[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The transfer of T cell receptor (TCR) genes can be used to induce immune reactivity toward defined antigens to which endogenous T cells are insufficiently reactive. This approach, which is called TCR gene therapy, is being developed to target tumors and pathogens, and its clinical testing has commenced in patients with cancer. In this study we show that lethal cytokine-driven autoimmune pathology can occur in mouse models of TCR gene therapy under conditions that closely mimic the clinical setting. We show that the pairing of introduced and endogenous TCR chains in TCR gene-modified T cells leads to the formation of self-reactive TCRs that are responsible for the observed autoimmunity. Furthermore, we demonstrate that adjustments in the design of gene therapy vectors and target T cell populations can be used to reduce the risk of TCR gene therapy-induced autoimmune pathology.
Nature medicine 05/2010; 16(5):565-70, 1p following 570. · 27.14 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adoptive transfer of TCR gene-modified T cells has been proposed as an attractive approach to target tumors for which it is difficult or impossible to induce strong tumor-specific T cell responses by vaccination. Whereas the feasibility of generating tumor Ag-specific T cells by gene transfer has been demonstrated, the factors that determine the in vivo effectiveness of TCR-modified T cells are largely unknown. We have analyzed the value of a number of clinically feasible strategies to enhance the antitumor potential of TCR modified T cells. These experiments reveal three factors that contribute greatly to the in vivo potency of TCR-modified T cells. First, irradiation-induced host conditioning is superior to vaccine-induced activation of genetically modified T cells. Second, increasing TCR expression through genetic optimization of TCR sequences has a profound effect on in vivo antitumor activity. Third, a high precursor frequency of TCR modified T cells within the graft is essential. Tumors that ultimately progress in animals treated with this optimized regimen for TCR-based adoptive cell transfer invariably display a reduced expression of the target Ag. This suggests TCR gene therapy can achieve a sufficiently strong selective pressure to warrant the simultaneous targeting of multiple Ags. The strategies outlined in this study should be of value to enhance the antitumor activity of TCR-modified T cells in clinical trials.
The Journal of Immunology 11/2008; 181(7):5128-36. · 5.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Analogous to the clinical use of recombinant high-affinity Abs, transfer of TCR genes may be used to create a T cell compartment specific for self-Ags to which the endogenous T cell repertoire is immune tolerant. In this study, we show in a spontaneous prostate carcinoma model that the combination of vaccination with adoptive transfer of small numbers of T cells that are genetically modified with a tumor-specific TCR results in a marked suppression of tumor development, even though both treatments are by themselves without effect. These results demonstrate the value of TCR gene transfer to target otherwise nonimmunogenic tumor-associated self-Ags provided that adoptive transfer occurs under conditions that allow in vivo expansion of the TCR-modified T cells.
The Journal of Immunology 09/2008; 181(4):2563-71. · 5.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To broaden the applicability of adoptive T cell therapy to cancer types for which tumor-specific T cells cannot routinely be isolated, an effort has been made to develop the transfer of tumor-specific TCR genes into autologous T cells as a novel immunotherapeutic approach. Although such TCR-modified T cells have been shown to react to Ag encounter and can be used to break tolerance to defined self-Ags, the persistence and capacity for renewed expansion of TCR-modified T cells has not been analyzed. To establish whether TCR-transduced T cells can provide recipients with long-term Ag-specific immune protection, we analyzed long-term function of TCR transduced T cells in mouse model systems. We demonstrate that polyclonal populations of T cells transduced with a class I restricted OVA-specific TCR are able to persist in vivo and respond upon re-encounter of cognate Ag as assessed by both proliferation and cytolytic capacity. These experiments indicate that TCR gene transfer can be used to generate long-term Ag-specific T cell responses and provide a useful model system to assess the factors that can promote high-level persistence of TCR-modified T cells.
The Journal of Immunology 06/2008; 180(10):6536-43. · 5.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transfer of either allogeneic or genetically modified T cells as a therapy for malignancies can be accompanied by T cell-mediated tissue destruction. The introduction of an efficient "safety switch" can potentially be used to control the survival of adoptively transferred cell populations and as such reduce the risk of severe graft-vs-host disease. In this study, we have tested the value of an inducible caspase 9-based safety switch to halt an ongoing immune attack in a murine model for cell therapy-induced type I diabetes. The data obtained in this model indicate that self-reactive T cells expressing this conditional safety switch show unimpaired lymphopenia- and vaccine-induced proliferation and effector function in vivo, but can be specifically and rapidly eliminated upon triggering. These data provide strong support for the evaluation of this conditional safety switch in clinical trials of adoptive cell therapy.
