Huali Jin

Fudan University, Shanghai, Shanghai Shi, China

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Publications (49)163.54 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We previously demonstrated that DNA and protein co-administration induced differentiation of immature dendritic cells (iDCs) into CD11c(+)CD40(low)IL-10(+) regulatory DCs (DCregs) via the caveolin-1 (Cav-1) -mediated signal pathway. Here, we demonstrate that production of IL-10 and the low expression of CD40 play a critical role in the subsequent induction of regulatory T cells (Tregs) by the DCregs. We observed that DNA and protein were co-localized with DC-SIGN in caveolae and early lysosomes in the treated DCs, as indicated by co-localization with Cav-1 and EEA-1 compartment markers. DNA and protein also co-localized with LAMP-2. Gene-array analysis of gene expression showed that more than a thousand genes were significantly changed by the DC co-treatment with DNA + protein compared with controls. Notably, the level of DC-SIGN expression was dramatically upregulated in pOVA + OVA co-treated DCs. The expression levels of Rho and Rho GNEF, the down-stream molecules of DC-SIGN mediated signal pathway, were also greatly upregulated. Further, the level of TLR9, the traditional DNA receptor, was significantly downregulated. These results suggest that DC-SIGN as the potential receptor for DNA and protein might trigger the negative pathway to contribute the induction of DCreg combining with Cav-1 mediated negative signal pathway.
    Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics 06/2013; 9(10). DOI:10.4161/hv.25011 · 3.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: IFN-β is a critical antiviral cytokine that is capable of modulating the systemic immune response. The transcriptional induction of IFN-β is a highly regulated process, involving the activation of pattern recognition receptors and their downstream signaling pathways. The Akt family of serine/threonine kinases includes three isoforms. The specific role for the individual Akt isoforms in pattern recognition and signaling remains unclear. In this article, we report that the TLR3-mediated expression of IFN-β is blunted in cells that lack Akt1. The expression of IFN-β-inducible genes such as CCL5 and CXCL10 was also reduced in Akt1-deficient cells; the induction of TNF-α and CXCL2, whose expression does not rely on IFN-β, was not reduced in the absence of Akt1. Macrophages from Akt1(-/-) mice displayed deficient clearance of HSV-1 along with reduced IFN-β expression. Our results demonstrate that Akt1 signals through β-catenin by phosphorylation on Ser(552), a site that differs from the glycogen synthase kinase 3 β phosphorylation site. Stimulation of a chemically activated version of Akt1, in the absence of other TLR3-dependent signaling, was sufficient for accumulation and phosphorylation of β-catenin at Ser(552). Taken together, these results demonstrate that the Akt1 isoform is required for β-catenin-mediated promotion of IFN-β transcription downstream of TLR3 activation.
    The Journal of Immunology 08/2012; 189(6):3104-11. DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1201669 · 5.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The γ(1)34.5 protein of herpes simplex viruses (HSV) is essential for viral pathogenesis, where it precludes translational arrest mediated by double-stranded-RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR). Paradoxically, inhibition of PKR alone is not sufficient for HSV to exhibit viral virulence. Here we report that γ(1)34.5 inhibits TANK binding kinase 1 (TBK1) through its amino-terminal sequences, which facilitates viral replication and neuroinvasion. Compared to wild-type virus, the γ(1)34.5 mutant lacking the amino terminus induces stronger antiviral immunity. This parallels a defect of γ(1)34.5 for interacting with TBK1 and reducing phosphorylation of interferon (IFN) regulatory factor 3. This activity is independent of PKR. Although resistant to IFN treatment, the γ(1)34.5 amino-terminal deletion mutant replicates at an intermediate level between replication of wild-type virus and that of the γ(1)34.5 null mutant in TBK1(+/+) cells. However, such impaired viral growth is not observed in TBK1(-/-) cells, indicating that the interaction of γ(1)34.5 with TBK1 dictates HSV infection. Upon corneal infection, this mutant replicates transiently but barely invades the trigeminal ganglia or brain, which is a difference from wild-type virus and the γ(1)34.5 null mutant. Therefore, in addition to PKR, γ(1)34.5 negatively regulates TBK1, which contributes viral replication and spread in vivo.
