[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pseudomonas taiwanensis is a broad-host-range entomopathogenic bacterium that exhibits insecticidal activity toward agricultural pests Plutella xylostella, Spodoptera exigua, Spodoptera litura, Trichoplusia ni and Drosophila melanogaster. Oral infection with different concentrations (OD = 0.5 to 2) of wild-type P. taiwanensis resulted in insect mortality rates that were not significantly different (92.7%, 96.4% and 94.5%). The TccC protein, a component of the toxin complex (Tc), plays an essential role in the insecticidal activity of P. taiwanensis. The ΔtccC mutant strain of P. taiwanensis, which has a knockout mutation in the tccC gene, only induced 42.2% mortality in P. xylostella, even at a high bacterial dose (OD = 2.0). TccC protein was cleaved into two fragments, an N-terminal fragment containing an Rhs-like domain and a C-terminal fragment containing a Glt symporter domain and a TraT domain, which might contribute to antioxidative stress activity and defense against macrophagosis, respectively. Interestingly, the primary structure of the C-terminal region of TccC in P. taiwanensis is unique among pathogens. Membrane localization of the C-terminal fragment of TccC was proven by flow cytometry. Sonicated pellets of P. taiwanensis ΔtccC strain had lower toxicity against the Sf9 insect cell line and P. xylostella larvae than the wild type. We also found that infection of Sf9 and LD652Y-5d cell lines with P. taiwanensis induced apoptotic cell death. Further, natural oral infection by P. taiwanensis triggered expression of host programmed cell death-related genes JNK-2 and caspase-3.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The rare sugar D-psicose possesses several fundamental biological functions. D-Psicose 3-epimerase from Clostridium cellulolyticum (CC-DPEase) has considerable potential for use in D-psicose production. In this study, CC-DPEase was fused to the N terminus of oleosin, a unique structural protein of seed oil bodies and was overexpressed in Escherichia coli as a CC-DPEase-oleosin fusion protein. After reconstitution into artificial oil bodies (AOBs), refolding, purification, and immobilization of the active CC-DPEase were simultaneously accomplished. Immobilization of CC-DPEase on AOB increased the optimal temperature but decreased the optimal pH of the enzyme activity. Furthermore, the AOB-immobilized CC-DPEase had thermal stability and a bioconversion rate similar to the free-form enzyme, and retained more than 50% of its initial activity after five cycles of enzyme use. Thus, AOB-immobilized CC-DPEase has potential application in the production of D-psicose at a lower cost than the free-form enzyme.
Journal of agricultural and food chemistry. 07/2014;
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: EglA, a β-1,4-glucanase isolated from the ruminal fungus Piromyces rhizinflata, shows promise in a wide range of industrial applications because of its broad substrate specificity. In this study, EglA was immobilized on different supporting materials including poly(dimethylsiloxane)(PDMS), Si wafer, textured Si wafer, and indium-tin-oxide-coated (ITO-coated) glass. The binding abilities of PDMS and Si wafer toward EglA were significantly higher than those of the other supporting materials. The optimized temperature and pH conditions for EglA immobilized on PDMS and on Si wafer were further determined by a response surface methodology (RSM) combined with a central composite design (CCD). The results indicated that the optimum pH and temperature values as well as the specific β-glucanase activity of EglA on PDMS were higher than those of free-form EglA. In addition, EglA immobilized on PDMS could be reused up to 6 times with detectable enzyme activity, while the enzyme activity of Eg1A on Si wafer was undetectable after 3 cycles of enzyme reaction. The results demonstrate that PDMS is an attractive supporting material for EglA immobilization and could be developed into an enzyme chip or enzyme tube for potential industrial applications.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The catalytic domain of XynCDBFV, a glycoside hydrolase family 11 (GH11) xylanase from ruminal fungus Neocallimastix patriciarum previously engineered to exhibit higher specific activity and broader pH adaptability, holds great potential in commercial applications. Here, the crystal structures of XynCDBFV and its complex with substrate were determined to 1.27-1.43 Å resolution. These structures revealed a typical GH11 β-jelly-roll fold and detailed interaction networks between the enzyme and ligands. Notably, an extended N-terminal region (NTR) consisting of 11 amino acids was identified in the XynCDBFV structure, which is found unique among GH11 xylanases. The NTR is attached to the catalytic core by hydrogen bonds and stacking forces, along with a disulfide bond between C4 and C172. Interestingly, the NTR deletion mutant retained 61.5% and 19.5% enzymatic activity at 55 oC and 75 oC respectively, compared with the wild-type enzyme, whereas the C4A/C172A mutant showed 86.8% and 23.3% activity. These results suggest that NTR plays a role in XynCDBFV thermostability and the C4/C172 disulfide bond is critical to the NTR-mediated interactions. Furthermore, we also demonstrated that Pichia pastoris produces XynCDBFV with higher catalytic activity at higher temperature than Escherichia coli, in which incorrect NTR folding and inefficient disulfide bond formation might have occurred. In conclusion, these structural and functional analyses of the industrially favored XynCDBFV provide a molecular basis of NTR contribution to its thermostability.