[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract The aim of this study was to include self-paced exercise within a modified Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test (LIST-P) in order to quantify key performance variables not possible with prescribed workloads. Sixteen male games players performed two trials of the LIST-P, at least 7 days apart. The LIST-P incorporates 4 × 15-min blocks of "prescribed-pace" activity (participants exercise in time to audible signals) followed by 2 × 15-min blocks of "self-paced" running (no audible signals). Distances covered and mean speeds were monitored during self-paced exercise. Total distance covered (12.54 ± 0.45 km vs. 12.64 ± 0.32 km; P = 0.10) and mean speed (8.37 ± 0.31 km ∙ h(-1) vs. 8.44 ± 0.22 km ∙ h(-1); P = 0.10) was similar between trials. Other indices also showed the test to be reliable (Pearson's correlation = 0.89 and 0.90 (P < 0.01), total distance and mean speed, respectively; intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.88 and 0.88 (P < 0.01); standard error of measurement = ±0.13 km and ±0.09 km ∙ h(-1); coefficient of variation (CV) = 1.7% and 1.7%; ratio limits of agreement = 1.00 */÷1.03 and 1.01 */÷1.04). Sprint time was also similar between trials (2.60 ± 0.19 s vs. 2.64 ± 0.23 s; P = 0.29). Incorporating self-paced exercise within an established intermittent shuttle running test appears to be a sensitive means of quantifying key performance variables for multiple-sprint sports research.
Journal of Sports Sciences 10/2013; · 2.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Taylor LM, Maddison R, Pfaeffli LA, Rawstorn JC, Gant N, Kerse NM. Activity and energy expenditure in older people playing active video games. OBJECTIVES: To quantify energy expenditure in older adults playing interactive video games while standing and seated, and secondarily to determine whether participants' balance status influenced the energy cost associated with active video game play. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: University research center. PARTICIPANTS: Community-dwelling adults (N=19) aged 70.7±6.4 years. INTERVENTION: Participants played 9 active video games, each for 5 minutes, in random order. Two games (boxing and bowling) were played in both seated and standing positions. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Energy expenditure was assessed using indirect calorimetry while at rest and during game play. Energy expenditure was expressed in kilojoules per minute and metabolic equivalents (METs). Balance was assessed using the mini-BESTest, the Activities-specific Balance Confidence Scale, and the Timed Up and Go (TUG). RESULTS: Mean ± SD energy expenditure was significantly greater for all game conditions compared with rest (all P≤.01) and ranged from 1.46±.41 METs to 2.97±1.16 METs. There was no significant difference in energy expenditure, activity counts, or perceived exertion between equivalent games played while standing and seated. No significant correlations were observed between energy expenditure or activity counts and balance status. CONCLUSIONS: Active video games provide light-intensity exercise in community-dwelling older people, whether played while seated or standing. People who are unable to stand may derive equivalent benefits from active video games played while seated. Further research is required to determine whether sustained use of active video games alters physical activity levels in community settings for this population.
Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation 04/2012; · 2.18 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Carbohydrate and caffeine are known to independently improve certain aspects of athletic performance. However, less is understood about physiological and performance outcomes when these compounds are coingested in a rehydration and carbohydrate-replacement strategy. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of adding a moderate dose of caffeine to a carbohydrate solution during prolonged soccer activity. Fifteen male soccer players performed two 90-min intermittent shuttle-running trials. They ingested a carbohydrate-electrolyte solution (CON) providing a total of 1.8 g/kg body mass (BM) of carbohydrate or a similar solution with added caffeine (CAF; 3.7 mg/kg BM). Solutions were ingested 1 hr before exercise and every 15 min during the protocol. Soccer passing skill and countermovement-jump height (CMJ) were quantified before exercise and regularly during exercise. Sprinting performance, heart rate, blood lactate concentration (La) and the subjective experiences of participants were measured routinely. Mean 15-m sprint time was faster during CAF (p = .04); over the final 15 min of exercise mean sprint times were CAF 2.48 +/- 0.15 s vs. CON 2.59 +/- 0.2 s. Explosive leg power (CMJ) was improved during CAF (52.9 +/- 5.8 vs. CON 51.7 +/- 5.7 cm, p = .03). Heart rate was elevated throughout CAF, and ratings of pleasure were significantly enhanced. There were no significant differences in passing skill, rating of perceived exertion, La, or body-mass losses between trials. The addition of caffeine to the carbohydrate-electrolyte solution improved sprinting performance, countermovement jumping, and the subjective experiences of players. Caffeine appeared to offset the fatigue-induced decline in self-selected components of performance.
