[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine whether cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease is an independent risk factor for graft loss and death after orthotopic liver transplantation, we performed a 3-year follow-up study of 143 consecutive liver transplant recipients and six patients who underwent retransplantation. Thirty-seven patients (25%) had had CMV disease and were alive after treatment. Fifty-two deaths and eight graft losses occurred. The cumulative incidence of graft failure at 1 and 3 years of follow-up were 40% and 63%, respectively, for patients with CMV disease, compared with 22% and 33%, respectively, for those without CMV disease (P < .05, logrank test). Cumulative probabilities of survival for patients with and without CMV disease were 64% and 82%, respectively, at 1 year and 46% and 69%, respectively, after 3 years (P < .05, logrank test). Multivariate analysis with use of a time-dependent Cox model showed that previous CMV disease was an independent risk factor for graft loss at 1 and 3 years of follow-up (P = .04 and P = .007) and for patient survival (P = .04 and P = .01). Our results indicate that CMV disease is a significant independent risk factor for graft loss and patient survival after liver transplantation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Herpes zoster leukoencephalitis is a rare complication of varicella-zoster virus infection. Associated with high mortality, the majority of cases have been discovered postmortem; today, however, magnetic resonance imaging is being used successfully as an aid in the diagnosis of this disease. The first two reported cases of HIV-infected patients with herpes zoster leukoencephalitis who recovered clinically and showed complete resolution of the magnetic resonance demyelination images after acyclovir treatment are described. In addition, the cases of herpes zoster leukoencephalitis reported in the literature to date are reviewed.
European Journal of Clinical Microbiology 05/1998; 17(4):286-9. · 3.02 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our objective in this study was to determine the efficacy of 2 grams a day of oral acyclovir administered for 16 weeks after transplantation for the prevention of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and disease in CMV-seropositive liver transplant recipients. Seventy-three adult liver transplant recipients, seropositive for CMV, were randomized to receive either 2 grams a day of oral acyclovir for 16 weeks after transplantation or no prophylaxis. The incidence of CMV disease was significantly lower in the acyclovir group (5%) than in the control group (27%; P < 0.05). By log-rank analysis, the differences in the probability of presenting CMV disease over the first 16 weeks and over the 1st year were also significant (P < 0.05). We conclude that 2 grams a day of oral acyclovir provides effective prophylaxis against CMV disease in CMV-seropositive liver transplant recipients.
Transplant International 11/1997; 10(6):462-5. · 3.16 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A model of pneumonia due to Streptococcus pneumoniae resistant to penicillin was developed in immunocompetent Wistar rats and was used to evaluate the efficacies of different doses of penicillin, cefotaxime, cefpirome, and vancomycin. Adult Wistar rats were challenged by intratracheal inoculation with 3 x 10(9) CFU of one strain of S. pneumoniae resistant to penicillin (MICs of penicillin, cefotaxime, cefpirome, and vancomycin, 2, 1, 0.5, and 0.5 microg/ml, respectively) suspended in brain heart broth supplemented with 0.7% agar. The rats experienced a fatal pneumonia, dying within 5 days and with peak mortality (70 to 80%) occurring 48 to 72 h after infection, and the bacterial counts in the lungs persisted from 8.87 +/- 0.3 log10 CFU/g of lung at 24 h of the infection to 9.1 +/- 0.3 log10 CFU/g at 72 h. Four hours after infection the animals were randomized into the following treatment groups: (i) control without treatment, (ii) penicillin G at 100,000 IU/kg of body weight every 2 h, (iii) penicillin G at 250,000 IU/kg every 2 h, (iv) cefotaxime at 100 mg/kg every 2 h, (v) cefpirome at 200 mg/kg every 2 h, and (vi) vancomycin at 50 mg/kg every 8 h. Two different protocols were used for the therapeutic efficacy studies: four doses of beta-lactams and one dose of vancomycin or eight doses of beta-lactams and two doses of vancomycin. Results of the therapy for experimental pneumonia caused by penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae showed that initially, all the antimicrobial agents tested had similar efficacies, but when we prolonged the treatment, higher doses of penicillin, cefotaxime, and cefpirome were more effective than penicillin at lower doses in decreasing the residual bacterial titers in the lungs. Also, when we extended the treatment, vancomycin was more efficacious than penicillin at lower doses but was less efficacious than higher doses of penicillin or cefpirome. The model that we have developed is simple and amenable for inducing pneumonia in immunocompetent rats and could be used to explore the pathophysiology and to evaluate optimal therapy of this infection in the immunocompetent host.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 05/1997; 41(4):795-801. · 4.57 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the effectiveness of two regimens with allopurinol or pentavalent antimony as secondary prophylaxis for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients.