    Journal of Virology 12/2011; 86(4):2188-96. DOI:10.1128/JVI.05376-11 · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The γ(1)34.5 protein of herpes simplex viruses (HSV) is essential for virulence. Accordingly, an HSV mutant lacking γ(1)34.5 is attenuated in vivo. Despite its vaccine potential, the mechanism by which the γ(1)34.5 null mutant triggers protective immunity is unknown. In this report we show that vaccination with the γ(1)34.5 null mutant protects against lethal challenge from wild-type virus via IκB kinase in dendritic cells (DCs), which sense virus-associated molecular patterns. Unlike mock-treated DCs, DCs primed with the γ(1)34.5 null mutant ex vivo mediate resistance to wild-type HSV after adoptive transfer into naïve mice. Furthermore, the γ(1)34.5 null mutant activates IκB kinase, which facilitates p65/RelA phosphorylation and nuclear translocation, resulting in DC maturation. While unable to produce infectious virus in DCs, this mutant virus expresses early and late genes. In its abortive infection, the γ(1)34.5 null mutant induces protective immunity more effectively in CD8(+) DCs than in CD8(-) DCs. This is mirrored by a higher level of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-12 secretion by CD8(+) DCs than CD8(-) DCs. Remarkably, inhibition of p65/RelA phosphorylation or nuclear translocation in CD8(+) DCs disrupts protective immunity. These results suggest that engagement of the γ(1)34.5 null mutant with CD8(+) DCs elicits innate immunity to activate NF-κB, which translates into protective immunity.
    Journal of Virology 11/2011; 86(2):1059-68. DOI:10.1128/JVI.06202-11 · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The ICP34.5 protein of herpes simplex virus type 1 is a neurovirulence factor that plays critical roles in viral replication and anti-host responses. One of its functions is to recruit protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) that leads to the dephosphorylation of the α subunit of translation initiation factor eIF2 (eIF2α), which is inactivated by infection-induced phosphorylation. As PP1 is a protein phosphatase with a wide range of substrates, the question remains to be answered how ICP34.5 directs PP1 to specifically dephosphorylate eIF2α. Here we report that ICP34.5 not only binds PP1 but also associates with eIF2α by in vitro and in vivo assays. The binding site of eIF2α is identified at amino acids 233-248 of ICP34.5, which falls in the highly homologous region with human gene growth arrest and DNA damage 34. The interaction between ICP34.5 and eIF2α is independent of the phosphorylation status of eIF2α at serine 51. Deletion mutation of this region results in the failure of dephosphorylation of eIF2α by PP1 and, consequently, interrupts viral protein synthesis and replication. Our data illustrated that the binding between viral protein ICP34.5 and the host eIF2α is crucial for the specific dephosphorylation of eIF2α by PP1. We propose that herpes simplex virus protein ICP34.5 bridges PP1 and eIF2α via their binding motifs and thereby facilitates the protein synthesis and viral replication.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 05/2011; 286(28):24785-92. DOI:10.1074/jbc.M111.232439 · 4.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The ICP34.5 of herpes simplex virus type 1(HSV-1) is a neurovirulence factor that plays critical roles in viral replication and anti-host responses. One of its functions is to recruit protein phosphatase 1(PP1) that leads to the dephosphorylation of the α subunit of translation initiation factor eIF2 (eIF2α), which is inactivated by infection-induced phosphorylation. As PP1 is a protein phosphatase with a wide range of substrates, it is remained to be answered how ICP34.5 directs PP1 to specifically dephosphorylate eIF2α. Here, we report that ICP34.5 not only binds PP1, but also associates with eIF2α by in vitro and in vivo assays. The binding site of eIF2α is identified at amino acid 233-248 of ICP34.5, which falls in the highly homologous region with human gene arrest and DNA damage 34 (GADD34). The interaction between ICP34.5 and eIF2α is independent of the phosphorylation status of eIF2α at Serine-51. Deletion mutation of this region results in the failure of dephophorylation of eIF2α by PP1, and consequently interrupts viral protein synthesis and replication. Our data illustrated that the binding between viral protein ICP34.5 and the host eIF2α is crucial for the specific dephosphorylation of eIF2α by PP1. We propose that HSV protein ICP34.5 bridges PP1 and eIF2α via their binding motifs, thereby facilitates the protein synthesis and viral replication.