[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We examined the role of protein kinase C-ι (PKC-ι) in mediating alterations in the abundance of enzymes in hepatocytes of type 2 diabetic humans that contribute importantly to the development of lipid and carbohydrate abnormalities in type 2 diabetes.
We examined (1) insulin signalling in isolated hepatocytes of non-diabetic and type 2 diabetic humans and (2) the effects of two newly developed small molecule PKC-ι inhibitors on aberrant signalling and downstream processes.
In contrast with PKC-ι deficiency in diabetic muscle, which diminishes glucose transport, PKC-ι in diabetic hepatocytes was overproduced and overactive, basally and after insulin treatment, and, moreover, was accompanied by increased abundance of PKC-ι-dependent lipogenic, proinflammatory and gluconeogenic enzymes. Heightened PKC-ι activity most likely reflected heightened activity of IRS-2-dependent phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), as IRS-1 levels and IRS-1/PI3K activity were markedly diminished. Importantly, insulin-stimulated PKC-ι abundance and its overabundance in diabetic hepatocytes was reversed in vitro by both insulin deprivation and PKC-ι inhibitors; this suggested operation of an insulin-driven, feed-forward/positive-feedback mechanism. In contrast with PKC-ι, protein kinase B (Akt2) activity and activation by insulin was diminished, apparently reflecting IRS-1 deficiency. Treatment of diabetic hepatocytes with PKC-ι/λ inhibitors diminished abundance of lipogenic, proinflammatory and gluconeogenic enzymes.
Our findings suggest that a vicious cycle of PKC-ι overactivity and overproduction exists in hepatocytes of humans with type 2 diabetes and contributes importantly to maintaining overactivity of lipogenic, proinflammatory and gluconeogenic pathways, which underlies the lipid and carbohydrate abnormalities in type 2 diabetes.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Insulin-stimulated glucose transport in muscle is impaired in obesity and type 2 diabetes, but alterations in levels of relevant signalling factors, i.e. atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) and protein kinase B (PKB/Akt), are still uncertain. Clamp studies using maximal insulin concentrations have revealed defects in activation of aPKC, but not PKB, in both obese non-diabetic and obese diabetic subjects. In contrast, clamp studies using submaximal insulin concentrations revealed defects in PKB activation/phosphorylation in obese non-diabetic and diabetic subjects, but changes in aPKC were not reported. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that dose-related effects of insulin may account for the reported differences in insulin signalling to PKB in diabetic muscle.
We compared enzymatic activation of aPKC and PKB, and PKB phosphorylation (threonine-308 and serine-473) during hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp studies using both submaximal (400-500 pmol/l) and maximal (1400 pmol/l) insulin levels in non-diabetic control and obese diabetic subjects.
In lean control subjects, the submaximal insulin concentration increased aPKC activity and glucose disposal to approximately 50% of the maximal level and PKBbeta activity to 25% of the maximal level, but PKBalpha activity was not increased. In these subjects, phosphorylation of PKBalpha and PKBbeta was increased to near-maximal levels at submaximal insulin concentrations. In obese diabetic subjects, whereas aPKC activation was defective at submaximal and maximal insulin concentrations, PKBbeta activation and the phosphorylation of PKBbeta and PKBalpha were defective at submaximal, but not maximal, insulin concentrations.
Defective PKBbeta activation/phosphorylation, seen on submaximal insulin stimulation in diabetic muscle, may largely reflect impaired activation of insulin signalling factors present in concentrations greater than those needed for full PKB activation/phosphorylation. Defective aPKC activation, seen at all insulin levels, appears to reflect, at least partly, an impaired action of distal factors needed for aPKC activation, or poor aPKC responsiveness.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Metformin is widely used for treating type 2 diabetes mellitus, but its actions are poorly understood. In addition to diminishing hepatic glucose output, metformin, in muscle, activates 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which alone increases glucose uptake and glycolysis, diminishes lipid synthesis, and increases oxidation of fatty acids. Moreover, such lipid effects may improve insulin sensitivity and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. Nevertheless, the effects of metformin on insulin-sensitive signalling factors in human muscle have only been partly characterised to date. Interestingly, other substances that activate AMPK, e.g., aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-D: -riboside (AICAR), simultaneously activate atypical protein kinase C (aPKC), which appears to be required for the glucose transport effects of AICAR and insulin.
