Takashi Kumae

National Institute of Health and Nutrition, Edo, Tōkyō, Japan

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Publications (38)24.71 Total impact

  • Takashi Kumae · Kazuhiro Suzukawa · Takashi Ishii ·
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    ABSTRACT: To clarify changes of neutrophil functions, mental conditions and relationships among them, 19 male elite long-distance runners participated in this study for 6 months. Examinations, with informed consent, were carried out once a month. According to the results of physical characteristics, it was thought that training intensity was reduced after the main race, Hakone-Ekiden. Neutrophil functions were estimated by indices of reactive oxygen species production, determined by luminol- and lucigenin-dependent chemiluminescence (LmCL and LgCL, respectively) and cytochrome c reduction methods. The peak times (PT) in LmCL and LgCL (LgPT) were most prolonged in January and December, respectively. The peak heights (PH) in LmCL (LmPH) were enhanced in February. Decreased levels of negative categories in the profile of mood state (POMS) questionnaire and the total mood state (TMS) of POMS were observed in February without significance. Correlation analysis using measured values revealed significant negative correlation between LmPH and negative categories in POMS; however, these correlations were possibly a mere appearance, caused by personal differences. After eliminating personal differences, LgPT correlated positively to depression (p < 0.05), anger (p < 0.05), fatigue (p < 0.01) and TMS (p < 0.05). These results suggest that the mean time from the recognition of foreign matter to the maximum production of superoxide from neutrophils is prolonged in the mentally suppressed conditions found under continuous physical training. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Luminescence 01/2013; 28(1). DOI:10.1002/bio.1390 · 1.52 Impact Factor
  • Takashi Kumae ·
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    ABSTRACT: To clarify the effects of forced or voluntary exercise on autonomic modulation of the cardiovascular system, we monitored changes in autonomic nervous activity in a mature rat by spectral analysis of the heart rate (HR) during a 10-week training period. Male Wistar rats implanted with a radio-telemetry system were divided into three groups at 18 weeks of age: (1) Control group (n = 8); (2) Voluntary group (n = 6), which were housed separately in a cage with a running wheel; (3) Forced group (n = 6), which were exercised on a treadmill (35 m/min, 15 min/day, 5 days/week). The electrocardiogram was analyzed by the maximum entropy method into two main oscillations, low-frequency (LF) and high-frequency (HF) oscillations, respectively. LF and HF are considered to be markers of both sympathetic and parasympathetic modulations and parasympathetic modulation, respectively. Average running distances of the Voluntary group were more than twofold higher than those of the Forced group. HR levels in the Forced group were lower than those in the Control group. LF and HF levels in the Control and the Forced groups were almost the same during the experiment, and those in the Voluntary group showed a tendency to decrease. The results in the Voluntary and the Forced groups suggest that cardiovascular adjustments are not simply caused by the quantity of exercise. In the Voluntary group, both sympathetic and parasympathetic activity may decrease with a predominance of sympathetic activity. Conversely, in the Forced group, the baroreflex may be hyper-activated by the undesired treadmill running and handling stress.
    Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine 03/2012; 17(5):415-22. DOI:10.1007/s12199-012-0272-z
  • Takashi Kumae · Takashi Ishii · Hirokazu Osanai · Takashi Ito ·
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    ABSTRACT: In a summer training camp, strenuous physical exercises are carried out to improve endurance ability. The effects of the training stress on the immune system have been studied extensively. However, less attention has been paid to non-specific immunological changes. Serum opsonic activity (SOA) is a more direct and suitable indicator of non-specific humoral immunity. In this study, we used the luminal-dependent chemiluminescence (LmCL) to measure reactive oxygen species generation from pooled human neutrophils as an indicator of SOA. We also measured plasma myeloperoxidase (MPO) and plasma cytokine levels. Twenty-two female college runners took part in this study after giving their written informed consent. There was no significant difference in the physical characteristics and serum enzyme levels. However, significant differences were observed in the changes of blood property and plasma cytokine levels. According to MPO levels, neutrophils in vivo may be deactivated during the camp. Positive correlations between fluctuations of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine levels were observed in this study. According to the results of peak time and peak height of LmCL, SOA seems to increase at first qualitatively and then quantitatively during the summer camp. The increased SOA level may compensate for the decrease in neutrophil activity.
