Dong Hoon Choi

Korea University, Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea

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Publications (68)212.38 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We synthesized new diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP)-based small molecules i.e., TVT(DPP)2 and NDT(DPP)2, containing (E)-1,2-di(thiophen-2-yl)ethene and naphtho[1,2-b:5,6-b′]dithiophene, respectively, as electron-donating moieties with almost identical conjugation lengths. To study the effect of the conjugation bridge between the DPP units on the performance of thin-film transistors (TFTs) and photovoltaic (PV) devices, we performed theoretical calculations and investigated the photophysical and electrochemical properties. Finally, TFTs and PV devices were fabricated, and their charge carrier mobilities and power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) with [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM) were measured. The hole mobility of TVT(DPP)2 was found to be larger than that of NDT(DPP)2. The solution-processed bulk-heterojunction PV devices based on TVT(DPP)2 and NDT(DPP)2 gave maximum PCEs of 2.21% and 3.03%, respectively.
    Synthetic Metals 08/2015; 206. DOI:10.1016/j.synthmet.2015.05.005 · 2.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Graphics processing units have proved their capability for general-purpose computing in many research areas. In this paper, we propose the mechanism and implementation of a database system that encrypts and decrypts data by using GPU. The proposed mechanism is mainly designed for database systems that require data encryption and decryption to support high security level. The outsourced database systems or database cloud service could be a good candidate for our system. By exploiting the computation capability of GPU, we achieve not only a fast encryption and decryption time per operation, but also a higher overall performance of a database system by offloading computation to GPU. Moreover, the proposed system includes a mechanism which can decide whether to offload computation to GPU or not for more performance gain. We implemented the AES algorithm based on CUDA framework and integrate with MySQL, a commodity database system. Our evaluation demonstrates that the encryption and decryption on GPU show eight times better performance compared to that on CPU when the data size is 16 MB and the performance gain is proportional to the data size. We also show that the proposed system alleviates the utilization of CPU, and the overall performance of the database system is improved by offloading heavy encrypting and decrypting computation to GPU.
    The Journal of Supercomputing 07/2014; 69(1):375-394. DOI:10.1007/s11227-014-1159-0 · 0.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We obtained fibroblast- (FDM) and preosteoblast- (PDM) derived matrices in vitro from their respective cells. Our hypothesis was that these naturally occurring cell-derived matrices (CDMs) would provide a better microenvironment for the multi-lineage differentiation of human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) than those based on traditional single-protein-based platforms. Cells cultured for 5-6 days were decellularized with detergents and enzymes. The resulting matrices showed a fibrillar surface texture. Under osteogenic conditions, human bone-marrow-derived stromal cells (HS-5) exhibited higher amounts of both mineralized nodule formation and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) expression than those cultured on plastic or gelatin. Osteogenic markers (Col I, osteopontin, and cbfa1) and ALP activity from cells cultured on PDM were notably upregulated at 4 weeks. The use of FDM significantly improved the cellular expression of chondrogenic markers (Sox 9 and Col II), while downregulating that of Col I at 4 weeks. Both CDMs were more effective in inducing cellular synthesis of glycosaminoglycan content than control substrates. We also investigated the effect of matrix surface texture on hMSC (PT-2501) differentiation; soluble matrix (S-matrix)-coated substrates exhibited a localized fibronectin (FN) alignment, whereas natural matrix (N-matrix)-coated substrates preserved the naturally formed FN fibrillar alignment. hMSCs cultured for 4 weeks on N-matrices under osteogenic or chondrogenic conditions deposited a greater amount of calcium and proteoglycan than those cultured on S-matrices as assessed by von Kossa and Safranin O staining. In contrast to the expression levels of lineage-specific markers for cells cultured on gelatin, FN, or S-matrices, those cultured on N-matrices yielded highly upregulated levels. This study demonstrates not only the capacity of CDM for being an effective inductive template for the multi-lineage differentiation of hMSCs, but also the critical biophysical role that the matrix fibrillar texture itself plays on the induction of stem cell differentiation.
