.
    American Journal of Neuroradiology 10/2013; · 3.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Objective: The evaluation of the expression of S100B protein, in the swine heart in an experimental model of hypoxia - reoxygenation. Methods: Normocapnic hypoxia was induced in 40 male Landrace/Large White neonatal piglets by decreasing the inspired concentration of oxygen to 6-8%. When animals developed bradycardia or severe hypotension, reoxygenation was initiated. Piglets were allocated in four groups of 10, according to the oxygen concentration they were reoxygenated with: Group 1, 2, 3 and 4 resuscitated with 18%, 21%, 40% and 100% oxygen, respectively. The animals were further classified into 4 groups according with the time required for reoxygenation: group A (<15 min); group B (16-60 min); group C (>60 min); group D (deceased animals). Results: Immunostaining for S100B protein was detected in 14 out of the 40 heart samples (35%), both inside the cytoplasm of cardiomyocytes and as globular deposits in the interstitial spaces. Significant differences were observed among groups 1-4 regarding S100B expression. Reactivity for S100B in cardiac cells was detected in 50%, 50%, 10% and 33% of animals in groups 1 and 2, 3 and 4, respectively. Marked differences were also observed among groups A-D: 75%, 33%, 12% and 22% of the animals in group 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively, showed reactivity for S100B in the heart. Conclusions: Expression of S100B protein occurred in the heart of some of newborn piglets following severe hypoxia. S100B storage in cardiomyocytes correlates with the different oxygen concentration used during reoxygenation, being higher in piglets reoxygenated with 18% and 21%, and lower in animals reoxygenated with 40% oxygen. Intermediate levels of S100B expression were found in 100% O2-treated animals. The finding of a higher percentage of S100B-immunoreactive hearts in piglets with a fast recovery and the detection of a decreased reactivity in animals with a slow and a very slow recovery clearly indicates S100B protein as an early protective factor with a positive prognostic value in asphyxiated newborn piglets.
    The journal of maternal-fetal & neonatal medicine: the official journal of the European Association of Perinatal Medicine, the Federation of Asia and Oceania Perinatal Societies, the International Society of Perinatal Obstetricians 10/2013; 26 Suppl 2:72-6. · 1.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract In recent years, it has been clearly evidenced that most cells in a human being are not human: they are microbial, represented by more than 1000 microbial species. The vast majority of microbial species give rise to symbiotic host-bacterial interactions that are fundamental for human health. The complex of these microbial communities has been defined as microbiota or microbiome. These bacterial communities, forged over millennia of co-evolution with humans, are at the basis of a partnership with the developing human newborn, which is based on reciprocal molecular exchanges and cross-talking. Recent data on the role of the human microbiota in newborns and children clearly indicate that microbes have a potential importance to pediatrics, contributing to host nutrition, developmental regulation of intestinal angiogenesis, protection from pathogens, and development of the immune system. This review is aimed at reporting the most recent data on the knowledge of microbiota origin and development in the human newborn, and on the multiple factors influencing development and maturation of our microbiota, including the use and abuse of antibiotic therapies.
    The journal of maternal-fetal & neonatal medicine: the official journal of the European Association of Perinatal Medicine, the Federation of Asia and Oceania Perinatal Societies, the International Society of Perinatal Obstetricians 10/2013; 26 Suppl 2:35-43. · 1.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Thymosin beta 4 (Tβ4) is a ubiquitous peptide that plays pivotal roles in the cytoskeletal system and in cell differentiation. Recently, a role for Tβ4 has been proposed in experimental and human carcinogenesis, including gastrointestinal cancer. This study was aimed at evaluating the relationship between Tβ4 immunoreactivity and the initial steps of carcinogenesis. In total, 60 intestinal biopsies, including 10 hyperplastic polyps, 10 sessile serrated adenomas/polyps, 15 colorectal adenomas with low-grade dysplasia, 15 adenomas with high-grade dysplasia, 15 adenocarcinomas and 10 samples of normal colon mucosa, were analyzed for Tβ4 expression by immunohistochemistry. Weak cytoplasmic reactivity for Tβ4 was detected in the normal colon mucosa. No reactivity for Tβ4 was found in hyperplastic and sessile serrated polyps/adenomas. Tβ4 expression was observed in 10/15 colorectal adenocarcinomas. In adenomas with low-grade dysplasia, Tβ4 immunoreactivity was mainly detected in dysplastic glands but was absent in hyperplastic glands. Tβ4 immunoreactivity was characterized by spot-like perinuclear staining. In high-grade dysplastic polyps, immunostaining for Tβ4 appeared diffuse throughout the entire cytoplasm of dysplastic cells. Spot-like perinuclear reactivity was detected in adenocarcinoma tumor cells. Our study shows for the first time that Tβ4 is expressed during different steps of colon carcinogenesis. The shift of Tβ4 immunolocalization from low-grade to high-grade dysplastic glands suggests a role for Tβ4 in colorectal carcinogenesis. However, the real meaning of Tβ4 reactivity in dysplastic intestinal epithelium remains unknown.