Since aPKC activation is defective in type 2 diabetes, we evaluated effects of metformin therapy on aPKC activity in muscles of diabetic subjects during hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp studies.
After metformin therapy for 1 month, basal aPKC activity increased in muscle, with little or no change in insulin-stimulated aPKC activity. Metformin therapy for 8 to 12 months improved insulin-stimulated, as well as basal aPKC activity in muscle. In contrast, IRS-1-dependent phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase activity and Ser473 phosphorylation of protein kinase B were not altered by metformin therapy, whereas the responsiveness of muscle aPKC to PI-3,4,5-(PO(4))(3), the lipid product of PI 3-kinase, was improved.
These findings suggest that the activation of AMPK by metformin is accompanied by increases in aPKC activity and responsiveness in skeletal muscle, which may contribute to the therapeutic effects of metformin.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 5'AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and insulin stimulate glucose transport in heart and muscle. AMPK acts in an additive manner with insulin to increase glucose uptake, thereby suggesting that AMPK activation may be a useful strategy for ameliorating glucose uptake, especially in cases of insulin resistance. In order to characterise interactions between the insulin- and AMPK-signalling pathways, we investigated the effects of AMPK activation on insulin signalling in the rat heart in vivo.
Male rats (350-400 g) were injected with 1 g/kg 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR) or 250 mg/kg metformin in order to activate AMPK. Rats were administered insulin 30 min later and after another 30 min their hearts were removed. The activities and phosphorylation levels of components of the insulin-signalling pathway were subsequently analysed in individual rat hearts.
AICAR and metformin administration activated AMPK and enhanced insulin signalling downstream of protein kinase B in rat hearts in vivo. Insulin-induced phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) beta, p70 S6 kinase (p70S6K)(Thr389) and IRS1(Ser636/639) were significantly increased following AMPK activation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of heightened insulin responses of GSK3beta and p70S6K following AMPK activation. In addition, we found that AMPK inhibits insulin stimulation of IRS1-associated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity, and that AMPK activates atypical protein kinase C and extracellular signal-regulated kinase in the heart.
Our data are indicative of differential effects of AMPK on the activation of components in the cardiac insulin-signalling pathway. These intriguing observations are critical for characterisation of the crosstalk between AMPK and insulin signalling.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It now seems clear that aPKC (atypical protein kinase C) isoforms are required for insulin-stimulated glucose transport in muscle and adipocytes. Moreover, there are marked defects in the activation of aPKCs under a variety of insulin-resistant conditions in humans, monkeys and rodents. In humans, defects in aPKC in muscle are seen in Type II diabetes and its precursors, obesity, the obesity-associated polycystic ovary syndrome and impaired glucose tolerance. These defects in muscle aPKC activation are due to both impaired activation of insulin receptor substrate-1-dependent PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase) and the direct activation of aPKCs by the lipid product of PI3K, PI-3,4,5-(PO4)3. Although it is still uncertain which underlying defect comes first, the resultant defect in aPKC activation in muscle most certainly contributes significantly to the development of skeletal muscle insulin resistance. Of further note, unlike the seemingly ubiquitous presence of defective aPKC activation in skeletal muscle in insulin-resistant states, the activation of aPKC is normal or increased in livers of Type II diabetic and obese rodents. The maintenance of aPKC activation in the liver may explain how insulin-dependent lipid synthesis is maintained in these states, as aPKCs function mainly in the activation of enzymes important for lipid synthesis. Thus increased activation of liver aPKC in hyperinsulinaemic states may contribute significantly to the development of hyperlipidaemia in insulin-resistant states.
