Jarrod A Marto

Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts, United States

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Publications (101)802.15 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Activating mutations in genes encoding G protein α (Gα) subunits occur in 4-5% of all human cancers, but oncogenic alterations in Gβ subunits have not been defined. Here we demonstrate that recurrent mutations in the Gβ proteins GNB1 and GNB2 confer cytokine-independent growth and activate canonical G protein signaling. Multiple mutations in GNB1 affect the protein interface that binds Gα subunits as well as downstream effectors and disrupt Gα interactions with the Gβγ dimer. Different mutations in Gβ proteins clustered partly on the basis of lineage; for example, all 11 GNB1 K57 mutations were in myeloid neoplasms, and seven of eight GNB1 I80 mutations were in B cell neoplasms. Expression of patient-derived GNB1 variants in Cdkn2a-deficient mouse bone marrow followed by transplantation resulted in either myeloid or B cell malignancies. In vivo treatment with the dual PI3K-mTOR inhibitor BEZ235 suppressed GNB1-induced signaling and markedly increased survival. In several human tumors, mutations in the gene encoding GNB1 co-occurred with oncogenic kinase alterations, including the BCR-ABL fusion protein, the V617F substitution in JAK2 and the V600K substitution in BRAF. Coexpression of patient-derived GNB1 variants with these mutant kinases resulted in inhibitor resistance in each context. Thus, GNB1 and GNB2 alterations confer transformed and resistance phenotypes across a range of human tumors and may be targetable with inhibitors of G protein signaling.
    Nature Medicine 12/2014; · 28.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Her3 (also known as ErbB3) belongs to the epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinases and is well credentialed as an anti-cancer target but is thought to be 'undruggable' using ATP-competitive small molecules because it lacks appreciable kinase activity. Here we report what is to our knowledge the first selective Her3 ligand, TX1-85-1, that forms a covalent bond with Cys721 located in the ATP-binding site of Her3. We demonstrate that covalent modification of Her3 inhibits Her3 signaling but not proliferation in some Her3-dependent cancer cell lines. Subsequent derivatization with a hydrophobic adamantane moiety demonstrates that the resultant bivalent ligand (TX2-121-1) enhances inhibition of Her3-dependent signaling. Treatment of cells with TX2-121-1 results in partial degradation of Her3 and serendipitously interferes with productive heterodimerization between Her3 with either Her2 or c-Met. These results suggest that small molecules will be capable of perturbing the biological function of Her3 and ∼60 other pseudokinases found in human cells.
    Nature Chemical Biology 10/2014; · 12.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BRCA1 promotes homologous recombination-mediated DNA repair (HRR). However, HRR must be tightly regulated to prevent illegitimate recombination. We previously found that BRCA1 HRR function is regulated by the RAP80 complex, but the mechanism was unclear. We have now observed that PARP1 interacts with and poly-ADP-ribosylates (aka. PARsylates) BRCA1. PARsylation is directed at the BRCA1 DNA binding domain and down-modulates its function. Moreover, RAP80 contains a poly-ADP-ribose (PAR) interacting domain that binds PARsylated BRCA1 and helps to maintain the stability of PARP1-BRCA1-RAP80 complexes. BRCA1 PARsylation is a key step in BRCA1 HRR control. When BRCA1 PARsylation is defective, it gives rise to excessive HRR and manifestations of genome instability. BRCA1 PARsylation and/or RAP80 expression is defective in a subset of sporadic breast cancer cell lines and patient-derived tumor xenograft (PDX) models. These observations are consistent with the possibility that such defects, when chronic, contribute to tumor development in BRCA1+/+ individuals.
    Cancer Discovery 09/2014; · 15.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Loss of the chromatin remodeling ATPase CHD5 has been linked to the progression of neuroblastoma tumors, yet the underlying mechanisms behind the tumor suppressor role of CHD5 are unknown. In this study, we purified the human CHD5 complex and found that CHD5 is a component of the full NuRD transcriptional repressor complex, which also contains methyl-CpG binding proteins and histone deacetylases. The CHD5/NuRD complex appears mutually exclusive with the related CHD4/NuRD complex as overexpression of CHD5 results in loss of the CHD4 protein in cells. Following a search for genes that are regulated by CHD5 in neuroblastoma cells, we found that CHD5 binds to and represses the G2/M checkpoint gene WEE1. Reintroduction of CHD5 into neuroblastoma cells represses WEE1 expression, demonstrating that CHD5 can function as a repressor in cells. A catalytically inactive mutant version of CHD5 is able to associate with a NuRD cofactor but fails to repress transcription. Our study shows that CHD5 is a NuRD-associated transcriptional repressor and identifies WEE1 as one of the CHD5-regulated genes that may link CHD5 to tumor suppression.
