[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Both obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and a novel lipocalin, neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin (Ngal), have been reported to be closely linked with cardiovascular disease and loss of kidney function through chronic inflammation. However, the relationship between OSA and Ngal has never been investigated.
To evaluate the relationship between Ngal and OSA in clinical practice.
In 102 patients, polysomnography was performed to diagnose OSA and plasma Ngal levels were measured. The correlations between Ngal levels and OSA severity and other clinical variables were evaluated. Of the 46 patients who began treatment with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), Ngal levels were reevaluated after three months of treatment in 25 patients.
The Ngal level correlated significantly with OSA severity as determined by the apnea hypopnea index (r = 0.24, p = 0.01) and 4% oxygen desaturation index (ODI) (r = 0.26, p = 0.01). Multiple regression analysis showed that the Ngal level was associated with 4%ODI independently of other clinical variables. Compliance was good in 13 of the 25 patients who used CPAP. Although the OSA (4%ODI: 33.1±16.7 to 1.1±1.9/h, p<0.01) had significantly improved in those with good compliance, the Ngal levels were not significantly changed (60.5±18.1 before CPAP vs 64.2±13.9 ng/ml after CPAP, p = 0.27).
Plasma Ngal levels were positively associated with the severity of OSA. However, the contribution rate of OSA to systemic Ngal secretion was small and changes in Ngal levels appeared to be influenced largely by other confounding factors. Therefore, it does not seem reasonable to use the Ngal level as a specific biomarker of OSA in clinical practice.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(1):e54184. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: STUDY OBJECTIVES: There are no clinical data comparing adherence and quality of life between auto-adjusting positive airway pressure (APAP) and two different flex positive airway pressure (PAP) devices (A-Flex, C-Flex) in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). DESIGN AND SETTING: Ninety-three patients in whom OSA was newly diagnosed were randomly assigned to receive 3 mo of APAP (n = 31), APAP with C-Flex (n = 31), or APAP with A-Flex (n = 31). Objective adherence was determined after 3 mo of CPAP treatment, and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and Calgary Sleep Apnea Quality of Life Index (SAQLI) were examined at baseline and after 3 mo. After 3 mo, patients in the APAP with A-Flex group and those in the APAP with C-Flex group were crossed over and those in the APAP group were switched to A-Flex for an additional 3 mo. MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS: The groups were similar demographically. Treatment adherence during the first 3 mo was significantly greater in the APAP with C-Flex group (APAP with C-Flex: 5.19 ± 1.84 h/night versus APAP: 3.96 ± 1.66 h/night versus APAP with A-Flex: 4.27 ± 2.12 h/night, P = 0.04). There was a significant improvement in two of four of the SAQLI domain scores and in the ESS and PSQI in the APAP with C-Flex group. Adherence significantly improved among the poor compliers (< 4 h/night of use) in the APAP group after change to APAP with A-Flex (P = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Of these three modes of PAP delivery, adherence was greatest with APAP with C-Flex. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00873977. CITATION: Chihara Y; Tsuboi T; Hitomi T; Azuma M; Murase K; Toyama Y; Harada Y; Aihara K; Tanizawa K; Handa T; Yoshimura C; Oga T; Yamamoto K; Mishima M; Chin K. Flexible positive airway pressure improves treatment adherence compared with auto-adjusting PAP. SLEEP 2013;36(2):229-236.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase (L-PGDS), which is responsible for the biosynthesis of prostaglandin D2, has been reported to have a close connection with cardiovascular disease and sleep regulation. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that the L-PGDS level is a useful marker to identify patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA).Sixty-four subjects were enrolled in this prospective study. Urinary concentrations of L-PGDS were measured in the morning. Measurements were made every 4 hours in 25 of the 64 patients. Endothelial function was assessed by the reactive hyperemia peripheral arterial tone index.Circadian variations in L-PGDS concentrations had a significant time-dependent fluctuation (p=0.0002). L-PGDS was higher in the subjects with severe OSA (median, n=23, 784.7 ng·mg(-1)?Creatinine) than in control subjects (n=16, 262.1, p=0.004) and in those with moderate OSA (n=25, 371.7, p=0.0008). After 2 days of CPAP treatment, L-PGDS concentrations in severe OSA (n=12) decreased significantly (p=0.02) to levels present in control subjects whereas endothelial function did not change significantly. Morning urinary L-PGDS concentrations had significant correlations with the apnoea-hypopnoea index (R(2)=13.9%) and serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (R(2)=6.2%) but not with sleepiness.Urinary L-PGDS might be a moderately useful marker to identify patients with severe OSA.
European Respiratory Journal 12/2012; · 6.36 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Recent epidemiological evidence indicates an association between cardiovascular diseases and pulmonary fibrosis. The vascular endothelium acts to maintain vascular homeostasis through multiple mechanisms and impaired endothelial function can contribute to the development, progression and clinical expression of atherosclerosis. METHODS: We consecutively recruited 39 newly-diagnosed chronic interstitial pneumonitis/fibrosis patients without any specific etiology. We assessed endothelium-dependent vasodilator response of patients using digital pulse amplitude tonometry and compared the reactive hyperemia index (RHI) with age-, sex- and body mass index-matched control subjects (n = 30). We further investigated the relationships between RHI and clinical characteristics, laboratory cardiovascular risk factors, disease-related factors and circulating levels of inflammatory biomarkers. RESULTS: RHI was significantly lower in patients with chronic interstitial pneumonitis/fibrosis than in control subjects (p = 0.02). While circulating levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, HbA1c and fasting glucose did not differ significantly between groups, patients with chronic interstitial pneumonitis/fibrosis had significantly lower high density lipoprotein levels and higher low density lipoprotein levels as compared with control subjects. Regarding disease-related factors, RHI was significantly associated with the diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide, alveolar-arterial oxygen pressure difference, 6-min walk distance and end-exercise oxygen saturation. Additionally, circulating levels of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 were inversely correlated with RHI. CONCLUSIONS: We confirmed a possible link between pulmonary fibrosis and cardiovascular disease by demonstrating an impairment of endothelium-dependent vasodilator response, which was significantly associated with the severity of pulmonary fibrosis and circulating levels of adhesion molecules.
Respiratory medicine 10/2012; · 2.33 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) frequently complain of exertional dyspnea. We aimed to assess its related factors and the significance of its measurement in OSA. METHODS: We evaluated 301 subjects with suspected OSA for dyspnea during activities of daily living using the Medical Research Council (MRC) scale. We analyzed the relationships between MRC grades and various subjective and objective indices. Further, the relationship of disease severity based on the apnea/hypopnea index (AHI) with these indices was examined. Results were compared between those obtained using MRC grades and the AHI. RESULTS: Of 301 subjects, 265 were diagnosed with OSA. Their MRC scores were worse than in non-OSA patients. Among OSA patients, 125 had MRC grade 1 (mild), 121 had MRC grade 2 (moderate), and 19 had MRC grade 3 or more (severe) dyspnea. Various measurements differed significantly between groups categorized according to the MRC scale although determinants between mild and moderate groups and between moderate and severe groups differed. AHI categorizations were not significantly related to patient-reported measurements such as the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item short form, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale scores, unlike categorization based on the MRC scale. CONCLUSIONS: Dyspnea is an important outcome in OSA although dyspnea in OSA patients is unrelated to the sleep disorder per se. Measurement of dyspnea in patients with OSA might provide further insights into the health of these patients and clinical manifestations of this disease.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: The presence of both systemic and airway inflammation has been suggested in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) by increased levels of inflammatory biomarkers in the circulation and respiratory specimens. We aimed to investigate the relationship between systemic and airway inflammation in OSA. METHODS: This study was conducted by simultaneously measuring various biomarkers both in serum and induced sputum of 43 patients. We compared the relationships of these biomarker levels with polysomnographic data and obesity measurements and also investigated their interrelationships between systemic and local compartments. We also assessed the relation of inflammatory markers with proximal airway resistance measured by impulse oscillometry. RESULTS: In multiple regression analyses, each measured serum biomarker [leptin, interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)] significantly correlated with waist circumference or fat area determined by computed tomography. In contrast, regarding airway inflammation, sputum IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, and VEGF significantly correlated with OSA severity as indicated by the respiratory disturbance index or oxygen desaturation indices. Sputum IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, and VEGF were significantly related to sputum neutrophil number, and sputum IL-8 and TNF-α were related to proximal airway resistance independently of body mass index. There were no significant interrelationships between the same biomarkers in serum and induced sputum. CONCLUSIONS: Systemic and airway inflammation in OSA might be differently regulated by OSA itself and comorbid obesity, depending on the type of cytokine. Although we did not find apparent interrelationships between systemic and local compartments, further studies are needed to clarify this concept.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Obstructive sleep apnoea is common in patients with diabetes. Recently, it was reported that short sleep duration and sleepiness had deleterious effects on glucose metabolism. Thereafter, several reports showed relationships between glucose metabolism and obstructive sleep apnoea, sleep duration or sleepiness. But the interrelationships among those factors based on recent epidemiological data have not been examined. We analysed data on 275 male employees (age, 44±8years; body mass index, 23.9±3.1kg m(-2) ) who underwent a cross-sectional health examination in Japan. We measured fasting plasma glucose, sleep duration using a sleep diary and an actigraph for 7days, and respiratory disturbance index with a type 3 portable monitor for two nights. Fifty-four subjects (19.6%) had impaired glucose metabolism, with 21 having diabetes. Of those 21 (body mass index, 25.9±3.8kgm(-2) ), 17 (81.0%) had obstructive sleep apnoea (respiratory disturbance index≥5). Regarding the severity of obstructive sleep apnoea, 10, four and three had mild, moderate and severe obstructive sleep apnoea, respectively. The prevalence of obstructive sleep apnoea was greater in those with than without diabetes (P=0.037). Multiple regression analyses showed that the respiratory disturbance index independently related to fasting plasma glucose only in the diabetic subjects. In patients with diabetes, after adjustment for age, waist circumference, etc. sleep fragmentation had a greater correlation with fasting plasma glucose than sleep duration, but without significance (P=0.10). Because the prevalence of obstructive sleep apnoea is extremely high in patients with diabetes, sufficient sleep duration with treatment for obstructive sleep apnoea, which ameliorates sleep fragmentation, might improve fasting plasma glucose.
Journal of Sleep Research 02/2012; 21(4):410-8. · 3.04 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Craniofacial abnormalities have an important role in the occurrence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and may be particularly significant in Asian patients, although obesity and functional abnormalities such as reduced lung volume and increased airway resistance also may be important. We conducted simultaneous analyses of their interrelationships to evaluate the relative contributions of obesity, craniofacial structure, pulmonary function, and airway resistance to the severity of Japanese OSA because there are little data in this area.
A cross-sectional observational study was performed on 134 consecutive Japanese male patients. A sleep study, lateral cephalometry, pulmonary function tests, and impulse oscillometry (IOS) were performed on all patients.
Age, body mass index (BMI), position of the hyoid bone, and proximal airway resistance on IOS (R20) were significantly related to the apnea/hypopnea index (AHI) (p < 0.05) in multiple regression analysis. Subgroup analysis showed that, for moderate-to-severe OSA (AHI ≥ 15 events/h), neck circumference and R20 were predominantly related to AHI, whereas for non-to-mild OSA (AHI < 15 events/h), age and expiratory reserve volume were the predominant determinants. In obese subjects (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2)), alveolar-arterial oxygen tension difference, position of the hyoid bone, and R20 were significantly associated with AHI, whereas age alone was a significant factor in nonobese subjects (BMI < 25 kg/m(2)).
Aside from age and obesity, anatomical and functional abnormalities are significantly related to the severity of Japanese OSA. Predominant determinants of AHI differed depending on the severity of OSA or the magnitude of obesity.
Sleep And Breathing 05/2011; 16(2):473-81. · 2.26 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has both systemic and local effects partly through the increased oxidative stress caused by intermittent hypoxia and reoxygenation. However, lung-specific biomarkers in OSA have not been fully assessed in comparison with systemic biomarkers such as C-reactive protein (CRP), although results of a recent study having a small sample size indicated KL-6 as one candidate.
Subjects of the present study were 197 patients suspected to have OSA. In addition to polysomnography, we also measured serum levels of KL-6, surfactant protein-D (SP-D) and CRP and pulmonary function. We examined the relationships of different biomarkers with OSA severity and pulmonary function.
The apnea/hypopnea index (AHI) was significantly positively correlated with serum KL-6 levels even after adjustment for body mass index (BMI) and smoking (p = 0.03), but not with SP-D and CRP. Also, a significant trend for an increase in serum KL-6 was noted in accordance with the severity of OSA even after adjustment for BMI and smoking (β coefficient = 0.18, p = 0.02). Additionally, elevated KL-6 levels were significantly associated with restrictive lung function disturbance and gas exchange derangement after adjustment for obesity and smoking, which contrasted with CRP whose elevations were significantly associated with worsened airflow limitation and increased lung volume.
Serum KL-6 levels may reflect the degree of subclinical lung injury associated with OSA independently of obesity or smoking, unlike CRP. We consider that KL-6 can be a potential candidate as a lung-specific biomarker of OSA and might provide complementary information on systemic biomarkers in assessing OSA.
Respiratory medicine 03/2011; 105(6):939-45. · 2.33 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) plays a significant role in increasing blood pressure. Significant decreases were reported in blood pressure of hypertensive OSA patients with sleepiness who underwent continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment, but not in non-sleepy hypertensive OSA patients. More recently, however, significant decreases in blood pressure in non-sleepy hypertensive OSA patients following CPAP were shown. Effects of sleepiness on hypertension in OSA patients have been investigated, but not the effects of hypertension on sleepiness in OSA patients. We investigated the relationships between hypertension and sleepiness in patients with OSA. We analysed data on 275 middle-aged male subjects from a cross-sectional epidemiological health survey. We measured blood pressure and sleep duration objectively using an actigraph for 7 days and the respiratory disturbance index (RDI) with a type 3 portable device for 2 nights, and assessed sleepiness using the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). The RDI correlated significantly with ESS scores in the 88 hypertensive subjects (r = 0.33, P = 0.0024), but not in the 187 non-hypertensive subjects (r = -0.01, P = 0.91). Short sleep duration correlated significantly with ESS scores in both groups. Both the RDI and short sleep duration were related independently to sleepiness in only hypertensive subjects. Furthermore, the RDI was related negatively significantly to sleep duration in hypertensive subjects. Although short sleep duration was related significantly to sleepiness in both groups, hypertension may be important for the sleepiness in OSA patients. Detailed mechanisms of the difference in the relationship between sleepiness and the severity of OSA with or without hypertension should be studied further.
Journal of Sleep Research 02/2011; 20(4):538-43. · 3.04 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Direct hemoperfusion with a polymyxin B-immobilized fiber column (PMX-DHP) has been shown to improve oxygenation in cases of diffuse alveolar damage, but little is known about its effectiveness in treating pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) in HIV-negative immunosuppressed patients.
This study was aimed at investigating the effect of PMX-DHP in treating non-HIV-related PCP.
Between October 2005 and September 2008, 6 patients with non-HIV-related PCP were treated with 2 sessions of PMX-DHP at an attending physician's discretion when severe hypoxemia developed despite conventional treatments including high-dose corticosteroid, whereas 9 patients in a similar condition were treated without PMX-DHP. Changes in oxygenation and radiographic findings in the PMX-DHP group and adverse events associated with PMX-DHP were investigated retrospectively, as were the outcomes for both treatment groups.
There was an improvement in PaO(2)/FiO(2) during each PMX-DHP session, from 148.8 ± 52.5 to 188.2 ± 79.3 mm Hg (p = 0.02). After 2 sessions of PMX-DHP, an improvement in PaO(2)/FiO(2), from 131.8 ± 37.4 to 213.3 ± 87.3 mm Hg, was observed (p = 0.04), but no significantly different improvement was detected on the following day. The radiographic findings improved in 4 patients during PMX-DHP. The in-hospital mortality was similarly high in both groups (50% in the PMX-DHP group vs. 67% in the non-PMX-DHP group). No significant adverse events associated with PMX-DHP were observed except for advanced thrombocytopenia in 1 patient.
PMX-DHP may serve as an adjunct in the treatment of non-HIV-related PCP, temporarily alleviating severe hypoxemia even in cases refractory to conventional treatments.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We identified the prognostic relevance of pneumothorax in interstitial lung disease (ILD) patients and evaluated the efficacy and safety of autologous blood-patch pleurodesis.
We retrospectively reviewed 59 occurrences of pneumothorax in 34 ILD patients identified over a 12-year period.
Air leakage ceased in 16 of 22 (72.7%) episodes after blood pleurodesis and in 11 of 14 (78.6%) episodes after chemical pleurodesis. Both the cure ratio and recurrence ratio in the cure episodes were comparable with those in the chemical pleurodesis group (p=0.99 and 0.99, respectively). In addition, there were no harmful events associated with blood pleurodesis. The median survival time after the first episode of pneumothorax was less than 9 months in patients with idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP) and only around 3 years in the patients with other types of ILD, which have essentially favorable outcomes. Kaplan-Meier survival estimates were significantly worse in the patients with concomitant pneumomediastinum than in those without (p<0.05). A multivariate Cox regression analysis identified that the number of episodes of pneumothorax, IIP diagnosis and concomitant pneumomediastinum were independent predictors of death.
Autologous blood-patch pleurodesis is safe and worth considering as a first-line treatment for pneumothorax secondary to ILD. However, despite treatments, the prognosis after the onset of pneumothorax in ILD patients was found to be poor. In addition, concomitant pneumomediastinum may further worsen the prognosis.
Internal Medicine 01/2011; 50(11):1157-62. · 0.97 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The level at which arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO(2)) a few months after introduction of long-term non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) is associated with a favorable prognosis remains uncertain.
Data on 184 post-tuberculosis patients with chronic restrictive ventilatory failure who were receiving long-term domiciliary NPPV were examined retrospectively. Average PaCO(2) 3-6 months after NPPV (3- to 6-mo PaCO(2)) and potential confounders were analyzed with discontinuation of long-term NPPV as the primary outcome. The effects of 3- to 6-mo PaCO(2) on annual hospitalization rates due to respiratory deterioration from 1 year before to 3 years after the initiation of NPPV were examined. The effect of the difference between the PaCO(2) value at the start of NPPV (0-mo PaCO(2)) and the PaCO(2) value 3- to 6-mo later (d-PaCO(2)) on continuation rates for NPPV was also assessed in patients who initiated NPPV while in a chronic state.
Patients with relatively low 3- to 6-mo PaCO(2) values maintained a relatively low PaCO(2) 6-36 months after NPPV (p < 0.0001) and had significantly better continuation rates (p < 0.03) and lower hospitalization rates from the 1st to 3rd year of NPPV (p = 0.008, 0.049, 0.009, respectively) than those with higher levels. The 0-mo PaCO(2) (p = 0.26) or d-PaCO(2) (p = 0.86) had no predictive value.
A relatively low 3- to 6-mo PaCO(2) value was predictive of long-term use of NPPV. The target values for 3- to 6-mo PaCO(2) may, therefore, be less than 60 mmHg in post-tuberculosis patients, although more studies are needed.
Respiratory medicine 12/2010; 104(12):1850-7. · 2.33 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although non-invasive ventilation (NIV) has been shown to be effective in a wide variety of respiratory diseases, its role in severe asthma attacks remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to clarify the effectiveness of NIV in patients experiencing severe attacks of asthma.
A retrospective cohort study was performed, comparing the periods November 1999-October 2003 (pre-introduction of NIV) and November 2004-October 2008 (post-introduction of NIV). The data and clinical outcomes for patients who experienced severe attacks of asthma, and who fulfilled the inclusion criteria, were retrieved and compared.
Fifty events (48 patients) from the pre-NIV period and 57 events (54 patients) from the post-NIV period, which required hospitalization, were included in the analysis. Nine of the 50 pre-NIV events (mean PaO(2)/fraction of inspired O(2) (FiO(2)) 241 +/- 161; PaCO(2) 79 +/- 40) were treated primarily by endotracheal intubation (ETI), while 17 of the 57 post-NIV events (PaO(2)/FiO(2) 197 +/- 132, P = 0.39; PaCO(2) 77 +/- 30, P = 0.95) were treated primarily by NIV. The rate of ETI decreased in the post-NIV period (2/57 (3.5%) vs 9/50 (18%), P = 0.01). NIV was started earlier than mechanical ventilation (MV) with ETI (mean time interval between arrival and start of MV 171.7 +/- 217.9 min vs 38.5 +/- 113.8 min for NIV, P < 0.05). In the post-NIV cohort, there was a trend towards a reduction in the duration of MV with ETI or NIV (36.9 +/- 38.4 h vs 20.3 +/- 35.8 h, P = 0.09), and hospital stay was shortened (12.6 +/- 4.2 vs 8.4 +/- 2.8 days, P < 0.01). No deaths occurred during this period as a consequence of asthma attacks.
The need for ETI in patients with severe attacks of asthma was decreased after introduction of NIV. The ready availability of NIV enabled the rapid commencement of MV and may decrease the need for ETI. NIV is an acceptable and useful method of stabilizing patients experiencing severe attacks of asthma.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 34-year-old pregnant woman was diagnosed with pneumonia at another hospital in her 26th week of pregnancy. Antibiotics were administered, but they were not effective. She was then introduced and admitted to our hospital. Lung cancer was suspected from her chest-CT scan on admission. Caesarian section was performed on the day after admission at 33 weeks of gestation. Adenocarcinoma of the lung was diagnosed based on the results of a right-axillary lymph node biopsy performed simultaneously with the caesarian section. On the 8th day after admission, we began to administer gefitinib. We expected positive results from gefitinib, because the patient fitted the optimal profile: female, never smoker, adenocarcinoma histology. Her respiratory condition had worsened dramatically after her caesarian section, so she was given noninvasive positive pressure ventilation from the 13th day after admission. Disseminated intravascular coagulation progressed, and her chest X-ray showed bilateral extensive infiltration. Moreover, tests showed that her tumor was negative for epidermal growth factor recepter mutation, so we judged that gefitinib was not effective for her. Although her performance status was very poor, she and her family strongly desired further chemotherapy. We thus began to administer gemcitabine, but her respiratory condition deteriorated further, and she died on the 17th day after admission. Lung cancer combined with pregnancy is a very rare situation, so we report this case with some references.
Nihon Kokyūki Gakkai zasshi = the journal of the Japanese Respiratory Society. 08/2009; 47(7):585-90.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 54-year-old woman who had been treated for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with the anti-TNF-alpha drug, etanercept, was referred to our department on 27 April 2006 because of dyspnea and shock. Chest X-ray and computed tomography on admission indicated bilateral pneumonia which was proved to be caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae with positive blood culture results. The patient had recovered from multiple organ failure with intensive treatments such as NIPPV and cardiovascular support with cathecolamines, however, the left upper lobe of her lung had developed a large cavity that had been producing viable pneumococci on sputum culture for more than one month. As the development of lung necrosis and subsequent formation of a cavity is rare in patients with pneumococcal pneumonia, this case should be noted in terms of the relevance of both the fulminating pathogenecity of Streptococcus pneumoniae and the anti TNF-alpha drug treatment.
Nihon Kokyūki Gakkai zasshi = the journal of the Japanese Respiratory Society. 05/2009; 47(4):320-5.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report an autopsied 33 year old pregnant woman with racemose hemangioma of the bronchial arteries. She was first given a diagnosis of racemose hemangioma of the bronchial arteries at age 19 and underwent surgical ligation. Nevertheless, she had to be admitted to the hospital for bronchial artery embolizations every time hemoptysis recurred. In her 21st gestational week, she was admitted to our hospital because of her 9th recurrent massive hemoptysis and dyspnea. Bronchial artery embolizations were repeatedly performed under intubation to ventilate the healthy left lung separately. We succeeded in temporarily stopping the hemoptysis, but her case was complicated by bacterial pneumonia and septic shock. Her baby was born dead on day 11 and she died on day 12. The autopsy revealed abnormal convoluted and dilated arteries branching from the right intercostal and subclavian arteries and intruding into the lung parenchyma through adhesion caused by her previous thoracostomy. The connections of these abnormal arteries with pulmonary arteries and veins, which had been shown by angiography, were confirmed by autopsy. The autopsy findings suggest that temporal surgical procedures with thoracostomy in this condition can induce abnormal neovascularization via pleural adhesion.
Nihon Kokyūki Gakkai zasshi = the journal of the Japanese Respiratory Society. 02/2009; 47(1):27-31.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Trial of noninvasive ventilation (NIV) in the emergency department (ED) for heterogeneous acute respiratory failure (ARF) has been optional and its clinical benefit unclear.
We conducted a retrospective cohort study comparing between two periods, October 2001-September 2003 and October 2004-September 2006, i.e., before and after adopting an NIV-trial strategy in which NIV was applied in the ED to any noncontraindicated ARF patients needing ventilatory support and was then continued in the intermediate-care-unit. During these two periods, we retrieved cases of ARF treated either invasively or with NIV, and compared the patients' in-hospital mortalities and the length of ICU and intermediate-care-unit stay.
Compared were 73 (invasive 56, NIV 17) and 125 cases (invasive 31, NIV 94) retrieved from 271 and 415 emergent admissions with proper pulmonary etiologies for mechanical ventilation, respectively. Of their respiratory failures, type (hypercapnic/non-hypercapnic, 0.97 vs. 0.98) and severity (pH 7.23 vs. 7.21 for hypercapnic; PaO(2)/FiO(2) 133 vs. 137 for non-hypercapnic) were similar, and the rate of predisposing etiologies was not significantly different. However, excluding those with recurrent aspiration pneumonia for whom NIV was mostly used as "ceiling" treatment, significant reductions in both overall in-hospital mortality (38%-19%, risk ratio 0.51, 95% CI 0.31-0.84), and median length of ICU and intermediate-care-unit stay (12 vs. 5 days, P<0.0001) were found.
NIV-trial in the ED for all possible patients with ARF of pulmonary etiologies, excluding those with recurrent aspiration pneumonia, may reduce overall in-hospital mortality and ICU stays.
Respiratory medicine 09/2008; 103(1):67-73. · 2.33 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 72-year-old critically ill and intubated man was transferred to our hospital, because of worsening pneumonia unresponsive to Cefazolin and Meropenem, from the hospital where he had been admitted 8 days before to start maintenance hemodialysis for chronic renal failure but had fever from admission. In a few days his critical condition rapidly subsided with the initiation of Ciprofloxacin and his sputum culture on GVPC medium indicated Legionellosis, which was afterwards identified as L. longbeachae by PCR and DNA-DNA hybridization. After recovery he said that he had been fond of gardening and had been gardening immediately before the initial admission. Moreover, several reports from Australia suggested inhalation of aerosolized potting soil as the route of L. longbeacachae infection; therefore, we examined the soil of his home garden and identified it. Thus, we present this case as the first of L. longbeachae pneumonia in Japan, proved to be infected via inhalation of aerosolized home garden soil.
Nihon Kokyūki Gakkai zasshi = the journal of the Japanese Respiratory Society. 10/2007; 45(9):698-703.