The Journal of Immunology 06/2008; 180(9):6365-73. · 5.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adoptive cell transfer therapy using tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes for patients with metastatic melanoma has demonstrated significant objective response rates. One major limitation of these current therapies is the frequent inability to isolate tumor-reactive lymphocytes for treatment. Genetic engineering of peripheral blood lymphocytes with retroviral vectors encoding tumor antigen-specific T-cell receptors (TCRs) bypasses this restriction. To evaluate the efficacy of TCR gene therapy, a murine treatment model was developed. A retroviral vector was constructed encoding the pmel-1 TCR genes targeting the B16 melanoma antigen, gp100. Transduction of C57BL/6 lymphocytes resulted in efficient pmel-1 TCR expression. Lymphocytes transduced with this retrovirus specifically recognized gp100-pulsed target cells as measured by interferon-gamma secretion assays. Upon transfer into B16 tumor-bearing mice, the genetically engineered lymphocytes significantly slowed tumor development. The effectiveness of tumor treatment was directly correlated with the number of TCR-engineered T cells administered. These results demonstrated that TCR gene therapy targeting a native tumor antigen significantly delayed the growth of established tumors. When C57BL/6 lymphocytes were added to antigen-reactive pmel-1 T cells, a reduction in the ability of pmel-1 T cell to treat B16 melanomas was seen, suggesting that untransduced cells may be deleterious to TCR gene therapy. This model may be a powerful tool for evaluating future TCR gene transfer-based strategies.
Journla of Immunotherapy 02/2008; 31(1):1-6. · 3.46 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Minor histocompatibility antigen (MiHAg) differences between donor and recipient in MHC-matched allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) often result in graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). While MiHAg-specific T-cell responses can in theory be directed against a large number of polymorphic differences between donor and recipient, in practice, T-cell responses against only a small set of MiHAgs appear to dominate the immune response, and it has been suggested that immunodominance may predict an important contribution to the development of GVHD. Here, we addressed the feasibility of graft engineering by ex vivo removal of T cells with 1 or more defined antigen specificities in a well-characterized experimental HSCT model (B6 --> BALB.B). We demonstrate that immunodominant H60- and H4-specific CD8(+) T-cell responses can be effectively suppressed through MHC class I tetramer-mediated purging of the naive CD8(+) T cell repertoire. Importantly, the development of GVHD occurs unimpeded upon suppression of the immunodominant MiHAg-specific T-cell response. These data indicate that antigen-specific graft engineering is feasible, but that parameters other than immunodominance may be required to select T-cell specificities that are targeted for removal.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adoptive transfer of T-cell receptor (TCR) genes has been proposed as an attractive approach for immunotherapy in cases where the endogenous T-cell repertoire is insufficient. While there are promising data demonstrating the capacity of TCR-modified T cells to react to foreign antigen encounter, the feasibility of targeting tumor-associated self-antigens has not been addressed. Here we demonstrate that T-cell receptor gene transfer allows the induction of defined self-antigen-specific T-cell responses, even when the endogenous T-cell repertoire is nonreactive. Furthermore, we show that adoptive transfer of T-cell receptor genes can be used to induce strong antigen-specific T-cell responsiveness in partially MHC-mismatched hosts without detectable graft versus host disease. These results demonstrate the feasibility of using a collection of "off the shelf" T-cell receptor genes to target defined tumor-associated self-antigens and thereby form a clear incentive to test this immunotherapeutic approach in a clinical setting.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adoptive transfer of antigen-specific T cells is an attractive means to provide cancer patients with immune cells of a desired specificity and the efficacy of such adoptive transfers has been demonstrated in several clinical trials. Because the T cell receptor is the single specificity-determining molecule in T cell function, adoptive transfer of TCR genes into patient T cells may be used as an alternative approach for the transfer of tumor-specific T cell immunity. On theoretical grounds, TCR gene therapy has two substantial advantages over conventional cellular transfer, as it can circumvent the demanding process of in vitro generation of large numbers of specific immune cells and it allows the use of a set of particularly effective TCR genes in large patient groups. Conversely, TCR gene therapy may be associated with a number of specific problems that are not confronted during classical cellular therapy. Here we review our current understanding of the potential and possible problems of TCR gene therapy, as based on in vitro experiments and mouse model systems. Furthermore, we discuss the prospects of clinical application of this gene therapy approach, and the possible barriers on the route towards clinical use.
Current Gene Therapy 01/2006; 5(6):583-93. · 5.32 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Molecular Therapy (2004) 9, S103–S103; doi: 10.1016/j.ymthe.2004.06.209
269. Targeting Self Antigens through Allogeneic TCR Gene Transfer
Moniek de Witte1, Miriam Coccoris1, Monika C. Wolkers1, Marly van den Boom1, Helmut W. Kessels1 and Ton N. Schumacher11Division of Immunology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, 1066 CX Amsterdam, Netherlands