    Cell and Tissue Research 05/2014; 357(3). DOI:10.1007/s00441-014-1898-5 · 3.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An optimized electrodropping system produces homogeneous core-shell microcapsules (C-S MCs) by using poly(L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and alginate. Fluorescence imaging clearly shows the C-S domain in the MC. For release control, the use of high-molecular-weight PLGA (HMW 270 000) restrains the initial burst release of protein compared to that of low-MW PLGA (LMW 40 000). Layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly of chitosan and alginate on MCs is also useful in controlling the release profile of biomolecules. LBL (7-layer) treatment is effective in suppressing the initial burst release of protein compared to no LBL (0-layer). The difference of cumulative albumin release between HMW (7-layer LBL) and LMW (0-layer LBL) PLGA is determined to be more than 40% on day 5. When dual angiogenic growth factors (GFs), such as platelet-derived GF (PDGF) and vascular endothelial GF (VEGF), are encapsulated separately in the core and shell domains, respectively, the VEGF release rate is much greater than that of PDGF, and the difference of the cumulative release percentage between the two GFs is about 30% on day 7 with LMW core PLGA and more than 45% with HMW core PLGA. As for the angiogenic potential of MC GFs with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), the fluorescence signal of CD31+ suggests that the angiogenic sprout of ECs is more active in MC-mediated GF delivery than conventional GF delivery, and this difference is significant, based on the number of capillary branches in the unit area. This study demonstrates that the fabrication of biocompatible C-S MCs is possible, and that the release control of biomolecules is adjustable. Furthermore, MC-mediated GFs remain in an active form and can upregulate the angiogenic activity of ECs.
    Small 10/2013; 9(20). DOI:10.1002/smll.201300427 · 7.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recently, biological applications start to be reimplemented into the applications which exploit many cores of GPUs for better computation performance. Therefore, by providing virtualized GPUs to VMs in cloud computing environment, many biological applications will willingly move into cloud environment to enhance their computation performance and utilize infinite cloud computing resource while reducing expenses for computations. In this paper, we propose a BioCloud system architecture that enables VMs to use GPUs in cloud environment. Because much of the previous research has focused on the sharing mechanism of GPUs among VMs, they cannot achieve enough performance for biological applications of which computation throughput is more crucial rather than sharing. The proposed system exploits the pass-through mode of PCI express (PCI-E) channel. By making each VM be able to access underlying GPUs directly, applications can show almost the same performance as when those are in native environment. In addition, our scheme multiplexes GPUs by using hot plug-in/out device features of PCI-E channel. By adding or removing GPUs in each VM in on-demand manner, VMs in the same physical host can time-share their GPUs. We implemented the proposed system using the Xen VMM and NVIDIA GPUs and showed that our prototype is highly effective for biological GPU applications in cloud environment.
    04/2013; 2013:939460. DOI:10.1155/2013/939460
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    ABSTRACT: We report the fabrication of photofunctional Co-Cr alloy plate that is prepared by a simple modification process for photodynamic application. Photoinduced functionality is provided by the photosensitizer of hematoporphyrin (Hp) that initially generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide anion radical and singlet oxygen. The photosensitizer with carboxyl group was chemically bonded to the surface of the Co-Cr alloy plate by esterification reaction. Microstructure and elemental composition of the Co-Cr alloy plate were checked with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS). Fabrication of the photofunctionality of the Co-Cr alloy plate was confirmed with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), reflectance UV-Vis absorption, and emission spectroscopy. Reactive oxygen generation from the photofunctional Co-Cr alloy plate was confirmed by using the decomposition reaction of 1,3-diphenylisobenzofuran (DPBF). The results suggest that the immobilized photosensitizer molecules on the surface of Co-Cr alloy plate still possess their optical and functional properties including reactive oxygen generation. To open the possibility for its application as a photodynamic material to biological system, the fabricated photofunctional Co-Cr alloy is applied to the decomposition of smooth muscle cells.