    Luminescence 11/2009; 24(6):438-43. DOI:10.1002/bio.1133 · 1.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A metabolic study to evaluate nutritional balance, in which subjects have to eat all the foods supplied and maintain a set schedule, is thought to be stressful for the subjects. The effects of stress on the immune system have been studied extensively. However, there are no studies of non-specific immunological changes during a metabolic study. Serum opsonic activity (SOA) is a direct and suitable indicator of non-specific humoral immunity. In this study, we used luminol-dependent chemiluminescence (LmCL) to measure reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation from pooled human neutrophils as an indicator of SOA. We also measured serum immunoglobulin levels and plasma myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. Eleven female college students took part in this 21 day metabolic study after giving their written informed consent. The results obtained suggest that the metabolic study has almost no effect on immunoglobulin levels. According to MPO levels, neutrophils in vivo may be deactivated to some minor extent. In contrast to these results, peak time (PT) and peak height (PH) of LmCL were changed significantly during the metabolic study. In conclusion, SOA increased during the 21 day metabolic study. There was no significant correlation between SOA and serum immunoglobulin levels on any of the study days.
    Luminescence 07/2006; 21(4):256-61. DOI:10.1002/bio.918 · 1.52 Impact Factor
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    Takashi Kumae · Hatsuko Arakawa ·
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    ABSTRACT: Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) has been extensively studied for its immune modulating effects on pulmonary cells. Alveolar macrophages (AMs) play an important role in pulmonary immunity. The Brown-Norway (BN) rat has been studied as a high-risk model of allergic diseases. In this study, BN rats were exposed to NO2 from the embryonic or weanling period (EP or WP, respectively). To evaluate the effects of NO2 exposure on pulmonary immunity, the activity levels of rat AMs were assessed as reactive oxygen species-generating capacity, measured by a chemiluminescence (CL) technique, and as cytokine-producing ability. Except for 0.2 ppm of NO2 exposure, the CL responses of AMs obtained from the WP group at 12 weeks old were suppressed significantly. Changes of the cytokine-producing levels suggest that inflammatory reactions are terminated at 12 weeks in the EP group. Correlations between the CL responses and the cytokine levels reveal that NO2 exposure may modulate the direction of AM activation. The CL technique is thought to be useful to evaluate changes in AM activity. In this study, the results suggest that, using the high-risk model of allergic diseases, NO2 exposure from the weanling period has stronger effects on AM activity.
    Luminescence 07/2006; 21(4):226-32. DOI:10.1002/bio.911 · 1.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A good deal of data are available on the bowel habits of pre-climacteric females during menstruation. Few studies have examined the same subject in females of climacteric age but who are still menstruating, so the present study was undertaken to examine the bowel habits in menstruating females in this age group. Subjects (n = 246) were residents of a city in northern Japan, aged from 45 to 55 years old and who were still menstruating. Their every-day state of defecation and fecal characteristics were assessed with regard to four parameters: bowel movement frequency, defecation state, fecal appearance and fecal consistency. Based on a perfect match to these four criteria, the subjects were assigned to two groups, the normal group and the constipation group, and changes were assessed by enquiring how their bowel habits differed immediately before and during menses compared with their usual state. Immediately before menstruation, in the constipation group feces became harder and looser in 22.1% and 13.7%, respectively, compared with 8.7% and 9.5% in the normal group. On the other hand, during menstruation in the constipation group, feces became harder and looser in 11.6% and 16.8%, respectively, compared with 5.7% and 8.9% in the normal group. In other words, the constipation group showed a greater change immediately before and during menstruation compared with the normal group, though the differences were not significant. Our data thus suggest that the changes in the bowel habits of women of climacteric age at menstruation are greater for those suffering from constipation than those who are not.