    Clinics (São Paulo, Brazil) 09/2013; 68(9):1220-4. · 1.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: During the first year of life the infant oral environment undergoes dramatic changes. To investigate how the salivary proteome of human children evolves during infant development we have analyzed whole saliva of 88 children aged between 0 and 48months by a top-down platform based on RP-HPLC-ESI-MS. Children were divided according to their age into five groups (A, 0-6 months, N=17; B, 7-12 months, N=14; C, 13-24 months, N=32; D, 25-36 months, N=16; E, 37-48months, N=9). The proteins and peptides analyzed were histatins (histatin-1, histatin-3 1/24), acidic proline-rich proteins, statherin, P-B peptide, and salivary cystatins. Proteins and peptides quantification based on the area of the RP-HPLC-ESI-MS extracted ion current peak evidenced that: (i) concentration of the major salivary proteins/peptides showed a minimum in the 0-6-month-old group and increased with age; (ii) the level of histatin-1 reached a maximum in the 7-12-month-old group, a minimum in the 13-24-month-aged babies and it increased again in the 25-36-month-old group; (iii) S-type cystatins were almost undetectable in the 0-6-month-old group; (iv) P-B peptide concentration greatly increased with age; (v) histatin-3 1/24 and statherin concentration did not show any age-related variation. Biological Significance The top-down proteomic approach undertaken in this work reveals that the salivary proteome of human children from birth to 48months of age shows important quantitative modifications. The concentration of the major salivary proteins, with the exception of statherin and histatin-3 1/24, showed a minimum in the 0-6-month-old group when the expression in salivary glands is probably not fully activated. Concentration of the salivary proteins slowly increased with age, with different trends. Only histatin-1 showed the highest concentration in the 7-12-month-old group, followed by a decrease in the 13-24-month-aged children. This particular trend could be related to the phenomenon of eruption of primary dentition. This study gives a contribution to the knowledge on the physiological variability occurring in human saliva during the early childhood. It could represent a strong and reliable basis for further investigation of saliva to develop diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers.
    Journal of proteomics 08/2013; · 5.07 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
523.91 Total Impact Points


  • 1985–2014
    • Università degli studi di Cagliari
      • Department of Environmental and Life Science
      Cagliari, Sardinia, Italy
  • 2013
    • Sapienza University of Rome
      Roma, Latium, Italy
    • National Research Council
      Roma, Latium, Italy
  • 2012
    • National and Kapodistrian University of Athens
      • Faculty of Medicine
      Athens, Attiki, Greece
  • 2010–2012
    • Catholic University of the Sacred Heart
      • Institute of Biochemistry and Clinical Biochemistry
      Milano, Lombardy, Italy
    • Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Cagliari
      Cagliari, Sardinia, Italy
  • 2005–2012
    • San Giovanni Di Dio Hospital
      Florens, Tuscany, Italy
  • 2011
    • University of Padova
      Padua, Veneto, Italy
  • 1991–2011
    • KU Leuven
      • Department of Oncology
      Leuven, VLG, Belgium
  • 1996
    • University of Bologna
      • Department of Experimental, Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine DIMES
      Bolonia, Emilia-Romagna, Italy