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 05/2011; · 4.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We previously showed that co-immunization with a protein antigen and a DNA vaccine coding for the same antigen induces CD40 low IL-10 high tolerogenic DCs, which in turn stimulates the expansion of antigen-specific CD4+CD25-Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (CD25- iTreg). However, it was unclear how to choose the antigen sequence to maximize tolerogenic antigen presentation and, consequently, CD25- iTreg induction. In the present study, we demonstrated the requirement of highly antigenic epitopes for CD25- iTreg induction. Firstly, we showed that the induction of CD25- iTreg by tolerogenic DC can be blocked by anti-MHC-II antibody. Next, both the number and the suppressive activity of CD25- iTreg correlated positively with the overt antigenicity of an epitope to activate T cells. Finally, in a mouse model of dermatitis, highly antigenic epitopes derived from a flea allergen not only induced more CD25- iTreg, but also more effectively prevented allergenic reaction to the allergen than did weakly antigenic epitopes. Our data thus indicate that efficient induction of CD25- iTreg requires highly antigenic peptide epitopes. This finding suggests that highly antigenic epitopes should be used for efficient induction of CD25- iTreg for clinical applications such as flea allergic dermatitis.
    BMC Immunology 05/2011; 12(1):27. DOI:10.1186/1471-2172-12-27 · 2.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dendritic cells are sentinels in innate and adaptive immunity. Upon virus infection, a complex program is in operation, which activates IκB kinase (IKK), a key regulator of inflammatory cytokines and costimulatory molecules. Here we show that the γ(1)34.5 protein, a virulence factor of herpes simplex viruses, blocks Toll-like receptor-mediated dendritic cell maturation. While the wild-type virus inhibits the induction of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II, CD86, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and IL-12, the γ(1)34.5-null mutant does not. Notably, γ(1)34.5 works in the absence of any other viral proteins. When expressed in mammalian cells, including dendritic cells, γ(1)34.5 associates with IKKα/β and inhibits NF-κB activation. This is mirrored by the inhibition of IKKα/β phosphorylation, p65/RelA phosphorylation, and nuclear translocation in response to lipopolysaccharide or poly(I:C) stimulation. Importantly, γ(1)34.5 recruits both IKKα/β and protein phosphatase 1, forming a complex that dephosphorylates two serine residues within the catalytic domains of IκB kinase. The amino-terminal domain of γ(1)34.5 interacts with IKKα/β, whereas the carboxyl-terminal domain binds to protein phosphatase 1. Deletions or mutations in either domain abolish the activity of γ(1)34.5. These results suggest that the control of IκB kinase dephosphorylation by γ(1)34.5 represents a critical viral mechanism to disrupt dendritic cell functions.
    Journal of Virology 03/2011; 85(7):3397-407. DOI:10.1128/JVI.02373-10 · 4.65 Impact Factor
  • Cytokine 10/2010; 52(1-2). DOI:10.1016/j.cyto.2010.07.327 · 2.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ebola virus causes rapidly progressive haemorrhagic fever, which is associated with severe immuosuppression. In infected dendritic cells (DCs), Ebola virus replicates efficiently and inhibits DC maturation without inducing cytokine expression, leading to impaired T-cell proliferation. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we report that Ebola virus VP35 impairs the maturation of mouse DCs. When expressed in mouse immature DCs, Ebola virus VP35 prevents virus-stimulated expression of CD40, CD80, CD86 and major histocompatibility complex class II. Further, it suppresses the induction of cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-6, IL-12, tumour necrosis factor alpha and alpha/beta interferon (IFN-alpha/beta). Notably, Ebola VP35 attenuates the ability of DCs to stimulate the activation of CD4(+) T cells. Addition of type I IFN to mouse DCs only partially reverses the inhibitory effects of VP35. Moreover, VP35 perturbs mouse DC functions induced by lipopolysaccharide, an agonist of Toll-like receptor 4. Deletion of the amino terminus abolishes its activity, whereas a mutation in the RNA binding motif has no effect. Our work highlights a critical role of VP35 in viral interference in DC function with resultant deficiency in T-cell function, which may contribute to the profound virulence of Ebola virus infection.