International journal of sport nutrition and exercise metabolism 06/2010; 20(3):191-7. · 1.86 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The presence of carbohydrate in the mouth can immediately improve physical performance. How this occurs is not well understood. Here we used transcranial magnetic stimulation of primary motor cortex (M1) to investigate the effects of non-sweet carbohydrate on corticomotor excitability and voluntary force production. In Experiment 1, 16 participants performed a fatiguing isometric elbow flexion exercise for 30 min, and Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were recorded from the biceps brachii during maximal voluntary force (MVF) produced every 2 min. After 11 min participants drank a carbohydrate solution (CHO) or an energy-free placebo solution (PLA), in a double-blind, cross-over protocol. MEP amplitude increased by 30%, and MVF increased by 2%, immediately after carbohydrate ingestion. There was no relationship between the facilitation of MEP amplitude and plasma glucose or magnitude of fatigue. In a control experiment, 17 participants alternately mouth-rinsed CHO and PLA, in a randomized, double-blind protocol. MEPs were recorded from right first dorsal interosseous at rest or during isometric contraction. MEP amplitude increased by 9% with CHO, when the muscle was voluntarily activated. In both experiments, there were no effects on silent period duration, indicating that MEP facilitation was not due to reduced inhibition within M1. This is the first demonstration that carbohydrate in the mouth immediately increases the excitability of the corticomotor pathway, prior to its ingestion. Afference from oral receptors is integrated with descending motor output, perhaps via nuclei in the brainstem. This novel form of sensorimotor integration facilitates corticomotor output to both fatigued and fresh muscle.
Brain research 04/2010; 1350:151-8. · 2.46 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ten females performed 90 min of the Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test (LIST) on two occasions separated by 7 days. Water [3 mL/kg body mass (BM)] was provided every 15 min during exercise (FL); no fluid was given in the other trial (NF). Participants performed the Loughborough Soccer Passing Test (LSPT) before and every 15 min during the LIST. Core temperature (T(c) ) was measured throughout using ingestible temperature sensors. Heart rate (HR), blood lactate ([La(-) ]) and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were collected at regular intervals during exercise. Participants experienced greater BM loss in NF (2.2 ± 0.4%) than FL (1.0 ± 0.4%; P<0.001). Sprint performance deteriorated by 2.7% during exercise (P<0.001) but there was no difference between trials (P=0.294). No significant differences in LSPT performance were detected between trials (P=0.31). T(c) was higher during exercise in NF and was 38.6 ± 0.3 °C (NF) and 38.3 ± 0.3 °C (FL; P<0.01) after 90 min. HR (P<0.001), [La(-) ] (P<0.01) and RPE (P=0.009) were higher during exercise in NF. Ingesting water during a 90-min match simulation reduces the mild dehydration seen in female soccer players when no fluid is consumed. However, there was no effect of fluid ingestion on soccer passing skill or sprint performance.
Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports 01/2010; 21(3):437-45. · 3.21 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is little evidence regarding the benefits of caffeine ingestion on cognitive function and skillful actions during sporting performance, especially in sports that are multifaceted in their physiological, skill, and cognitive demands.
To examine the influence of caffeine on performance during simulated soccer activity.
Twelve male soccer players completed two 90-min soccer-specific intermittent running trials interspersed with tests of soccer skill (LSPT). The trials were separated by 7 days and adhered to a randomized crossover design. On each occasion participants ingested 6 mg/kg body mass (BM) of caffeine (CAF) or a placebo (PLA) in a double-blind fashion 60 min before exercise. Movement time, penalties accrued, and total time were recorded for the LSPT. Physiological and performance markers were measured throughout the protocol. Water (3 ml/kg BM) was ingested every 15 min.