    PLoS ONE 09/2014; 9(9):e108066. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A growing number of gene mutations, which are recognized as cancer drivers, can be successfully targeted with drugs. The redundant and dynamic nature of oncogenic signaling networks and complex interactions between cancer cells and the microenvironment, however, can cause drug resistance. Whereas these challenges can be addressed by developing drug combinations or polypharmacology drugs, this benefits greatly from a detailed understanding of the proteome-wide target profiles. Using mass spectrometry-based chemical proteomics, we report the comprehensive characterization of the drug-protein interaction networks for the multikinase inhibitors dasatinib and sunitinib in primary lung cancer tissue specimens derived from patients. We observed in excess of 100 protein kinase targets plus various protein complexes involving, for instance, AMPK, TBK1 (sunitinib) and ILK (dasatinib). Importantly, comparison with lung cancer cell lines and mouse xenografts thereof showed that most targets were shared between cell lines and tissues. Several targets, however, were only present in tumor tissues. In xenografts, most of these proteins were of mouse origin suggesting that they originate from the tumor microenvironment. Furthermore, intersection with subsequent global phosphoproteomic analysis identified several activated signaling pathways. These included MAPK, immune and integrin signaling, which were affected by these drugs in both cancer cells and the microenvironment. Thus, the combination of chemical and phosphoproteomics can generate a systems view of proteins, complexes and signaling pathways that are simultaneously engaged by multi-targeted drugs in cancer cells and the tumor microenvironment. This may allow for the design of novel anticancer therapies that concurrently target multiple tumor compartments.
    Molecular Cancer Therapeutics 09/2014; · 5.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BRCA1 is a breast and ovarian tumor suppressor. Given its numerous incompletely understood functions and the possibility that more exist, we performed complementary systematic screens in search of new BRCA1 protein-interacting partners. New BRCA1 functions and/or a better understanding of existing ones were sought. Among the new interacting proteins identified, genetic interactions were detected between BRCA1 and four of the interactors: TONSL, SETX, TCEANC, and TCEA2. Genetic interactions were also detected between BRCA1 and certain interactors of TONSL, including both members of the FACT complex. From these results, a new BRCA1 function in the response to transcription-associated DNA damage was detected. Specifically, new roles for BRCA1 in the restart of transcription after UV damage and in preventing or repairing damage caused by stabilized R loops were identified. These roles are likely carried out together with some of the newly identified interactors. This new function may be important in BRCA1 tumor suppression, since the expression of several interactors, including some of the above-noted transcription proteins, is repeatedly aberrant in both breast and ovarian cancers.
    Genes & Development 09/2014; 28(17):1957-75. · 12.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tumour oncogenes include transcription factors that co-opt the general transcriptional machinery to sustain the oncogenic state, but direct pharmacological inhibition of transcription factors has so far proven difficult. However, the transcriptional machinery contains various enzymatic cofactors that can be targeted for the development of new therapeutic candidates, including cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). Here we present the discovery and characterization of a covalent CDK7 inhibitor, THZ1, which has the unprecedented ability to target a remote cysteine residue located outside of the canonical kinase domain, providing an unanticipated means of achieving selectivity for CDK7. Cancer cell-line profiling indicates that a subset of cancer cell lines, including human T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (T-ALL), have exceptional sensitivity to THZ1. Genome-wide analysis in Jurkat T-ALL cells shows that THZ1 disproportionally affects transcription of RUNX1 and suggests that sensitivity to THZ1 may be due to vulnerability conferred by the RUNX1 super-enhancer and the key role of RUNX1 in the core transcriptional regulatory circuitry of these tumour cells. Pharmacological modulation of CDK7 kinase activity may thus provide an approach to identify and treat tumour types that are dependent on transcription for maintenance of the oncogenic state.