    International Journal of Photoenergy 04/2013; 2013. DOI:10.1155/2013/618062 · 2.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Two anthracene-based star-shaped conjugated small molecules, 5′,5″-(9,10-bis((4-hexylphenyl)ethynyl)anthracene-2,6-diyl)bis(5-hexyl-2,2′-bithiophene), HBantHBT, and 5′,5″-(9,10-bis(phenylethynyl)anthracene-2,6-diyl)bis(5-hexyl-2,2′-bithiophene), BantHBT, are used as electron-cascade donor materials by incorporating them into organic photovoltaic cells prepared using a poly((5,5-E-alpha-((2-thienyl)methylene)-2-thiopheneacetonitrile)-alt-2,6-[(1,5-didecyloxy)naphthalene])) (PBTADN):[6,6]-phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM) blend. The small molecules penetrate the PBTADN:PC71BM blend layer to yield complementary absorption spectra through appropriate energy level alignment and optimal domain sizes for charge carrier transfer. A high short-circuit current (JSC) and fill factor (FF) are obtained using solar cells prepared with the ternary blend. The highest photovoltaic performance of the PBTADN:BantHBT:PC71BM blend solar cells is characterized by a JSC of 11.0 mA cm−2, an open circuit voltage (VOC) of 0.91 V, a FF of 56.4%, and a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 5.6% under AM1.5G illumination (with a high intensity of 100 mW−2). The effects of the small molecules on the ternary blend are investigated by comparison with the traditional poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT):[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM) system.
    Advanced Functional Materials 03/2013; 23(12). DOI:10.1002/adfm.201201913 · 10.44 Impact Factor
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    Dong Hoon Choi, Heeseung Jo, Myungho Lee
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    ABSTRACT: The current GPU virtualization techniques incur large overheads when executing application programs mainly due to the fine-grain time-sharing scheduling of the GPU among multiple Virtual Machines (VMs). Besides, the current techniques lack of portability, because they include the APIs for the GPU computations in the VM monitor. In this paper, we propose a low overhead and high performance GPU virtualization approach on a heterogeneous HPC system based on the open-source Xen. Our proposed techniques are tailored to the bio applications. In our virtualization framework, we allow a VM to solely occupy a GPU once the VM is assigned a GPU instead of relying on the time-sharing the GPU. This improves the performance of the applications and the utilization of the GPUs. Our techniques also allow a direct pass-through to the GPU by using the IOMMU virtualization features embedded in the hardware for the high portability. Experimental studies using microbiology genome analysis applications show that our proposed techniques based on the direct pass-through significantly reduce the overheads compared with the previous Domain0 based approaches. Furthermore, our approach closely matches the performance for the applications to the bare machine or rather improves the performance.
    02/2013; 2(2). DOI:10.3745/KTSDE.2013.2.2.113
  • Hee Seung Jo, Myung Ho Lee, Dong Hoon Choi
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    ABSTRACT: Machine virtualization and cloud computing environment have highlighted for last several years. This trend is based on the endeavor to enhance the utilization and reduce the ownership cost of machines. On the other hand, in aspect of high performance computing, graphics processing unit (GPU) has proved its capability for general purpose computing in many research areas. Evolving from traditional APIs such as the OpenGL and the Direct3D to program GPU as a graphics device, the CUDA of NIVDIA and the OpenCL provide more general programming environment for users. By supporting memory access model, interfaces to access GPUs directly and programming toolkits, users can perform parallel computation using the hundreds of GPU cores. In this paper, we propose a GPU virtualization mechanism to exploit GPU on virtualized cloud computing environment. Differently from the previous work which mostly reimplemented GPU programming APIs and virtual device drivers, our proposed mechanism uses the direct pass-through of PCI-E channel having GPU. The main limitation of previous approaches is virtualization overhead. Since they were focused on the sharing of GPU among virtual machines, they reimplemented GPU programming APIs at virtual machine monitor (VMM) level, and it incurred significant performance overhead. Moreover, if APIs are changed, they need to reengineer the most of APIs. In our approach, bypassing virtual machine monitor layer with negligible overhead, the mechanism can achieve similar computation performance to bare-metal system and is transparent to the GPU programming APIs.