    Journal of General Virology 10/2009; 91(Pt 2):352-61. DOI:10.1099/vir.0.017343-0 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Type 1 diabetes (T1D) in both humans and nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice is a T cell-mediated autoimmune disease characterized by lymphocytic infiltration of pancreatic islets with subsequent destruction of the insulin-producing cells. The T regulatory (Treg) cell has been suggested to play an important role in controlling T cell-mediated inflammatory T1D. We previously demonstrated that induction of antigen-specific Treg cells in vivo by co-immunization with a DNA vaccine and its encoded protein can effectively inhibit T cell-mediated inflammatory diseases. To further demonstrate the potential of this strategy, we show here that co-immunization of NOD mice twice with DNA encoding proinsulin plus insulin protein prevents the onset of T1D and induces the impairment of antigen-specific T cell responses in a dose-dependent manner. We further show that the inhibitory function is due to the induction of TGF-beta-producing CD4(+)CD25(-) islet-specific iTreg cells against the onset of T1D in NOD mice. Induced iTreg cells were observed only in the co-immunization group, but derived neither from the DNA vaccine nor the protein alone, suggesting that a biased helper T cell type 1 response plays no inhibitory role. A strategy based on co-immunization to induce a protective response against the onset of diabetes in NOD mice may lead to the development of an immunotherapeutic/preventive protocol against T1D in humans.
    Human gene therapy 09/2009; 21(2):171-8. DOI:10.1089/hum.2009.095 · 3.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The gamma(1)34.5 protein, a virulence factor of herpes simplex viruses, redirects protein phosphatase 1 to dephosphorylate the alpha subunit of translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2alpha). Additionally, it inhibits the induction of antiviral genes by TANK-binding kinase 1. Nevertheless, its precise role in vivo remains to be established. Here we show that eIF2alpha dephosphorylation by gamma(1)34.5 is crucial for viral neuroinvasion. V(193)E and F(195)L substitutions in gamma(1)34.5 abrogate viral replication in the eye and spread to the trigeminal ganglia and brain. Intriguingly, inhibition of antiviral gene induction by gamma(1)34.5 is not sufficient to exhibit viral virulence.
    Journal of Virology 09/2009; 83(23):12626-30. DOI:10.1128/JVI.01431-09 · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chemical compounds activating innate responses may present potential adjuvants for the vaccine development. Levamisole (LMS), demonstrated as a potent adjuvant for DNA and viral killed vaccines in our previous studies, may activate such responses. To confirm this notion, LMS combined with the recombinant HBsAg (rHBsAg) was investigated. Compared to the vaccination with rHBsAg alone, LMS could up-regulate the expressions of TLR7&8, MyD88, IRF7 and their downstream pro-inflammatory cytokines including IFN-alpha and TNF-alpha, which promote DCs activation. Strikingly, we find that the combination of LMS and alum adjuvant synergistically enhances immunogenicity of rHBsAg and leads to a robust cell-mediated response demonstrated by the higher level of IgG2a/IgG1, T cell proliferation, and importantly, a high level of antigen-specific CTL and IFN-gamma production within these activated CD8(+) T cells. The achieved robust responses are at a comparative level with CpG+alum used as a positive control adjuvant in mice. The combination of LMS+alum with rHBsAg may provide a cost-effective, safe, and effective therapy to treat those individuals chronically infected by HBV, since antigen-specific cellular immunity is implicated for the clearance of HBV chronic infection.