Biochemical Society Transactions 05/2005; 33(Pt 2):350-3. · 2.59 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Insulin resistance in obesity is partly due to diminished glucose transport in myocytes and adipocytes, but underlying mechanisms are uncertain. Insulin-stimulated glucose transport requires activation of phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase (3K), operating downstream of insulin receptor substrate-1. PI3K stimulates glucose transport through increases in PI-3,4,5-(PO(4))(3) (PIP(3)), which activates atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) and protein kinase B (PKB/Akt). However, previous studies suggest that activation of aPKC, but not PKB, is impaired in intact muscles and cultured myocytes of obese subjects. Presently, we examined insulin activation of glucose transport and signaling factors in cultured adipocytes derived from preadipocytes harvested during elective liposuction in lean and obese women. Relative to adipocytes of lean women, insulin-stimulated [(3)H]2-deoxyglucose uptake and activation of insulin receptor substrate-1/PI3K and aPKCs, but not PKB, were diminished in adipocytes of obese women. Additionally, the direct activation of aPKCs by PIP(3) in vitro was diminished in aPKCs isolated from adipocytes of obese women. Similar impairment in aPKC activation by PIP(3) was observed in cultured myocytes of obese glucose-intolerant subjects. These findings suggest the presence of defects in PI3K and aPKC activation that persist in cultured cells and limit insulin-stimulated glucose transport in adipocytes and myocytes of obese subjects.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Insulin controls glucose uptake by translocating GLUT4 and other glucose transporters to the plasma membrane in muscle and adipose tissues by a mechanism that appears to require protein kinase C (PKC)-zeta/lambda operating downstream of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. In diabetes mellitus, insulin-stimulated glucose uptake is diminished, but with hyperglycemia, uptake is maintained but by uncertain mechanisms. Presently, we found that glucose acutely activated PKC-zeta/lambda in rat adipocytes and rat skeletal muscle preparations by a mechanism that was independent of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase but, interestingly, dependent on the apparently sequential activation of the dantrolene-sensitive, nonreceptor proline-rich tyrosine kinase-2; components of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway, including, GRB2, SOS, RAS, RAF, MEK1 and ERK1/2; and, most interestingly, phospholipase D, thus yielding increases in phosphatidic acid, a known activator of PKC-zeta/lambda. This activation of PKC-zeta/lambda, moreover, appeared to be required for glucose-induced increases in GLUT4 translocation and glucose transport in adipocytes and muscle cells. Our findings suggest the operation of a novel pathway for activating PKC-zeta/lambda and glucose transport.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 10/2001; 276(38):35537-45. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Insulin provokes rapid changes in phospholipid metabolism and thereby generates biologically active lipids that serve as intracellular signaling factors that regulate glucose transport and glycogen synthesis. These changes include: (i) activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and production of PIP3; (ii) PIP3-dependent activation of atypical protein kinase Cs (PKCs); (iii) PIP3-dependent activation of PKB; (iv) PI3K-dependent activation of phospholipase D and hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine with subsequent increases in phosphatidic acid (PA) and diacylglycerol (DAG); (v) PI3K-independent activation of glycerol-3-phosphate acylytansferase and increases in de novo synthesis of PA and DAG; and (vi) activation of DAG-sensitive PKCs. Recent findings suggest that atypical PKCs and PKB serve as important positive regulators of insulin-stimulated glucose metabolism, whereas mechanisms that result in the activation of DAG-sensitive PKCs serve mainly as negative regulators of insulin signaling through PI3K. Atypical PKCs and PKB are rapidly activated by insulin in adipocytes, liver, skeletal muscles, and other cell types by a mechanism requiring PI3K and its downstream effector, 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK-1), which, in conjunction with PIP3, phosphorylates critical threonine residues in the activation loops of atypical PKCs and PKB. PIP3 also promotes increases in autophosphorylation and allosteric activation of atypical PKCs. Atypical PKCs and perhaps PKB appear to be required for insulin-induced translocation of the GLUT 4 glucose transporter to the plasma membrane and subsequent glucose transport. PKB also appears to be the major regulator of glycogen synthase. Together, atypical PKCs and PKB serve as a potent, integrated PI3K/PDK-1-directed signaling system that is used by insulin to regulate glucose metabolism.