    Applied Mechanics and Materials 02/2013; 311:15-19. DOI:10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMM.311.15
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    ABSTRACT: Danshen is a traditional Chinese medicine with many beneficial effects on cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mechanisms responsible for the antiatherogenic effect of water soluble Danshen extracts (DEs). Rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were treated with DE. To evaluate the effects of DE in vivo, carotid balloon injury and tail vein thrombosis were induced in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats and iliac artery stent was induced in New Zealand white rabbits. The inhibitory action of DE on platelet aggregation was confirmed with an impedance aggregometer. DE inhibited the production of reactive oxygen species, and the migration and proliferation of platelet-derived growth factor-BB stimulated VSMCs. Furthermore, DE prevented inflammation and apoptosis in HUVECs. Both effects of DE were reconfirmed in both rat models. DE treatment attenuated platelet aggregation in both in vivo and ex vivo conditions. Pretreatment with DE prevented tail vein thrombosis, which is normally induced by κ-carrageenan injection. Lastly, DE-treated rabbits showed decreased in-stent restenosis of stented iliac arteries. These results suggest that water soluble DE modulates key atherogenic events in VSMCs, endothelial cells, and platelets in both in vitro and in vivo conditions.
    Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 01/2013; 2013:623639. DOI:10.1155/2013/623639 · 2.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Graphics processing units have proved its capability for general purpose computing in many research areas. In this paper, we propose the mechanism and implementation of a database system that encrypts and decrypts data by using GPU. The proposed mechanism is mainly designed for a database system that requires data encryption and decryption to support high security level or ODBS. By exploiting the computation capability of GPU, we achieve not only a fast encryption and decryption time per operation but also a higher overall performance of a database system by offioading computation to GPU. Moreover, the proposed system includes a mechanism which can decide whether to offload computation to GPU or not for more performance gain. We implemented the AES algorithm based on CUDA framework and integrate with MySQL, a commodity database system. Our evaluation demonstrates that the encryption and decryption on GPU shows eight times better performance compared that on CPU when the data size is 16 MB. We also show that the proposed system alleviates the utilization of CPU and the overall performance of database system is improved by offioading heavy encrypting and decrypting computation to GPU.
    Procedia Computer Science 01/2013; 19:147–154. DOI:10.1016/j.procs.2013.06.024
  • Myungho Lee, Heeseung Jo, Dong Hoon Choi
    10/2012; 4(18):306-314. DOI:10.4156/ijact.vol4.issue18.36
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    ABSTRACT: This study sought to compare everolimus-eluting stents (EES) with zotarolimus-eluting stents (ZES) in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). There is a paucity of data to exclusively evaluate the safety and efficacy of second-generation drug-eluting stents (DES) in the setting of AMI. The present study enrolled 3,309 AMI patients treated with ZES (n = 1,608) or EES (n = 1,701) in a large-scale, prospective, multicenter registry-KAMIR (Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry). Propensity score matching was applied to adjust for differences in baseline clinical and angiographic characteristics, producing a total of 2,646 patients (1,343 receiving ZES, and 1,343 receiving EES). Target lesion failure (TLF) was defined as the composite of cardiac death, recurrent nonfatal myocardial infarction, or target lesion revascularization. Major clinical outcomes at 1 year were compared between the 2 propensity score-matched groups. After propensity score matching, baseline clinical and angiographic characteristics were similar between the 2 groups. Clinical outcomes of the propensity score-matched patients showed that, despite similar incidences of recurrent nonfatal myocardial infarction and in-hospital and 1-year mortality, patients in the EES group had significantly lower rates of TLF (6.5% vs. 8.7%, p = 0.029) and probable or definite stent thrombosis (0.3% vs. 1.6%, p < 0.001), compared with those in the ZES group. Furthermore, there was a numerically lower rate of target lesion revascularization (1.2% vs. 2.2%, p = 0.051) in the EES group than in the ZES group. In this propensity-matched comparison, EES seems to be superior to ZES in reducing TLF and stent thrombosis in patients with AMI.