    Nature 06/2014; · 42.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cell migration is essential for embryonic development and tissue formation in all animals. cacn-1 is a conserved gene of unknown molecular function identified in a genome-wide screen for genes that regulate distal tip cell (DTC) migration in the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans. In this study we take a proteomics approach to understand CACN-1 function. To isolate CACN-1 interacting proteins, we used an in vivo tandem-affinity purification (TAP) strategy. TAP-tagged CACN-1 complexes were isolated from C. elegans lysate, analyzed by mass spectrometry, and characterized bioinformatically. Results suggest significant interaction of CACN-1 with the C. elegans spliceosome. All of the identified interactors were screened for DTC migration phenotypes using RNAi. Depletion of many of these factors led to distal tip cell migration defects, particularly a failure to stop migrating, a phenotype commonly seen in cacn-1 deficient animals. The results of this screen identify 8 novel regulators of cell migration and suggest CACN-1 may participate in a protein network dedicated to high fidelity gonad development. The composition of proteins comprising the CACN-1 network suggests that this critical developmental module may exert its influence through alternative splicing or other post-transcriptional gene regulation.
    G3-Genes Genomes Genetics 06/2014; · 2.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The bHLH transcription factor Olig2 is expressed in cycling neural progenitor cells but also in terminally differentiated, myelinating oligodendrocytes. Sustained expression of Olig2 is counterintuitive because all known functions of the protein in expansion of neural progenitors and specification of oligodendrocyte progenitors are completed with the formation of mature white matter. How are the biological functions of Olig2 suppressed in terminally differentiated oligodendrocytes? In previous studies, we have shown that a triple serine motif in the amino terminus of Olig2 is phosphorylated in cycling neural progenitors but not in their differentiated progeny. We now show that phosphorylation of the triple serine motif regulates intranuclear compartmentalization of murine Olig2. Phosphorylated Olig2 is preferentially localized to a transcriptionally active "open" chromatin compartment together with coregulator proteins essential for regulation of gene expression. Unphosphorylated Olig2, as seen in mature white matter, is localized mainly within a transcriptionally inactive, chromatin fraction characterized by condensed and inaccessible DNA. Of special note is the observation that the p53 tumor suppressor protein is confined to the open chromatin fraction. Proximity ligation assays show that phosphorylation brings Olig2 within 30 nm of p53 within the open chromatin compartment. The data thus shed light on previously noted promitogenic functions of phosphorylated Olig2, which reflect, at least in part, an oppositional relationship with p53 functions.
    Journal of Neuroscience 06/2014; 34(25):8507-18. · 6.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Directly targeting oncogenic V-Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (K-Ras) with small-molecule inhibitors has historically been considered prohibitively challenging. Recent reports of compounds that bind directly to the K-Ras G12C mutant suggest avenues to overcome key obstacles that stand in the way of developing such compounds. We aim to target the guanine nucleotide (GN)-binding pocket because the natural contents of this pocket dictate the signaling state of K-Ras. Here, we characterize the irreversible inhibitor SML-8-73-1 (SML), which targets the GN-binding pocket of K-Ras G12C. We report a high-resolution X-ray crystal structure of G12C K-Ras bound to SML, revealing that the compound binds in a manner similar to GDP, forming a covalent linkage with Cys-12. The resulting conformation renders K-Ras in the open, inactive conformation, which is not predicted to associate productively with or activate downstream effectors. Conservation analysis of the Ras family GN-binding pocket reveals variability in the side chains surrounding the active site and adjacent regions, especially in the switch I region. This variability may enable building specificity into new iterations of Ras and other GTPase inhibitors. High-resolution in situ chemical proteomic profiling of SML confirms that SML effectively discriminates between K-Ras G12C and other cellular GTP-binding proteins. A biochemical assay provides additional evidence that SML is able to compete with millimolar concentrations of GTP and GDP for the GN-binding site.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 06/2014; · 9.81 Impact Factor
  • Clinical Cancer Research 05/2014; 19(19_Supplement):A80-A80. · 8.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Alternative RNA splicing (AS) regulates proteome diversity, including isoform-specific expression of several pluripotency genes. Here, we integrated global gene expression and proteomic analyses and identified a molecular signature suggesting a central role for AS in maintaining human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC) self-renewal. We demonstrate that the splicing factor SFRS2 is an OCT4 target gene required for pluripotency. SFRS2 regulates AS of the methyl-CpG binding protein MBD2, whose isoforms play opposing roles in maintenance of and reprogramming to pluripotency. Although both MDB2a and MBD2c are enriched at the OCT4 and NANOG promoters, MBD2a preferentially interacts with repressive NuRD chromatin remodeling factors and promotes hPSC differentiation, whereas overexpression of MBD2c enhances reprogramming of fibroblasts to pluripotency. The miR-301 and miR-302 families provide additional regulation by targeting SFRS2 and MDB2a. These data suggest that OCT4, SFRS2, and MBD2 participate in a positive feedback loop, regulating proteome diversity in support of hPSC self-renewal and reprogramming.