Participants accrued significantly less penalty time in the CAF trial (9.7 +/- 6.6 s vs. PLA 11.6 +/- 7.4 s; p = .02), leading to a significantly lower total time in this trial (CAF 51.6 +/- 7.7 s vs. PLA 53.9 +/- 8.5 s; p = .02). This decrease in penalty time was probably attributable to an increased passing accuracy in the CAF trial (p = .06). Jump height was 2.7% (+/- 1.1%) higher in the CAF trial (57.1 +/- 5.1 cm vs. PLA 55.6 +/- 5.1 cm; p = .01).
Caffeine ingestion before simulated soccer activity improved players' passing accuracy and jump performance without any detrimental effects on other performance parameters.
International journal of sport nutrition and exercise metabolism 08/2009; 19(4):410-23. · 1.86 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: America's Cup yacht racing predominantly occurs during the summer months under hot and humid conditions, with athletes exposed to the environment for prolonged periods, and yet the thermoregulatory responses to competitive sailing are largely unappreciated. This study aimed to assess the thermoregulatory responses to elite professional big-boat yacht racing, according to crew position and upwind and downwind sailing. Intestinal (T(core)) and skin temperature, fluid balance and regional sweat compositions were measured in two America's Cup crews (n=32) during 100 min of racing. The environmental conditions were as follows: 32 degrees C, 52% RH and 5 m/s wind speed. Subjective race intensity was moderate. Bowmen recorded the greatest elevation in the heart rate (184 +/- 10 beats/min) and T(core) (39.2 degrees C, P<0.01). Both heart rate and T(core) were higher during downwind sailing (P<0.001). Regional skin temperatures were significantly different according to site (P=0.05), with tibia being the lowest (33.3 +/- 1.2 degrees C). The mean sweat loss during racing was 1.34 +/- 0.58 L/h (range: 0.44-2.40 L/h), with bowmen experiencing the greatest loss of sweat (3.7 +/- 0.9% of body mass). The mean fluid intake was highly correlated to sweat loss (r=0.74, P<0.001), with 72 +/- 41% of sweat losses replaced. The mean sodium concentration of sweat was 27.2 +/- 9.2 mmol/L (range: 12.0-43.5 mmol/L) and the total NaCl loss during sailing was 3.8 +/- 2.4 g (range 0.7-10.0 g). America's Cup sailing is a demanding sport that presents considerable challenges to thermoregulation, fluid and electrolyte balance. Certain crew roles (bowmen) present an increased risk of developing exertional heat illness, and for the majority of crew downwind sailing results in greater thermal strain than upwind sailing - which may have implications for clothing selection and boat design.
Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports 06/2009; 20(3):475-84. · 3.21 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to examine the influences of a carbohydrate (CHO) mouth rinse on self-selected running speeds during a 30-min treadmill run. Ten endurance-trained men performed 2 trials, each involving a 10-min warm-up at 60% VO2max followed by a 30-min run. The run was performed on an automated treadmill that allowed the spontaneous selection of speeds without manual input. Participants were asked to run at speeds that equated to a rating of perceived exertion of 15, mouth rinsing with either a 6% CHO or taste-matched placebo (PLA) solution. In addition to recording self-selected speeds and total distance covered the authors assessed the runners' subjective feelings. The total distance covered was greater during the CHO than during the PLA trial (p < .05). Faster speeds selected during the first 5 min of exercise corresponded with enhanced feelings of pleasure when mouth rinsing with the CHO solution. Mouth rinsing with a CHO solution increased total distance covered during a self-selected 30-min run in comparison with mouth rinsing with a color- and taste-matched placebo.