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 03/2014; · 4.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: β-Mannanase has found various biotechnological applications because it is capable of degrading mannans into smaller sugar components. A highly potent example is the thermophilic β-mannanase from Aspergillus niger BK01 (ManBK), which can be efficiently expressed in industrial yeast strains and is thus an attractive candidate for commercial utilizations. In order to understand the molecular mechanism, which helps in strategies to improve the enzyme's performance that would meet industrial demands, 3D-structural information is a great asset. Here, we present the 1.57Å crystal structure of ManBK. The protein adopts a typical (β/α)8 fold that resembles the other GH5 family members. Polysaccharides were subsequently modeled into the substrate binding groove to identify the residues and structural features that may be involved in the catalytic reaction. Based on the structure, rational design was conducted to engineer ManBK in an attempt to enhance its enzymatic activity. Among the 23 mutants that we constructed, the most promising Y216W showed an 18±2.7% increase in specific activity by comparison with the wild type enzyme. The optimal temperature and heat tolerance profiles of Y216W were similar to those of the wild type, manifesting a preserved thermostability. Kinetic studies showed that Y216W has higher kcat values than the wild type enzyme, suggesting a faster turnover rate of catalysis. In this study we applied rational design to ManBK by using its crystal structure as a basis and identified the Y216W mutant that shows great potentials in industrial applications.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 01/2014; · 4.66 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The xylanase R8 gene from uncultured rumen fungi was cloned and successfully expressed in Lactobacillus reuteri. A xylanase activity of 132.1 U/mL was found in the broth of L. reuteri R8, the transformant containing pNZ3004 vector with xynR8 gene insertion. Two distinct forms of recombinant xylanase with different hydrophobicities and molecular weights were found in the broth after purification. According to the results of Western blotting, only the T7-tag, fused in the N-terminus of XynR8, could be bound to the expressed proteins, which indicated that the C-terminus of XynR8 had been truncated. These results, combined with tryptic digestion and mass spectrometry analyses, allow us to attribute the two xylanase forms to an optional cleavage of C-terminal sequences, and XynR8A, a 13 amino acid residues truncated form, and XynR8B, a 22 amino acid residues truncated form, were the main products in the extracellular fraction of L. reuteri R8. The specific activities of XynR8A and R8B were 1028 and 395 U/mg protein. Both forms of recombinant xylanase displayed a typical endoxylanase activity when they were reacted with xylan, but XynR8A demonstrated a better specific activity, catalytic efficiency and thermostability than XynR8B according to the results of enzyme characterization. These changes in enzyme properties were highly possibly caused by the present of the β-sheet in the C-terminal undeleted fragment of XynR8A. This study demonstrates that modified forms with different enzyme properties could be produced when a gene was recombinantly expressed by a L. reuteri transformant.
Enzyme and Microbial Technology 01/2014; · 2.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Escherichia coli phytase (EcAppA) which hydrolyzes phytate has been widely applied in the feed industry, but the need to improve the enzyme activity and thermostability remains. Here, we conduct rational design with two strategies to enhance the EcAppA performance. First, residues near the substrate binding pocket of EcAppA were modified according to the consensus sequence of two highly active Citrobacter phytases. One out of the eleven mutants, V89 T, exhibited 17.5% increase in catalytic activity, which might be a result of stabilized protein folding. Second, the EcAppA glycosylation pattern was modified in accordance with the Citrobacter phytases. An N-glycosylation motif near the substrate binding site was disrupted to remove spatial hindrance for phytate entry and product departure. The de-glycosylated mutants showed 9.6% increase in specific activity. On the other hand, the EcAppA mutants that adopt N-glycosylation motifs from CbAppA showed improved thermostability that three mutants carrying single N-glycosylation motif exhibited 7.2 to 12.8% residual activity after treatment at 80 °C (2.7% for wild type). Furthermore, the mutant carrying all three glycosylation motifs exhibited 27% residual activity. In conclusion, a successful rational design was performed to obtain several useful EcAppA mutants with better properties for further applications.