    Cell stem cell 05/2014; · 23.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Excluding 53BP1 from chromatin is required to attenuate the DNA damage response during mitosis, yet the functional relevance and regulation of this exclusion are unclear. Here we show that 53BP1 is phosphorylated during mitosis on two residues, T1609 and S1618, located in its well-conserved ubiquitination-dependent recruitment (UDR) motif. Phosphorylating these sites blocks the interaction of the UDR motif with mononuclesomes containing ubiquitinated histone H2A and impedes binding of 53BP1 to mitotic chromatin. Ectopic recruitment of 53BP1-T1609A/S1618A to mitotic DNA lesions was associated with significant mitotic defects that could be reversed by inhibiting nonhomologous end-joining. We also reveal that protein phosphatase complex PP4C/R3β dephosphorylates T1609 and S1618 to allow the recruitment of 53BP1 to chromatin in G1 phase. Our results identify key sites of 53BP1 phosphorylation during mitosis, identify the counteracting phosphatase complex that restores the potential for DDR during interphase, and establish the physiological importance of this regulation.
    Molecular cell 04/2014; · 14.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Timely DNA replication across damaged DNA is critical for maintaining genomic integrity. Translesion DNA synthesis (TLS) allows bypass of DNA lesions using error-prone TLS polymerases. The E3 ligase RAD18 is necessary for proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) monoubiquitination and TLS polymerase recruitment; however, the regulatory steps upstream of RAD18 activation are less understood. Here, we show that the UBZ4 domain-containing transcriptional repressor ZBTB1 is a critical upstream regulator of TLS. The UBZ4 motif is required for PCNA monoubiquitination and survival after UV damage. ZBTB1 associates with KAP-1, a transcriptional repressor whose phosphorylation relaxes chromatin after DNA damage. ZBTB1 depletion impairs formation of phospho-KAP-1 at UV damage sites and reduces RAD18 recruitment. Furthermore, phosphorylation of KAP-1 is necessary for efficient PCNA modification. We propose that ZBTB1 is required for localizing phospho-KAP-1 to chromatin and enhancing RAD18 accessibility. Collectively, our study implicates a ubiquitin-binding protein in orchestrating chromatin remodeling during DNA repair.
    Molecular cell 03/2014; · 14.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The transcription factor SOX2 is an essential regulator of pluripotent stem cells and promotes development and maintenance of squamous epithelia. We previously reported that SOX2 is an oncogene and subject to highly recurrent genomic amplification in squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs). Here, we have further characterized the function of SOX2 in SCC. Using ChIP-seq analysis, we compared SOX2-regulated gene profiles in multiple SCC cell lines to ES cell profiles and determined that SOX2 binds to distinct genomic loci in SCCs. In SCCs, SOX2 preferentially interacts with the transcription factor p63, as opposed to the transcription factor OCT4, which is the preferred SOX2 binding partner in ES cells. SOX2 and p63 exhibited overlapping genomic occupancy at a large number of loci in SCCs; however, coordinate binding of SOX2 and p63 was absent in ES cells. We further demonstrated that SOX2 and p63 jointly regulate gene expression, including the oncogene ETV4, which was essential for SOX2-amplified SCC cell survival. Together, these findings demonstrate that the action of SOX2 in SCC differs substantially from its role in pluripotency. The identification of the SCC-associated interaction between SOX2 and p63 will enable deeper characterization the downstream targets of this interaction in SCC and normal squamous epithelial physiology.