International journal of sport nutrition and exercise metabolism 12/2008; 18(6):585-600. · 1.86 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to validate the Loughborough Soccer Passing Test (LSPT) for use with female players. Nineteen Premier Division (elite) and 16 Reserve team players (nonelite) volunteered for this study. The LSPT requires players to complete 16 passes against coloured target areas as fast and as accurately as possible. Participants completed an initial familiarisation trial followed by two main trials, each separated by at least one week. During both trials participants were given two practice efforts before recording the mean of the next two attempts as the performance score. All trials were performed inside a sports hall, using an indoor soccer ball, and following a standardised 10-min warm-up. The mean time taken (54.6 +/- 5.3 s vs. 61.6 +/- 6.5 s, p = 0.002), added penalty time (22.8 +/- 7.2 s vs. 35.9 +/- 11.5 s, p < 0.001) and overall performance time (77.4 +/- 11.6 s vs. 97.5 +/- 17.2 s, p < 0.001) were lower for elite players. Due to the lower agreement ratio, LSPT performance was more repeatable in the elite (x//1.39) relative to nonelite (x//1.45) group. In conclusion, the LSPT is a valid and reliable protocol to assess differences in soccer skill performance using female players.
International Journal of Sports Medicine 06/2008; 29(11):917-21. · 2.27 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to assess the effects of cold-water immersion (cryotherapy) on indices of muscle damage following a bout of prolonged intermittent exercise. Twenty males (mean age 22.3 years, s = 3.3; height 1.80 m, s = 0.05; body mass 83.7 kg, s = 11.9) completed a 90-min intermittent shuttle run previously shown to result in marked muscle damage and soreness. After exercise, participants were randomly assigned to either 10 min cold-water immersion (mean 10 degrees C, s = 0.5) or a non-immersion control group. Ratings of perceived soreness, changes in muscular function and efflux of intracellular proteins were monitored before exercise, during treatment, and at regular intervals up to 7 days post-exercise. Exercise resulted in severe muscle soreness, temporary muscular dysfunction, and elevated serum markers of muscle damage, all peaking within 48 h after exercise. Cryotherapy administered immediately after exercise reduced muscle soreness at 1, 24, and 48 h (P < 0.05). Decrements in isometric maximal voluntary contraction of the knee flexors were reduced after cryotherapy treatment at 24 (mean 12%, s(x) = 4) and 48 h (mean 3%, s(x) = 3) compared with the control group (mean 21%, s(x) = 5 and mean 14%, s(x) = 5 respectively; P < 0.05). Exercise-induced increases in serum myoglobin concentration and creatine kinase activity peaked at 1 and 24 h, respectively (P < 0.05). Cryotherapy had no effect on the creatine kinase response, but reduced myoglobin 1 h after exercise (P < 0.05). The results suggest that cold-water immersion immediately after prolonged intermittent shuttle running reduces some indices of exercise-induced muscle damage.
Journal of Sports Sciences 09/2007; 25(11):1163-70. · 2.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study examined gastric emptying, core temperature, and sprint performance during prolonged intermittent shuttle running in 30 degrees C when ingesting a carbohydrate-electrolyte solution (CES) or flavored water (FW). Nine male soccer players performed 60 min of shuttle running, ingesting fluid before exercise and every 15 min during exercise. Gastric emptying was measured using a double-sampling aspiration technique, and intestinal temperature was monitored via ingested capsules. There were no differences between trials in the total fluid volume emptied from the stomach during each exercise period (P = 0.054). The volume emptied every 15 min was 244 +/- 67 mL in the CES trial and 273 +/- 66 mL in the FW trial. Intestinal temperature was higher during exercise in the CES trial (P = 0.004), and cumulative sprint time was shorter (P = 0.037). Sprint performance was enhanced by the ingestion of a CES, which resulted in elevated core temperatures, and the rate of gastric emptying remained similar between solutions.
International journal of sport nutrition and exercise metabolism 07/2007; 17(3):270-83. · 1.86 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In many sporting and occupational settings, measuring core temperature using invasive methods is not practical. In these circumstances, ingestible temperature sensor capsules are a promising alternative. To date, no researcher has investigated the validity of intestinal temperature (T(int)) during free running or examined the between-trial reproducibility of this technique. Therefore, in two investigations, we examined the validity and reliability of Tint during prolonged intermittent shuttle running.
In investigation A, 10 male games players completed 60 min of exercise while their rectal temperature (T(rec)) and T(int) were monitored. In investigation B, Tint was measured while nine males undertook two 90-min bouts of exercise, separated by 7 d.