    JACC. Cardiovascular Interventions 09/2012; 5(9):936-45. DOI:10.1016/j.jcin.2012.05.009 · 7.44 Impact Factor
  • International Journal of Digital Content Technology and its Applications 07/2012; 6(13):11-18. DOI:10.4156/jdcta.vol6.issue13.2
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    ABSTRACT: The regioregular hexyl-substituted poly(3,4-ethylenedioxy-2-thiophenylthiophene) (PEDOTt), structurally alternating copolymer of EDOT and thiophene, was synthesized via the Grignard Metathesis (GRIM) using catalytic amounts of Ni(dppp)Cl2. The products were characterized by 1H NMR spectroscopy, UV-vis spectroscopy and XRD. The alkyl-substituted conjugated polymer showed an enhancement of solubility in common organic solvents. Based on XRD data, the regioregular hexyl-substituted poly(3,4-ethylenedioxy-2-thiophenylthiophene) (PEDOTt) shows better crystallinity than the regiorandom hexyl-substituted PEDOTt owing to self-ordering. In addition, regioregular hexyl-PEDOTt has a conductivity of 0.788 S/cm by iodine doping.
    Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology 04/2012; 12(4):3597-601. DOI:10.1166/jnn.2012.5644 · 1.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Latest High Performance Computing (HPC) platforms are built with heterogeneous chips such as multicore microprocessors and multicore GPUs (Graphic Processing units), thus they are commonly called as Heterogeneous High Performance Computing (HPC) platforms. Parallelizing applications on such platforms is mostly dominated by SIMD style of parallelism mainly to exploit GPUs' excellent floatingpoint performance. However, it is a restricted parallel model because the multiple CPU cores are not participating in the parallel execution, thus the full performance potential of heterogeneous architectures is not exploited. In this paper, we propose a generalized parallelization methodology to efficiently map applications onto the heterogeneous architectures and to exploit their full performance potential. For the methodology, we develop strategies to map parallel tasks onto different components of the heterogeneous architectures. A general parallel execution model beyond SIMD is adopted in the task mapping.
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    ABSTRACT: Fabrication and photophysical study of photofunctional nanoporous alumina membrane (PNAM) were performed, and its application of photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) was investigated. Nanoporous alumina membrane (NAM) was fabricated by two-step aluminium anodic oxidation process. Surface of the fabricated NAM was modified with organo-silane agent to induce covalent bonding between NAM and a photosensitizer (PtCP: [5,10,15-triphenyl-20-(4-methoxycarbonylphenyl)-porphyrin] platinum). PtCP was covalently bonded to the surface of the modified NAM by nucleophilic acyl substitution reaction process. The morphology and the photophysical properties of the fabricated PNAM were confirmed with field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), steady-state spectroscopies, and nanosecond laser-induced time-resolved spectroscopy. For the efficacy study of PNAM in PACT, an enveloped animal virus, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), was utilized as a target organism. Antiviral effect of the PNAM-PACT was measured by the extent of suppression of plaque-forming units (PFU) after the light irradiation. In the cultures inoculated with PACT-treated VSV, the suppression of PFU was prominent, which demonstrates that PNAM is a potential bio clean-up tool.
    Journal of Nanomaterials 01/2012; 2012. DOI:10.1155/2012/454507 · 1.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dendritic cells (DC) present α-galactosylceramide (αGalCer) to invariant T-cell receptor-expressing natural killer T cells (iNKT) activating these cells to secrete a variety of cytokines, which in turn results in DC maturation and activation of other cell types, including NK cells, B cells, and conventional T cells. In this study, we showed that αGalCer-pulsing of antigen-activated CD8 T cells before adoptive transfer to tumor-bearing mice caused a marked increase in donor T-cell proliferation, precursor frequency, and cytotoxic lymphocyte activity. This effect was interleukin (IL)-2 dependent and involved both natural killer T cells (NKT) and DCs, as mice lacking IL-2, NKTs, and DCs lacked any enhanced response to adoptively transferred αGalCer-loaded CD8 T cells. iNKT activation was mediated by transfer of αGalCer from the cell membrane of the donor CD8 T cells onto the αGalCer receptor CD1d which is present on host DCs. αGalCer transfer was increased by prior activation of the donor CD8 T cells and required AP-2-mediated endocytosis by host DCs. In addition, host iNKT cell activation led to strong IL-2 synthesis, thereby increasing expansion and differentiation of donor CD8 T cells. Transfer of these cells led to improved therapeutic efficacy against established solid tumors in mice. Thus, our findings illustrate how αGalCer loading of CD8 T cells after antigen activation in vitro may leverage the therapeutic potential of adoptive T-cell therapies.