    Vaccine 06/2009; 27(36):4938-46. DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.06.012 · 3.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) such as CpG can stimulate B and plasmacytoid dendritic cells in vertebrate immune systems. Several studies showed that non-CpG ODNs could also induce strong stimulation of B and T cells. PyNTTTTGT ODNs, non-CpG ODNs, can activate and cause immunoglobulin secretion by B cells and proliferation of T cells in vivo. By using PyNTTTTGT ODNs as an adjuvant for a FMDV DNA vaccine, we found that levels of antibody production, T-cell proliferation, and CTL activity were significantly increased compared with the DNA vaccine alone. Compared with the adjuvant effects of CpG ODNs on DNA vaccination, similar levels of antibody production and T-cell proliferation, and higher levels of CTL activity and IFN-gamma expression in CD8 T cells were induced by the IMT504 ODNs. On the other hand, RT-PCR results show that IMT504 ODN may activate the DNA sensor of DAI (DNA-dependent activator of IFN regulatory factors) and partially stimulate TLR9. At this point, the PyNTTTTGT prototype IMT504 ODN can reasonably be predicted to be a good adjuvant for FMDV DNA vaccine in small animals, but its efficacy in larger animals remains to be explored.
    Viral immunology 05/2009; 22(2):131-8. DOI:10.1089/vim.2008.0073 · 1.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The gamma(1)34.5 protein of herpes simplex virus 1 is an essential factor for viral virulence. In infected cells, this viral protein prevents the translation arrest mediated by double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase R. Additionally, it associates with and inhibits TANK-binding kinase 1, an essential component of Toll-like receptor-dependent and -independent pathways that activate interferon regulatory factor 3 and cytokine expression. Here, we show that gamma(1)34.5 is required to block the maturation of conventional dendritic cells (DCs) that initiate adaptive immune responses. Unlike wild-type virus, the gamma(1)34.5 null mutant stimulates the expression of CD86, major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II), and cytokines such as alpha/beta interferon in immature DCs. Viral replication in DCs inversely correlates with interferon production. These phenotypes are also mirrored in a mouse ocular infection model. Further, DCs infected with the gamma(1)34.5 null mutant effectively activate naive T cells whereas DCs infected with wild-type virus fail to do so. Type I interferon-neutralizing antibodies partially reverse virus-induced upregulation of CD86 and MHC-II, suggesting that gamma(1)34.5 acts through interferon-dependent and -independent mechanisms. These data indicate that gamma(1)34.5 is involved in the impairment of innate immunity by inhibiting both type I interferon production and DC maturation, leading to defective T-cell activation.
    Journal of Virology 04/2009; 83(10):4984-94. DOI:10.1128/JVI.02535-08 · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Various approaches have been developed to improve efficacy of DNA vaccination, such as the use of plasmid expressing cytokine as a molecular adjuvant. In this study, we investigated whether co-inoculation of a construct expressing either IL-6 or TNF-α as the molecular adjuvant with FMDV DNA vaccine, pcD-VP1, can increase immune responses. Compared to the group immunized with pcD-VP1 alone, the co-inoculation with either molecular adjuvant induced a higher ratio of IgG2a/IgG1, higher levels of expression of IFN-γ in CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, IL-4 in CD4+ T cells, and in vivo antigen-specific cytotoxic response. Both adjuvants induced maturation of dendritic cells, suggesting a correlation between the initiating innate response and subsequent activating adaptive immune responses. Together, the results demonstrate that IL-6 and TNF-α used as molecular adjuvants can enhance the antigen-specific cell-mediated responses elicited by VP1 DNA vaccine.