Journal of Biotechnology 01/2014; · 3.18 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The thermostable 1,3-1,4-β-glucanase PtLic16A from the fungus Paecilomyces thermophila catalyzes stringent hydrolysis of barley β-glucan and lichenan with an outstanding efficiency and has great potential for broad industrial applications. Here, we report the crystal structures of PtLic16A and an inactive mutant E113A in ligand-free form and in complex with the ligands cellobiose, cellotetraose and glucotriose at 1.80Å to 2.25Å resolution. PtLic16A adopts a typical β-jellyroll fold with a curved surface and the concave face forms an extended ligand binding cleft. These structures suggest that PtLic16A might carry out the hydrolysis via retaining mechanism with E113 and E118 serving as the nucleophile and general acid/base, respectively. Interestingly, in the structure of E113A/1,3-1,4-β-glucotriose complex, the sugar bound to the -1 subsite adopts an intermediate-like (α-anomeric) configuration. By combining all crystal structures solved here, a comprehensive binding mode for substrate is proposed. These findings not only help understand the 1,3-1,4-β-glucanase catalytic mechanism but also provide a basis for further enzymatic engineering.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 11/2013; · 4.66 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We evaluated the antioxidant, antibacterial, and anti-inflammatory activities of honey made from different floral sources, including the medicinal herb Bidens pilosa, fruit trees, Dimocarpus longan, Litchi chinensis, and Citrus maxima, the Taiwanese endemic plant Aglaia formosana, and a multifloral forest. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents of the honey made from B. pilosa were significantly higher than those of the other honeys. The honey from B. pilosa also had significantly greater scavenging activities for 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH·) and hydroxyl radical, and substantially more reducing power. In addition, the honey from B. pilosa showed greater antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. However, B. pilosa honey showed little inhibitory activity against IL-8 secretion, whereas the other honeys did. These findings suggest that the levels of antioxidant and antibacterial activities are attributable to the total phenolic and flavonoid contents of honeys, while the IL-8 inhibition is attributable to components other than phenols.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: β-glucanases have been utilized widely in industry to treat various carbohydrate-containing materials. Recently, the Podospora anserina β-glucanase 131A (PaGluc131A) was identified and classified to a new glycoside hydrolases GH131 family. It shows exo-β-1,3/exo-β-1,6 and endo-β-1,4 glucanase activities with a broad substrate specificity for laminarin, curdlan, pachyman, lichenan, pustulan, and cellulosic derivatives. Here we report the crystal structures of the PaGluc131A catalytic domain with or without ligand (cellotriose) at 1.8 Å resolution. The cellotriose was clearly observed to occupy the +1 to +3 subsites in substrate binding cleft. The broadened substrate binding groove may explain the diverse substrate specificity. Based on our crystal structures, the GH131 family enzyme is likely to carry out the hydrolysis through an inverting catalytic mechanism, in which E99 and E139 are supposed to serve as the general base and general acid.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 07/2013; · 2.41 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lactobacillus with great adhesion ability to intestinal mucosa and hydrolysis ability to plant cell wall can be used as feed additives more efficiently. To increase the adhesion ability and display a fungal xylanase on the cell surface of Lactobacillus casei, the Listeria monocytogenes cell wall-anchoring protein gene, mub, was introduced into L. casei ATCC 393 cells and used as a fusion partner to display the rumen fungal xylanase XynCDBFV on the cell surface of the transformed strains.
The transformed strain L. casei pNZ-mub, which harbored mub gene, displayed recombinant Mub on its cell surface and showed greater adhesion ability to Caco-2 cells than the parental strain. The transformed strain L. casei pNZ-mub/xyn, which harbored mub-xynCDBFV fusion gene, acquired the capacity to break down oat spelt xylan and exhibited greater competition ability against the adhesion of L. monocytogenes to Caco-2 cells, in comparison with the parental strain.
Mub has a potential to be used as a fusion partner to display heterologous proteins on the cell surface of Lactobacillus. Moreover, this is the first report of successful display of xylanase on the cell surface of Lactobacillus.
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 07/2013; · 1.76 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A small interfering RNA (siRNA)-loaded polyelectrolyte constructed with branched polyethylenimine (bPEI) and copolymers, consisting of polyethylene glycol (PEG), histidine (His), and glutamic acid (Glu), was developed in order to provide a tumor acidosis-triggered delivery system with low cytotoxicity.
Chemical Communications 03/2013; 49(26):2670-2. · 6.38 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A small interfering RNA (siRNA)-loaded polyelectrolyte constructed with branched polyethylenimine (bPEI) and copolymer, consisting of polyethylene glycol (PEG), histidine (His), and glutamic acid (Glu) was developed in order to provide a tumor acidosis-triggered delivery system with low cytotoxicity.