Retrospective, nonrandomized, open trial.
A 1,000-bed academic tertiary institutional hospital in Barcelona.
Forty-six individuals over 14 years old with HIV infection, who recovered from an episode of VL between January 1988 and February 1995.
Twenty patients did not receive any prophylaxis, nine received 300 mg/8 h of allopurinol, and 17 received 850 mg once-a-month of pentavalent antimony. Patients were followed-up every 3 months, and the endpoint of study was relapse of VL.
Twenty-one patients had recurrent VL: 13 of 20 in the control group (65%), 5 of 9 in the allopurinol group (56%), and 3 of 17 in the antimonial group (18%). Kaplan-Meier estimates of the probability of remaining relapse-free at 12 months were 9% without prophylaxis (95% CI, 0-22%), 21% with allopurinol (95% CI, 0-51%), and 93% with antimonials (95% CI, 82-100%) (P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that the only significant variables related to relapsing course of VL were assignment to the antimonial group, and the fact that the patient had experienced a previous episode of VL.
Pentavalent antimony given once a month is effective in the prevention of VL relapses in HIV-infected individuals. It is a low-cost treatment that proved to be well tolerated. Therefore, pentavalent antimony should be considered a suitable agent for secondary prophylaxis against VL.
The American Journal of Medicine 05/1996; 100(5):496-501. · 5.30 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acute pancreatitis is an adverse effect of the treatment with antimonial drugs which is infrequently described in patients with HIV infection and visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Twenty-two percent of the patients having this treatment had acute pancreatitis (7 cases) in the authors' center. In all the cases, severe immunosuppression was present with pancreatitis appearing following the administration of 3,400 to 15,300 mg of stibogluconate. The pancreatitis was slight in the 7 cases with no complications of note and with no symptoms observed in three cases. The maximum values of amylasemia ranged from 976 to 2,568 U/l, from 1,055 to 5,860 U/l for lipasemia, and from 1,970 to 25,520 U/l for trypsinemia. These values returned to normal from 15 days to 2 months after suppression of the drug. Stibogluconate was readministered in three patients due to VL recurrence with a further acute pancreatitis being observed. The authors conclude that acute pancreatitis is a relatively infrequent complication of antimonial treatment for VL in patients with HIV infection and believe that a maximum dose of 850 mg/day should not be surpassed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to analyze the clinical characteristics and fluid alterations in neurologic infection by varicella herpes zoster virus in hospitalized patients.
A retrospective study of the cases with neurologic involvement by the varicella herpes zoster virus in patients admitted in the authors' hospital from March 1991 to March 1993 was carried out.
Our of the 14 patients studied with neurologic involvement by the varicella herpes zoster virus, 10 were males (71%) with a mean age of 38 years (range: 13-83 years). Only 4 patients (28%) presented a base disease (diabetes mellitus in 2 cases and HIV infection in another 2). In 10 cases (71%) the appearance of cutaneous lesions was prior to neurologic manifestations (between 1 and 30 days before neurologic clinical manifestations). All the patients presented hyperthermia at some time. The most common symptoms were: headache, vomiting, confusion and/or neck stiffness, with meningitis, encephalitis and neurologic foci and mixed pictures. In 4 cases (28%) the cephalorhachidian fluid did not present analytical changes suggestive of viral meningitis. All the patients underwent i.v. acyclovir treatment at a dosis of 10-15 mg/kg/8 h with good evolution, with no deaths being observed. In 3 out of the 6 cases presenting neurologic foci the evolution was slow with sequelae following treatment completion.
Neurologic involvement by the varicella herpes zoster virus does not clinically defer from other neutrotropic virus. Fluid alterations were compatible with benign lymphocytary meningitis although some cases of encephalitis showed normal LCR. Taking into account that none of the patients herein reported died and considering the mortality associated with meningitis or encephalitis by varicella herpes zoster referred in the literature in untreated patients, the authors believe that the use of acyclovir is obligatory in these cases.