    Vaccine 09/2008; 26(40):5111-22. · 3.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder caused by T-cell-mediated inflammation within airways. No antigen-specific treatment has been available. Using an OVA-induced murine asthma model, we find that co-immunization of an OVA epitope peptide with a DNA vaccine encoding the same epitope is able to prevent this experimental asthma as evidenced in the marked reduction of infiltrations of eosinophils and lymphocytes into the site of the allergen challenge. We demonstrate that the prevention of experimental asthma was directly related to the induction of a population of OVA-specific T-regulatory cells (Treg) exhibiting a CD4(+)CD25(-)FoxP3(+) phenotype and expressing IL-10, TGF-beta and IFN-gamma following the co-immunization. Blockade of IL-10 and TGF-beta of the Treg by anti-IL-10 and TGF-beta antibodies is partially able to reverse the suppression in vitro and in vivo, which caused the recurrence of the inflammation. Furthermore, adoptive transfer of the induced Treg is also able to suppress the OVA-induced asthma. To our knowledge, the combination of peptide with its cognate DNA vaccine protect experimental asthma via the induced epitope-specific Treg has not been previously reported and such strategy may lead to a novel immunotherapy against asthma in humans.
    European Journal of Immunology 09/2008; 38(9):2451-63. DOI:10.1002/eji.200737899 · 4.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Autoimmune ovarian disease (AOD) caused by auto-reactive T cells is considered a major reason for human premature ovarian failure, which affects 5% of women worldwide. To develop an effective treatment for AOD, we showed that the co-administration of mouse zona pellucida protein 3 (mZP3) protein and DNA vaccine encoding the mZP3 was able to meliorate AOD in an AOD murine model induced by the mZP3. We observed that established AOD in mice reverted to a normal ovarian morphology without notable T-cell infiltration in the co-administrated group; whereas mice in the control groups developed severe AOD. The amelioration appears to be antigen specific because other co-administration combinations failed to reverse AOD and correlates with significant reductions of pathogenic T-cell responses and productions of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interferon-gamma. Furthermore, the melioration is apparently associated with the induction of mZP3 specific regulatory T cells that exhibit a phenotypic CD4(+)CD25(-)FoxP3(+)IL-10(+) in the co-administrated group, which can be transferred to reverse AOD in vivo. Thus, co-administration of mZP3 DNA and protein vaccines can be used to treat established AOD, and may provide a novel immunotherapy strategy to treat other autoimmune diseases.
    The Journal of Gene Medicine 07/2008; 10(7):810-20. DOI:10.1002/jgm.1200 · 1.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aerosol transmission of foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) is believed to be an important route of infection. Induction of mucosal response is thought to be effective way against such infection. Various approaches have been developed including the use of molecules adjuvant and polymers delivery for the mucosal delivery of DNA vaccine. In this study, using low molecular weight chitosan as a delivery vehicle, we investigated whether co-administration intranasally of the FMDV DNA vaccine, pcD-VP1 and a construct expressing IL-15 as the molecular adjuvant can enhance mucosal and systemic immune responses in animals. Compared to the group intranasally immunized with pcD-VP1 alone, the group immunized with the molecular adjuvant not only was induced higher level of mucosal sIgA but also serum IgG. Interestingly, intranasal delivery of the IL-15 construct with pcD-VP1 significantly enhanced the cell-mediated immunity (CMI) compared to the pcD-VP1 alone, as evidenced by the higher level of antigen-specific T-cell proliferation, cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response and higher expressions of IFN-gamma in both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells inform the spleen and mucosal sites. Consistently, IL-15 as adjuvant provided higher level of FMDV neutralizing antibody against FMDV and high secretions of IgA producing cells in mucosal tissues. Taken together, the results demonstrated that intranasal delivery of IL-15 as a mucosal adjuvant can enhance the antigen-specific mucosal and systemic immune responses, which may provide a protection against the FMDV initial infection.
    Vaccine 06/2008; 26(40):5135-44. DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2008.03.088 · 3.49 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

831 Citations
163.54 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2013
    • Fudan University
      Shanghai, Shanghai Shi, China
  • 2009–2012
    • University of Illinois at Chicago
      • Department of Microbiology and Immunology (Chicago)
      Chicago, IL, United States
  • 2011
    • Nankai University
      • College of Life Sciences
      T’ien-ching-shih, Tianjin Shi, China
  • 2004–2008
    • China Agricultural University
      • • State Key Laboratory for Agrobiotechnology
      • • Department of Microbiology and Immunology
      Peping, Beijing, China
  • 2005
    • Xinjiang University
      Hsin-chien, Jiangxi Sheng, China