Chemical Communications 01/2013; · 6.38 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to understand the significance of each microorganism in grain formation by evaluating their microbial aggregation and cell surface properties during co-aggregation of LAB and yeasts together with an investigation of biofilm formation. Non-grain forming strains from viili were also evaluated as a comparison. Results indicated that the kefir grain strains, Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens and Saccharomyces turicensis possess strong auto-aggregation ability and that Lactobacillus kefiri shows significant biofilm formation properties. Significant co-aggregation was noted when S. turicensis and kefir LAB strains (Lb. kefiranofaciens and Lb. kefiri) were co-cultured. Most of the tested LAB strains are hydrophilic and had a negative charge on their cell surface. Only the kefir LAB strains, Lb. kefiranofaciens HL1 and Lb. kefiri HL2, possessed very high hydrophobicity and had a positive cell surface charge at pH 4.2. In contrast, the LAB and yeasts in viili did not show any significant self-aggregation or biofilm formation. Based on the above results, we propose that grain formation begins with the self-aggregation of Lb. kefiranofaciens and S. turicensis to form small granules. At this point, the biofilm producer, Lb. kefiri, then begins to attach to the surface of granules and co-aggregates with other organisms and components in the milk to form the grains. On sub-culturing, more organisms attach to the grains resulting in grain growth. When investigated by scanning electron microscopy, it was found that short-chain lactobacilli such as Lb. kefiri occupy the surface, while long-chain lactobacilli such as Lb. kefiranofaciens have aggregated towards the center of the kefir grains. These findings agree with the above hypothesis on the formation of grains. Taken together, this study demonstrates the importance of cell surface properties together with fermentation conditions to the formation of grains in kefir.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Loading of viral vectors in synthetic polymers is a promising strategy for overcoming hurdles associated with viral gene delivery. For enhanced gene expression at a specific site, gene transfer by using hydrogels represents a versatile approach. In this study, adeno-associated virus serotype 2 containing the green fluorescent protein gene (rAAV2-GFP) were loaded into poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogels, with and without incorporation of poly-l-hisditine (polyHis). Inclusion of polyHis created pH responsive hydrogels in a physiological range of tissues, containing the damaged vasculature and activated phagocytosis. The fraction of polyHis used controlled the degree of swelling, water uptake and subsequent degradation of the hydrogels and release rate of rAAV2-GFP. The swelling ratio of the PEG-polyHis hydrogels increased inversely with environment pH. As pH declined from 7.4 to 6.0, PEG-polyHis hydrogel swelling ratio and degradation rate increased 875% and 135%, respectively. As a result, release and transduction efficiency of the rAAV2-GFP from PEG-polyHis hydrogel in human HT-1080 fibrosarcoma cells increased significantly compared to a PEG hydrogel. Transduction rate can be controlled by the hydrogels' polyHis concentration and is sensitive to localized decreases in pH consistent with inflammation. This is relevant to optimizing parameters for wound care and regenerative medicine applications.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cellulase 12A from Thermotoga maritima (TmCel12A) is a hyperthermostable β-1,4-endoglucanase. We recently determined the crystal structures of TmCel12A and its complexes with oligosaccharides. Here, by using site-directed mutagenesis, the role played by Arg60 and Tyr61 in a unique surface loop of TmCel12A was investigated. The results are consistent with the previously observed hydrogen bonding and stacking interactions between these two residues and the substrate. Interestingly, the mutant Y61G had the highest activity when compared with the wild-type enzyme and the other mutants. It also shows a wider range of working temperatures than does the wild type, along with retention of the hyperthermostability. The k (cat) and K (m) values of Y61G are both higher than those of the wild type. In conjunction with the crystal structure of Y61G-substrate complex, the kinetic data suggest that the higher endoglucanase activity is probably due to facile dissociation of the cleaved sugar moiety at the reducing end. Additional crystallographic analyses indicate that the insertion and deletion mutations at the Tyr61 site did not affect the overall protein structure, but local perturbations might diminish the substrate-binding strength. It is likely that the catalytic efficiency of TmCel12A is a subtle balance between substrate binding and product release. The activity enhancement by the single mutation of Y61G provides a good example of engineered enzyme for industrial application.