    The Journal of clinical investigation 03/2014; · 15.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We assemble a versatile molecular scaffold from simple building blocks to create binary and multiplexed stable isotope reagents for quantitative mass spectrometry. Termed Protected Amine Labels (PAL), these reagents offer multiple analytical figures of merit including, (1) robust targeting of peptide N-termini and lysyl side chains, (2) optimal mass spectrometry ionization efficiency through regeneration of primary amines on labeled peptides, (3) an amino acid-based mass tag that incorporates heavy isotopes of carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen to ensure matched physicochemical and MS/MS fragmentation behavior among labeled peptides, and (4) a molecularly efficient architecture, in which the majority of hetero-atom centers can be used to synthesize a variety of nominal mass and sub-Da isotopologue stable isotope reagents. We demonstrate the performance of these reagents in well-established strategies whereby up to four channels of peptide isotopomers, each separated by 4 Da, are quantified in MS-level scans with accuracies comparable to current commercial reagents. In addition, we utilize the PAL scaffold to create isotopologue reagents in which labeled peptide analogs differ in mass based on the binding energy in carbon and nitrogen nuclei, thereby allowing quantification based on MS or MS/MS spectra. We demonstrate accurate quantification for reagents that support 6-plex labeling and propose extension of this scheme to 9-channels based on a similar PAL scaffold. Finally, we provide exemplar data that extend the application of isotopologe-based quantification reagents to medium resolution, quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometers.
    Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry 02/2014; · 3.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: High-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (HGSOC) and basal-like breast cancer (BLBC) share many features including TP53 mutations, genomic instability and poor prognosis. We recently reported that Elafin is overexpressed by HGSOC and is associated with poor overall survival. Here, we confirm that Elafin overexpression is associated with shorter survival in 1000 HGSOC patients. Elafin confers a proliferative advantage to tumor cells through the activation of the MAP kinase pathway. This mitogenic effect can be neutralized by RNA interference, specific antibodies and a MEK inhibitor. Elafin expression in patient-derived samples was also associated with chemoresistance and strongly correlates with bcl-xL expression. We extended these findings into the examination of 1100 primary breast tumors and six breast cancer cell lines. We observed that Elafin is overexpressed and secreted specifically by BLBC tumors and cell lines, leading to a similar mitogenic effect through activation of the MAP kinase pathway. Here too, Elafin overexpression is associated with poor overall survival, suggesting that it may serve as a biomarker and therapeutic target in this setting.Oncogene advance online publication, 27 January 2014; doi:10.1038/onc.2013.562.
    Oncogene 01/2014; · 8.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report the synthesis of a GDP analogue, SML-8-73-1, and a prodrug derivative, SML-10-70-1, which are selective, direct-acting covalent inhibitors of the K-Ras G12C mutant relative to wild-type Ras. Biochemical and biophysical measurements suggest that modification of K-Ras with SML-8-73-1 renders the protein in an inactive state. These first-in-class covalent K-Ras inhibitors demonstrate that irreversible targeting of the K-Ras guanine-nucleotide binding site is potentially a viable therapeutic strategy for inhibition of Ras signaling.
    Angewandte Chemie International Edition 11/2013; · 11.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The V617F mutation in the Jak2 pseudokinase domain causes myeloproliferative neoplasms, and the equivalent mutation in Jak1 (V658F) is found in T-cell leukemias. Crystal structures of wild-type and V658F-mutant human Jak1 pseudokinase reveal a conformational switch that remodels a linker segment encoded by exon 12, which is also a site of mutations in Jak2. This switch is required for V617F-mediated Jak2 activation and possibly for physiologic Jak activation.
    Nature Structural & Molecular Biology 09/2013; · 11.63 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

3k Citations
802.15 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2006–2014
    • Dana-Farber Cancer Institute
      • • Department of Cancer Biology
      • • Center for Cancer Systems Biology
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2013
    • Harvard University
      • Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2011–2013
    • Harvard Medical School
      • Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2009–2012
    • Boston University
      • Department of Biology
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
    • Hebrew University of Jerusalem
      • Department of Biological Chemistry
      Yerushalayim, Jerusalem District, Israel
  • 1998–2003
    • University of Virginia
      • • Microbiology, Immunology and Cancer Biology (MIC)
      • • Department of Chemistry
      Charlottesville, VA, United States
  • 1996–1998
    • Florida State University
      • Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry
      Tallahassee, FL, United States
  • 1994–1995
    • The Ohio State University
      • Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry
      Columbus, OH, United States