Experimental Biology and Medicine 05/2001; 226(4):283-95. · 2.80 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Atypical protein kinases C (PKCs), zeta and lambda, and protein kinase B (PKB) are thought to function downstream of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) and regulate glucose transport during insulin action in skeletal muscle and adipocytes. Insulin-stimulated glucose transport is defective in type II diabetes mellitus, and this defect is ameliorated by thiazolidinediones and lowering of blood glucose by chronic insulin therapy or short-term fasting. Presently, we evaluated the effects of these insulin-sensitizing modalities on the activation of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1)-dependent PI 3-kinase, PKC-zeta/lambda, and PKB in vastus lateralis skeletal muscles and adipocytes of nondiabetic and Goto-Kakizaki (GK) diabetic rats. Insulin provoked rapid increases in the activity of PI 3-kinase, PKC-zeta/lambda, and PKB in muscles and adipocytes of nondiabetic rats, but increases in IRS-1-dependent PI 3-kinase and PKC-zeta/lambda, but not PKB, activity were substantially diminished in GK muscles and adipocytes. Rosiglitazone treatment for 10-14 days, 10-day insulin treatment, and 60-h fasting reversed defects in PKC-zeta/lambda activation in GK muscles and adipocytes and increased glucose transport in GK adipocytes, without necessarily increasing IRS-1-dependent PI 3-kinase or PKB activation. Our findings suggest that insulin-sensitizing modalities, viz. thiazolidinediones, chronic insulin treatment, and short-term fasting, similarly improve defects in insulin-stimulated glucose transport at least partly by correcting defects in insulin-induced activation of PKC-zeta/lambda.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Activation of protein kinase C-zeta (PKC-zeta) by insulin requires phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase-dependent increases in phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-(PO(4))(3) (PIP(3)) and phosphorylation of activation loop and autophosphorylation sites, but actual mechanisms are uncertain. Presently, we examined: (a) acute effects of insulin on threonine (T)-410 loop phosphorylation and (b) effects of (i) alanine (A) and glutamate (E) mutations at T410 loop and T560 autophosphorylation sites and (ii) N-terminal truncation on insulin-induced activation of PKC-zeta. Insulin acutely increased T410 loop phosphorylation, suggesting enhanced action of 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK-1). Despite increasing in vitro autophosphorylation of wild-type PKC-zeta and T410E-PKC-zeta, insulin and PIP(3) did not stimulate autophosphorylation of T560A, T560E, T410A/T560E, T410E/T560A, or T410E/T560E mutant forms of PKC-zeta; thus, T560 appeared to be the sole autophosphorylation site. Activating effects of insulin and/or PIP(3) on enzyme activity were completely abolished in T410A-PKC-zeta, partially compromised in T560A-PKC-zeta, T410E/T560A-PKC-zeta, and T410A/T560E-PKC-zeta, and largely intact in T410E-PKC-zeta, T560E-PKC-zeta, and T410E/T560E-PKC-zeta. Activation of the T410E/T560E mutant suggested a phosphorylation-independent mechanism. As functional correlates, insulin effects on epitope-tagged GLUT4 translocation were compromised by expression of T410A-PKC-zeta, T560A-PKC-zeta, T410E/T560A, and T410A/T560E-PKC-zeta but not T410E-PKC-zeta, T560E-PKC-zeta, or T410E/T560E-PKC-zeta. Insulin, but not PIP(3), activated truncated, pseudosubstrate-lacking forms of PKC-zeta and PKC-lambda by a wortmannin-sensitive mechanism, apparently involving PI 3-kinase/PDK-1-dependent phosphorylations but independent of PIP(3)-dependent conformational activation. Our findings suggest that insulin, via PIP(3), provokes increases in PKC-zeta enzyme activity through (a) PDK-1-dependent T410 loop phosphorylation, (b) T560 autophosphorylation, and (c) phosphorylation-independent/conformational-dependent relief of pseudosubstrate autoinhibition.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We used adenoviral gene transfer methods to evaluate the role of atypical protein kinase Cs (PKCs) during insulin stimulation of glucose transport in L6 myotubes. Expression of wild-type PKC-lambda potentiated maximal and half-maximal effects of insulin on 2-deoxyglucose uptake, but did not alter basal uptake. Expression of constitutively active PKC-lambda enhanced basal 2-deoxyglucose uptake to virtually the same extent as that observed during insulin treatment. In contrast, expression of kinase-defective PKC-lambda completely blocked insulin-stimulated, but not basal, 2-deoxyglucose uptake. Similar to alterations in glucose transport, constitutively active PKC-lambda mimicked, and kinase-defective PKC-lambda completely inhibited, insulin effects on GLUT4 glucose transporter translocation to the plasma membrane. Expression of kinase-defective PKC-lambda, in addition to inhibition of atypical PKC enzyme activity, was attended by paradoxical increases in GLUT4 and GLUT1 glucose transporter levels and insulin-stimulated protein kinase B enzyme activity. Our findings suggest that in L6 myotubes, 1) atypical PKCs are required and sufficient for insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation and glucose transport; and 2) activation of protein kinase B in the absence of activation of atypical PKCs is insufficient for insulin-induced activation of glucose transport.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We evaluated effects of the thiazolidinedione, rosiglitazone, on insulin-induced activation of protein kinase C (PKC)-zeta/lambda and glucose transport in adipocytes of Goto-Kakizaki (GK)-diabetic and nondiabetic rats. Insulin effects on PKC-zeta/lambda and 2-deoxyglucose uptake were diminished by approximately 50% in GK adipocytes, as compared with control adipocytes. This defect in insulin-induced PKC-zeta/lambda activation was associated with diminished activation of IRS-1-dependent phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase, and was accompanied by diminished phosphorylation of threonine 410 in the activation loop of PKC-zeta; in contrast, protein kinase B (PKB) activation and phosphorylation were not significantly altered. Rosiglitazone completely reversed defects in insulin-stimulated 2-deoxyglucose uptake, PKCzeta/lambda enzyme activity and PKC-zeta threonine 410 phosphorylation, but had no effect on PI 3-kinase activation or PKB activation/phosphorylation in GK adipocytes. Similarly, in adipocytes of nondiabetic rats, rosiglitazone provoked increases in insulin-stimulated 2-deoxyglucose uptake, PKC-zeta/lambda enzyme activity and phosphorylation of both threonine 410 activation loop and threonine 560 autophosphorylation sites in PKC-zeta, but had no effect on PI 3-kinase activation or PKB activation/phosphorylation. Our findings suggest that (a) decreased effects of insulin on glucose transport in adipocytes of GK-diabetic rats are due at least in part to diminished phosphorylation/activation of PKC-zeta/lambda, and (b) thiazolidinediones enhance glucose transport responses to insulin in adipocytes of both diabetic and nondiabetic rats through increases in phosphorylation/activation of PKC-zeta/lambda.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 07/2000; 275(22):16690-6. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The beta-isoform of protein kinase C (PKC) has paradoxically been suggested to be important for both insulin action and insulin resistance as well as for contributing to the pathogenesis of diabetic complications. Presently, we evaluated the effects of knockout of the PKCbeta gene on overall glucose homeostasis and insulin regulation of glucose transport. To evaluate subtle differences in glucose homeostasis in vivo, knockout mice were extensively backcrossed in C57BL/6 mice to diminish genetic differences other than the absence of the PKCbeta gene. PKCbeta-/- knockout offspring obtained through this backcrossing had 10% lower blood glucose levels than those observed in PKCbeta+/+ wild-type offspring in both the fasting state and 30 min after i.p. injection of glucose despite having similar or slightly lower serum insulin levels. Also, compared with commercially obtained C57BL/6-129/SV hybrid control mice, serum glucose levels were similar, and serum insulin levels were similar or slightly lower, in C57BL/6-129/SV hybrid PKCbeta knockout mice in fasting and fed states and after i.p. glucose administration. In keeping with a tendency for slightly lower serum glucose and/or insulin levels in PKCbeta knockout mice, insulin-stimulated 2-deoxyglucose (2-DOG) uptake was enhanced by 50-100% in isolated adipocytes; basal and insulin-stimulated epitope-tagged GLUT4 translocations in adipocytes were increased by 41% and 27%, respectively; and basal 2-DOG uptake was mildly increased by 20-25% in soleus muscles incubated in vitro. The reason for increased 2-DOG uptake and/or GLUT4 translocation in these tissues was uncertain, as there were no significant alterations in phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity or activation or in levels of GLUT1 or GLUT4 glucose transporters or other PKC isoforms. On the other hand, increases in 2-DOG uptake may have been partly caused by the loss of PKCbeta1, rather than PKCbeta2, as transient expression of PKCbeta1 selectively inhibited insulin-stimulated translocation of epitope-tagged GLUT4 in adipocytes prepared from PKCbeta knockout mice. Our findings suggest that 1) PKCbeta is not required for insulin-stimulated glucose transport; 2) overall glucose homeostasis in vivo is mildly enhanced by knockout of the PKCbeta gene; 3) glucose transport is increased in some tissues in PKCbeta knockout mice; and 4) increased glucose transport may be partly due to loss of PKCbeta1, which negatively modulates insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mechanisms used by insulin to activate the multifunctional intracellular effectors, extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), are only partly understood and appear to vary in different cell types. Presently, in rat adipocytes, we found that insulin-induced activation of ERK was blocked (a) by chemical inhibitors of both phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and protein kinase C (PKC)-zeta, and, moreover, (b) by transient expression of both dominant-negative Deltap85 PI3K subunit and kinase-inactive PKC-zeta. Further, insulin effects on ERK were inhibited by kinase-inactive 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK-1), and by mutation of Thr-410 in the activation loop of PKC-zeta, which is the target of PDK-1 and is essential for PI3K/PDK-1-dependent activation of PKC-zeta. In addition to requirements for PI3K, PDK-1, and PKC-zeta, we found that a tyrosine kinase (presumably the insulin receptor), the SH2 domain of GRB2, SOS, RAS, RAF, and MEK1 were required for insulin effects on ERK in the rat adipocyte. Our findings therefore suggested that PDK-1 and PKC-zeta serve as a downstream effectors of PI3K, and act in conjunction with GRB2, SOS, RAS, and RAF, to activate MEK and ERK during insulin action in rat adipocytes.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 11/1999; 274(43):30495-500. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous studies have suggested that 1) atypical protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms are required for insulin stimulation of glucose transport, and 2) 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK-1) is required for activation of atypical PKCs. Presently, we evaluated the role of PDK-1, both in the activation of PKC-zeta, and the translocation of epitope-tagged glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) to the plasma membrane, during insulin action in transiently transfected rat adipocytes. Overexpression of wild-type PDK-1 provoked increases in the activity of cotransfected hemagglutinin (HA)-tagged PKC-zeta and concomitantly enhanced HA-tagged GLUT4 translocation. Expression of both kinase-inactive PDK-1 and an activation-resistant form of PKC-zeta that is mutated at Thr-410, the immediate target of PDK-1 in the activation loop of PKC-zeta, inhibited insulin-induced increases in both HA-PKC-zeta activity and HA-GLUT4 translocation to the same extent as kinase-inactive PKC-zeta. Moreover, the inhibitory effects of kinase-inactive PDK-1 were fully reversed by cotransfection of wild-type PDK-1 and partly reversed by wild-type PKC-zeta, but not by wild-type PKB. In contrast to the T410A PKC-zeta mutant, an analogous double mutant of PKB (T308A/S473A) that is resistant to PDK-1 activation had only a small effect on insulin-stimulated HA-GLUT4 translocation and did not inhibit HA-GLUT4 translocation induced by overexpression of wild-type PDK-1. Our findings suggest that both PDK-1 and its downstream target, Thr-410 in the activation loop of PKC-zeta, are required for insulin-stimulated glucose transport.