    Cancer Research 12/2011; 71(24):7442-51. DOI:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-11-1459 · 9.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and multivessel disease, complete revascularization (CR) for non-culprit lesions is not routinely recommended. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical outcomes of multivessel compared with infarct-related artery (IRA)-only revascularization in patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for STEMI. From the Korean Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry (KAMIR) database, 1,094 STEMI patients with multivessel disease who underwent primary PCI with drug-eluting stents were enrolled in this study. The patients were divided into two groups: culprit-vessel-only revascularization (COR, n=827) group; multivessel revascularization, including non-IRA (MVR, n=267) group. The primary endpoint of this study included major adverse cardiac events (MACEs), such as death, myocardial infarction, or target or nontarget lesion revascularization at one year. There was no difference in clinical characteristics between the two groups. During the one-year follow-up, 102 (15.2%) patients in the COR group and 32 (14.2%) in the MVR group experienced at least one MACE (p=0.330). There were no differences between the two groups in terms of rates of death, myocardial infarction, or revascularization (2.1% vs. 2.0%, 0.7% vs. 0.8%, and 11.7% vs. 10.1%, respectively; p=0.822, 0.910, and 0.301, respectively). The MACE rate was higher in the incompletely revascularized patients than in the completely revascularized patients (15% vs. 9.5%, p=0.039), and the difference was attributable to a higher rate of nontarget vessel revascularization (8.6% vs. 1.8%, p=0.002). Although multivessel angioplasty during primary PCI for STEMI did not reduce the MACE rate compared with culprit-vessel-only PCI, CR was associated with a lower rate of repeat revascularization after multivessel PCI.
    Korean Circulation Journal 12/2011; 41(12):718-25. DOI:10.4070/kcj.2011.41.12.718
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    ABSTRACT: Our aim was to evaluate Korea's Pandemic Influenza Preparedness Plan. We conducted a sensitivity analysis on the expected number of outpatients and hospital bed occupancy, with 1,000,000 parameter combinations, in a situation of pandemic influenza, using the mathematical simulation program InfluSim. Given the available resources in Korea, antiviral treatment and social distancing must be combined to reduce the number of outpatients and hospitalizations sufficiently; any single intervention is not enough. The antiviral stockpile of 4-6% is sufficient for the expected eligible number of cases to be treated. However, the eligible number assumed (30% for severe cases and 26% for extremely severe cases) is very low compared to the corresponding number in European countries, where up to 90% of the population are assumed to be eligible for antiviral treatment. A combination of antiviral treatment and social distancing can mitigate a pandemic, but will only bring it under control for the most optimistic parameter combinations.
    12/2011; 2(3):210-5. DOI:10.1016/j.phrp.2011.11.048

Publication Stats

482 Citations
212.38 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2007–2014
    • Korea University
      • Department of Chemistry
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2011–2013
    • Korea Institute of Science and Technology Information (KISTI)
      Daiden, Daejeon, South Korea
    • Pohang University of Science and Technology
      • Division of Molecular and Life Sciences
      Geijitsu, Gyeongsangbuk-do, South Korea
    • Ewha Womans University
      • Department of Bioinspired Science
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2010–2013
    • Yonsei University Hospital
      • Department of Internal Medicine
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Korea Institute of Science and Technology
      • Center for Biomaterials
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2009–2013
    • Yonsei University
      • College of Medicine
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2008–2010
    • Chonnam National University Hospital
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 1999–2003
    • Kyung Hee University
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2002
    • Hanyang University
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea