ABSTRACT: The aim of this preliminary study was to determine the possible relationship between alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and periodontal disease in men with hypergonadotropic hypogonadism (HH).
A total of 41 patients were divided into four groups. 9 with HH and periodontitis (P/HH), 11 with HH and gingivitis (G/HH), 12 with systemically healthy and periodontally healthy (H/C) and 9 with systemically healthy and periodontitis (P/C). The clinical evaluation of patients was based on the following parameters; the plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), probing depths (PD) and attachment level (AL). The levels of ALP in the GCF were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).
No significant difference could be detected in the mean clinical parameter data between the P/HH and P/C groups (p > 0.05). The periodontitis patients in both groups (P/C and P/HH) had higher mean probing depths than the H/C and G/HH patients (p < 0.001). The concentrations and total amounts of ALP in the GCF were significantly higher in both periodontitis groups compared to healthy and gingivitis groups (p < 0.01). The serum ALP levels were significantly higher in the P/HH group when compared to the other groups (p < 0.001).
The findings of this study suggested that HH could be implicated as a contributing factor to the progress of periodontal disease.
Yonsei Medical Journal 02/2008; 49(1):71-8. · 1.14 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: The purpose of this clinical study was to evaluate the possible influence of testosterone hormone on common clinical measurements of periodontal disease in men with hypergonadotropic hypogonadism.
Twenty-four hypergonadotropic hypogonadal men (H) and 24 systemically healthy men (S) were divided into two groups as chronic periodontitis and clinically healthy controls after clinical examinations and radiographs. The H group consisted of 12 control (H/C) and 12 chronic periodontitis (H/P) patients, and the S group consisted of 12 control (S/C) and 12 chronic periodontitis (S/P) patients. Plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), bleeding on probing (BOP), probing depth (PD), and clinical attachment loss (CAL) scores were recorded.
The mean of all clinical parameters (PI, GI, BOP, PD, and CAL) were significantly (P<0.05) higher in periodontitis groups (H/P and S/P) than controls (H/C and S/C). There were no significant differences in the PD and CAL scores between periodontitis groups (S/P and H/P). The mean of GI and BOP scores were statistically higher in the H/P group than the S/P group (P<0.05). There was a negative correlation between GI and free testosterone levels (r=-0.794; P<0.05).
According to these results, serum testosterone levels may possibly influence periodontal disease in men, and testosterone may have an inhibitory effect on gingival inflammation.
Journal of Periodontology 08/2006; 77(7):1179-83. · 2.60 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine how estrogen status may possibly influence gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels in estrogen-deficient (ED) and -sufficient (ES) postmenopausal women at baseline (BL) and 1 year after periodontal phase I treatment (AT).
Thirty-six postmenopausal women on estrogen supplements (mean serum estradiol levels >30 pg/ml; estrogen sufficient) and 37 postmenopausal women not on estrogen supplements (mean serum estradiol levels <30 pg/ml; ED) were divided into two subgroups as chronic periodontitis and clinically healthy controls after clinical and radiographic examination. The ES group consisted of 19 control (ES/C) and 17 chronic periodontitis (ES/P) patients, and the ED group consisted of 20 control (ED/C) and 17 chronic periodontitis (ED/P) patients. Plaque (PI) and gingival (GI) indices, bleeding on probing (BOP), probing depths (PD), clinical attachment loss (CAL) scores, and GCF samples were recorded at BL and AT. The levels of ALP in the GCF were measured photometrically. The paired samples Student t and Wilcoxon tests were used to compare the ALP levels and clinical parameters between BL and AT. The correlation among the ALP and clinical parameters was analyzed using the Pearson correlation.
The mean of all clinical parameters (PI, GI, BOP, PD, and CAL) was significantly (P <0.05) higher in periodontitis groups (ES/P and ED/P) than controls (ES/C and ED/C). Periodontitis groups (ES/P and ED/P) demonstrated significantly increased GCF volumes and GCF ALP levels (P <0.05) compared to controls (ES/C and ED/C). There were no significant differences in the concentrations of ALP between periodontitis and control groups (P >0.05). The BL GCF ALP total levels of the ED/P group were significantly higher than the ES/P group (P <0.05). The BL and AT serum ALP levels of the ED/P group were not significantly but were numerically higher than the ES/P group. One year after periodontal treatment, the GCF volume, GCF ALP total, and concentrations decreased significantly in both periodontitis groups (P <0.05). However, the GCF ALP levels were still numerically higher in the ED/P group. A positive statistical correlation was found between total ALP levels and PD (r = 0.621; P <0.05).
These data suggest that the presence of ALP in GCF is not simply a reflection of the local inflammation state and that a patient's estrogen status may possibly influence local ALP levels in GCF.
Journal of Periodontology 02/2006; 77(1):67-72. · 2.60 Impact Factor