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In rat adipocytes, insulin provoked rapid increases in (a) endogenous immunoprecipitable combined protein kinase C (PKC)-zeta/lambda activity in plasma membranes and microsomes and (b) immunoreactive PKC-zeta and PKC-lambda in GLUT4 vesicles. Activity and autophosphorylation of immunoprecipitable epitope-tagged PKC-zeta and PKC-lambda were also increased by insulin in situ and phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-(PO(4))(3) (PIP(3)) in vitro. Because phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1 (PDK-1) is required for phosphorylation of activation loops of PKC-zeta and protein kinase B, we compared their activation. Both RO 31-8220 and myristoylated PKC-zeta pseudosubstrate blocked insulin-induced activation and autophosphorylation of PKC-zeta/lambda but did not inhibit PDK-1-dependent (a) protein kinase B phosphorylation/activation or (b) threonine 410 phosphorylation in the activation loop of PKC-zeta. Also, insulin in situ and PIP(3) in vitro activated and stimulated autophosphorylation of a PKC-zeta mutant, in which threonine 410 is replaced by glutamate (but not by an inactivating alanine) and cannot be activated by PDK-1. Surprisingly, insulin activated a truncated PKC-zeta that lacks the regulatory (presumably PIP(3)-binding) domain; this may reflect PIP(3) effects on PDK-1 or transphosphorylation by endogenous full-length PKC-zeta. Our findings suggest that insulin activates both PKC-zeta and PKC-lambda in plasma membranes, microsomes, and GLUT4 vesicles by a mechanism requiring increases in PIP(3), PDK-1-dependent phosphorylation of activation loop sites in PKC-zeta and lambda, and subsequent autophosphorylation and/or transphosphorylation.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 10/1999; 274(36):25308-16. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present investigation was designed to determine if atrial natriuretic peptides (ANPs) are increased in a spontaneous model of non-obese type 2 diabetes, the Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rat. Four peptide hormones originating from the ANP prohormone were increased twofold (P < .05) to sixfold (P < .01) in the circulation of GK rats compared with nondiabetic Wistar rats from which the GK colony was originally derived. Thus, ANP, long-acting natriuretic peptide (LANP), vessel dilator, and kaliuretic peptide were (mean +/- SE) 497 +/- 78, 1,285 +/- 105, 457 +/- 45, and 385 +/- 87 pg/mL in GK rats, versus 78 +/- 23, 542 +/- 77, 137 +/- 26, and 134 +/- 33 pg/mL, respectively, in Wistar rats. In evaluating the cause of the increased ANPs, the blood volume of GK rats (16.2 +/- 0.4 mL) was significantly (P < .01) increased compared with Wistar rats (9.5 +/- 0.3 mL). The ventricles of GK rats were not dilated when examined by transthoracic echocardiography, but the venous system was markedly distended. GK rats had a 48% to 79% decrease in renal function (ie, increased serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen [BUN]) compared with Wistar rats. These results indicate that circulating ANPs are increased in the GK spontaneously diabetic rat secondary to (1) increased blood volume, which leads to increased synthesis and release of ANPs, and (2) renal failure, which results in a delayed metabolic processing of these peptides. The early combined increases of the four atrial peptides collectively may contribute to the hyperfiltration that occurs in early diabetes mellitus.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) by insulin and anisomycin has been reported to result in increases in glycogen synthase (GS) activity in rat skeletal muscle (Moxham et al., J Biol Chem, 1996, 271:30765-30773). In addition, the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor, RO 31-8220, has been reported to activate JNK in rat-1 fibroblasts (Beltman et al., J Biol Chem, 1996, 271:27018-27024). Presently, we found that the RO 31-8220, as well as insulin, activated JNK and GS and stimulated glucose incorporation into glycogen in rat adipocytes and L6 myotubes. In contrast to activation of JNK, RO 31-8220 inhibited extracellular response kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) and had no significant effects on protein kinase B (PKB). Stimulatory effects of RO 31-8220 on JNK and glycogen metabolism were not explained by PKC inhibition, as other PKC inhibitors were without effect on glucose incorporation into glycogen and have no effect on JNK (Beltman et al., J Biol Chem, 1996, 271:27018). Insulin, on the other hand, activated JNK, as well as PKB and ERK1/2. However, stimulatory effects of insulin on GS and glucose incorporation into glycogen appeared to be fully intact and additive to those of RO 31-8220, despite the fact that insulin did not provoke additive increases in JNK activity above those observed with RO 31-8220 alone. Our findings suggest that JNK serves to activate GS during the action of RO 31-8220 in rat adipocytes and L6 myotubes; insulin, on the other hand, appears to activate GS largely independently of JNK.