A mean systematic bias of -0.15 degrees C (95% CI, 0.10-0.20) was found between T(int) and T(rec) during exercise. This bias for T(int) to record higher temperatures than T(rec) was uniform through the range of measurements, such that the exercise-mediated changes in body temperature were similar between methods of measurement. The 95% limits of agreement were found to be +/- 0.22 degrees C (95% CI, 0.11-0.33) and correlations were high (r > 0.85), suggesting that random error between methods was acceptably small. In investigation B, the mean change between repeated trials was a negligible 0.01 degrees C (95% CI, -0.02 to 0.05). The within-subjects SD was 0.08 degrees C (95% CI, 0.05-0.15). Random error was uniform through the measurement range and was deemed acceptable on the basis of statistical power calculations.
These findings suggest that the test-retest variability of Tint is acceptably small during intermittent shuttle running. The small amount of random measurement error and similar thermal responses to exercise suggest that Tint is as appropriate for use in exercise physiology research as T(rec), provided that the consistent bias between these measurement methods is allowed for.
Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 12/2006; 38(11):1926-31. · 4.48 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We examined the effects of a single 2.5-mg dose of melatonin on the thermoregulatory and circulatory responses to intermittent exercise at a room temperature of 27.2+/-0.4 degrees C (mean+/-S.D.), a relative humidity of 55+/-3% (mean+/-S.D.), and a light intensity of 200-300 lux. In a double-blind cross-over study, six male participants ingested either melatonin or placebo at 11:45 hr. Participants then rested in a semi-supine position for 75 min and completed an intermittent running protocol for 66 min at alternating intensities of 40, 60 and 80% of maximal oxygen uptake. Rectal and mean skin temperature, heart rate, blood pressure, skin blood flow, subjective alertness and sleepiness, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and thermal strain were recorded. No effects of melatonin were found on these variables measured during the resting period (P>0.10). During exercise, melatonin was found to moderate the increase in rectal temperature by approximately 0.25 degrees C (P=0.050) and magnify the increase in skin blood flow (P=0.047). Postexercise systolic blood pressure was 7.8+/-2.5 mmHg (mean+/-S.D.) lower than before the exercise in the melatonin trial; a change which differed significantly to that in the placebo trial (P=0.018). Melatonin did not influence subjective alertness and sleepiness before or after exercise and did not change the responses of mean skin temperature, RPE and thermal strain during the exercise (P>0.10). In summary it is apparent that a 2.5-mg dose of melatonin has hypothermic, but not soporific, effects during 66 min of intermittent exercise performed under moderate heat stress. Whether such effects improve endurance athletic performance in hot conditions remains to be confirmed. Our data also suggest that postexercise systolic hypotension is more marked after ingestion of melatonin.
Journal of Pineal Research 11/2005; 39(4):353-9. · 7.30 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of the present study was to re-examine the relationship between deep body temperature and relative exercise intensity, during running rather than cycling (Saltin and Hermansen, 1966). Twenty male competitive and recreational distance runners, aged 22 + 0.9 years (mean +/- sx), were selected to form two groups, one with high maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) values (72.8 +/- 0.8 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)) and the other with moderate values (59.4 +/- 0.7 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)). The participants completed two 60 min constant-paced treadmill runs at a common speed (absolute intensity) of 10.5 km x h(-1) and at a relative exercise intensity at a speed equivalent to 65% of VO2max. During the relative exercise intensity trial, no differences were found in rectal temperature, skin temperature or heart rate between groups. However, when running at the common speed, differences were identified in rectal temperature. At 60 min, rectal temperature was 37.70 +/- 0.19 degrees C and 38.19 +/- 0.11 degrees C for the high and moderate VO2max groups, respectively (P < 0.05). Sweat lost was significantly higher in the moderate VO2max group (moderate: 1.05 +/- 0.06 kg x h(-1); high: 0.82 +/- 0.08 kg x h(-1); P < 0.05). Heart rates were also different between groups over the first 20 min during the common speed trial (P < 0.05). The results of the present study support the findings of Saltin and Hermansen (1966), in that the set-point at which temperature is maintained is related to the relative exercise intensity.
Journal of Sports Sciences 01/2004; 22(11-12):1083-90. · 2.08 Impact Factor