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 12/2011; 95(3):661-9. · 3.69 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 1,3-1,4-β-D-Glucanase has been widely used as a feed additive to help non-ruminant animals digest plant fibers, with potential in increasing nutrition turnover rate and reducing sanitary problems. Engineering of enzymes for better thermostability is of great importance because it not only can broaden their industrial applications, but also facilitate exploring the mechanism of enzyme stability from structural point of view. To obtain enzyme with higher thermostability and specific activity, structure-based rational design was carried out in this study. Eleven mutants of Fibrobacter succinogenes 1,3-1,4-β-D-glucanase were constructed in attempt to improve the enzyme properties. In particular, the crude proteins expressed in Pichia pastoris were examined firstly to ensure that the protein productions meet the need for industrial fermentation. The crude protein of V18Y mutant showed a 2 °C increment of Tm and W203Y showed ∼30% increment of the specific activity. To further investigate the structure-function relationship, some mutants were expressed and purified from P. pastoris and Escherichia coli. Notably, the specific activity of purified W203Y which was expressed in E. coli was 63% higher than the wild-type protein. The double mutant V18Y/W203Y showed the same increments of Tm and specific activity as the single mutants did. When expressed and purified from E. coli, V18Y/W203Y showed similar pattern of thermostability increment and 75% higher specific activity. Furthermore, the apo-form and substrate complex structures of V18Y/W203Y were solved by X-ray crystallography. Analyzing protein structure of V18Y/W203Y helps elucidate how the mutations could enhance the protein stability and enzyme activity.
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 09/2011; 94(1):111-21. · 3.69 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The hyperthermophilic endoglucanase Cel5A from Thermotoga maritima can find applications in lignocellulosic biofuel production, because it catalyzes the hydrolysis of glucan- and mannan-based polysaccharides. Here, we report the crystal structures in apo-form and in complex with three ligands, cellotetraose, cellobiose and mannotriose, at 1.29Å to 2.40Å resolution. The open carbohydrate-binding cavity which can accommodate oligosaccharide substrates with extensively branched chains explained the dual specificity of the enzyme. Combining our structural information and the previous kinetic data, it is suggested that this enzyme prefers β-glucosyl and β-mannosyl moieties at the reducing end and uses two conserved catalytic residues, E253 (nucleophile) and E136 (general acid/base), to hydrolyze the glycosidic bonds. Moreover, our results also suggest that the wide spectrum of Tm_Cel5A substrates might be due to the lack of steric hindrance around the C2-hydroxyl group of the glucose or mannose unit from active-site residues.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 08/2011; 1814(12):1832-40. · 4.66 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alkaline phytases from Bacillus species, which hydrolyze phytate to less phosphorylated myo-inositols and inorganic phosphate, have great potential as additives to animal feed. The thermostability and neutral optimum pH of Bacillus phytase are attributed largely to the presence of calcium ions. Nonetheless, no report has demonstrated directly how the metal ions coordinate phytase and its substrate to facilitate the catalytic reaction. In this study, the interactions between a phytate analog (myo-inositol hexasulfate) and divalent metal ions in Bacillus subtilis phytase were revealed by the crystal structure at 1.25 Å resolution. We found all, except the first, sulfates on the substrate analog have direct or indirect interactions with amino acid residues in the enzyme active site. The structures also unraveled two active site-associated metal ions that were not explored in earlier studies. Significantly, one metal ion could be crucial to substrate binding. In addition, binding of the fourth sulfate of the substrate analog to the active site appears to be stronger than that of the others. These results indicate that alkaline phytase starts by cleaving the fourth phosphate, instead of the third or the sixth that were proposed earlier. Our high-resolution, structural representation of Bacillus phytase in complex with a substrate analog and divalent metal ions provides new insight into the catalytic mechanism of alkaline phytases in general.
Journal of Molecular Biology 04/2011; 409(2):214-24. · 3.91 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to display a rumen bacterial β-glucanase on the cell surface of a probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri strain. The β-glucan degrading ability and the adhesion capability of the genetically modified strain were evaluated. The β-glucanase (Glu) from Fibrobacter succinogenes was fused to the C-terminus of collagen-binding protein (Cnb) from L. reuteri and then expressed by L. reuteri Pg4 as a recombinant Cnb-Glu-His(6) fusion protein. Confocal immunofluorescence microscopy and flow cytometric analysis of the transformed strain L. reuteri pNZ-cnb/glu demonstrated that Cnb-Glu-His(6) fusion protein was displayed on its cell surface. In addition, L. reuteri pNZ-cnb/glu acquired the capacity to break down barley β-glucan and showed higher adhesion capability, in comparison with the parental strain L. reuteri Pg4. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of successful display of fibrolytic enzymes on the cell surface of intestinal lactobacilli.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 02/2011; 59(5):1744-51. · 2.91 Impact Factor