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Okadaic acid, an inhibitor of protein phosphatases 1 and 2A, is known to provoke insulin-like effects on GLUT4 translocation and glucose transport, but the underlying mechanism is obscure. Presently, we found in both rat adipocytes and 3T3/L1 adipocytes that okadaic acid provoked partial insulin-like increases in glucose transport, which were inhibited by phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase inhibitors, wortmannin and LY294002, and inhibitors of atypical protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms, zeta and lambda. Moreover, in both cell types, okadaic acid provoked increases in the activity of immunoprecipitable PKC-zeta/lambda by a PI 3-kinase-dependent mechanism. In keeping with apparent PI 3-kinase dependence of stimulatory effects of okadaic acid on glucose transport and PKC-zeta/lambda activity, okadaic acid provoked insulin-like increases in membrane PI 3-kinase activity in rat adipocytes; the mechanism for PI 3-kinase activation was uncertain, however, because it was not apparent in phosphotyrosine immunoprecipitates. Of further note, okadaic acid provoked partial insulin-like increases in the translocation of hemagglutinin antigen-tagged GLUT4 to the plasma membrane in transiently transfected rat adipocytes, and these stimulatory effects on hemagglutinin antigen-tagged GLUT4 translocation were inhibited by co-expression of kinase-inactive forms of PKC-zeta and PKC-lambda but not by a double mutant (T308A, S473A), activation-resistant form of protein kinase B. Our findings suggest that, as with insulin, PI 3-kinase-dependent atypical PKCs, zeta and lambda, are required for okadaic acid-induced increases in GLUT4 translocation and glucose transport in rat adipocytes and 3T3/L1 adipocytes.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 06/1999; 274(20):14074-8. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Okadaic acid, an inhibitor of protein phosphatases 1 and 2A, is known to provoke insulin-like effects on GLUT4 translocation
and glucose transport, but the underlying mechanism is obscure. Presently, we found in both rat adipocytes and 3T3/L1 adipocytes
that okadaic acid provoked partial insulin-like increases in glucose transport, which were inhibited by phosphatidylinositol
(PI) 3-kinase inhibitors, wortmannin and LY294002, and inhibitors of atypical protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms, ζ and λ. Moreover,
in both cell types, okadaic acid provoked increases in the activity of immunoprecipitable PKC-ζ/λ by a PI 3-kinase-dependent
mechanism. In keeping with apparent PI 3-kinase dependence of stimulatory effects of okadaic acid on glucose transport and
PKC-ζ/λ activity, okadaic acid provoked insulin-like increases in membrane PI 3-kinase activity in rat adipocytes; the mechanism
for PI 3-kinase activation was uncertain, however, because it was not apparent in phosphotyrosine immunoprecipitates. Of further
note, okadaic acid provoked partial insulin-like increases in the translocation of hemagglutinin antigen-tagged GLUT4 to the
plasma membrane in transiently transfected rat adipocytes, and these stimulatory effects on hemagglutinin antigen-tagged GLUT4
translocation were inhibited by co-expression of kinase-inactive forms of PKC-ζ and PKC-λ but not by a double mutant (T308A,
S473A), activation-resistant form of protein kinase B. Our findings suggest that, as with insulin, PI 3-kinase-dependent atypical
PKCs, ζ and λ, are required for okadaic acid-induced increases in GLUT4 translocation and glucose transport in rat adipocytes
and 3T3/L1 adipocytes.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 05/1999; 274(20):14074-14078. · 4.65 Impact Factor