    The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine 07/2005; 206(2):99-104. DOI:10.1620/tjem.206.99 · 1.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There have been many reports on the applications of low reactive level laser therapy (LLLT) for pain attenuation or pain removal. Our group has reported previously on the effects of in vitro low level laser irradiation (LLLI) particularly on the human neutrophil function using luminol-dependent chemiluminescence (LmCL) for measurement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production from human neutrophils. However, the change in production by LLLI for each ROS e.g. superoxide, hydroxyl radicals, hydrogen peroxide, singlet oxygen, hypochlorite and so on are however not yet fully understood. In this study, we used luminol-dependent and lucigenin-dependent chemiluminescence (LmCL and LgCL, respectively) to measure the effects of LLLI on the ROS-production process of human neutrophils. Two soluble action stimuli, N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (fMLP) and phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) were used to avoid the possible influence of lag-time from recognition to uptake of particles at ROS production. When fMLP was used as the stimulus, the maximum intensity of the chemiluminescence response in LmCL increased but in LgCL it decreased following LLLI. When PMA was used as a stimulus, the times to reach the maximum intensity of the chemiluminescence response of LmCL and LgCL were shortened by LLLI but there was no effect on the maximum intensity of the chemiluminescence response of both. These results suggest that LLLI enhances the ROS production capability, and activates the conversion from superoxide to singlet oxygen and hypochlorite.
    01/2005; 14(2):75-81. DOI:10.5978/islsm.14.75
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    ABSTRACT: In order to evaluate the relationship between reactive oxygen species (ROS) production from human neutrophils and the health of the organism, we developed a new technique and apparatus to measure ROS, and studied the relationship between ROS production and many kinds of environmental factors, such as the circadian rhythm, various degrees of exercise loading and training, diet, alcohol, smoking, and other environmental factors. ROS production and serum opsonic activity did not significantly change at levels of up to 50-60% of VO2max, as advocated by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, but in the case of exercise overloading to more than 65% VO2max, ROS production increased. On the other hand, when neutrophils were exposed to environmental factors, e.g., ethanol, minerals, interferon, laser, ultraviolet light and so on, at a low density, ROS production from neutrophils was only slightly enhanced. However, when neutrophils were exposed to the same environmental factors at an excessive density, ROS production significantly decreased. Given that small increases in ROS production from neutrophils are beneficial to the organism, as many researchers have reported, ROS production at low density exposure to environmental factors may increase the autoimmunocompetency of the organism, in other words, it is good for the health. Furthermore, ROS production and serum opsonic activity showed an inverse relationship in many kinds of environment, indicating a mutual compensatory mechanism to maintain the homeostasis of the autoimmune system.
    01/2005; 14(2):55-65. DOI:10.5978/islsm.14.55
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    ABSTRACT: The number of bedridden elderly patients who need a liquid diet has been increasing. We evaluated the usefulness of a tube-fed liquid diet containing cellulose and oligosaccharide for elderly bedridden patients. Twenty-two elderly bedridden patients were given a liquid diet containing cellulose and lafinose for 4 wk. Parameters associated with blood and stool weight were measured during this period. Stool weight increased by 32.0 g in men and 8.8 g in women at 2 wk and remained at these weights up to 4 wk (P < 0.05 before and after 2 wk, 3 wk, and 4 wk in men, and P < 0.05 before and after 3 wk in women). Body weight increased in men (0.5 kg) and women (0.7 kg) 15 d after starting the diet and then remained at these values up to 29 d thereafter, and statistically significant differences were not seen. There were no changes in nutritional parameters such as total protein. No significant changes were observed in the general condition of elderly patients, with the exception of a positive increase in fecal weight, by 30-d supplementation of a liquid diet containing cellulose and lafinose.
    Nutrition 11/2004; 20(11-12):955-60. DOI:10.1016/j.nut.2004.08.001 · 2.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A full marathon is the longest running race in official track events and is a form of acute exercise. However, no studies have examined the acute neutrophil function response to a competitive marathon race. Thirty-six male athletes who had just completed the 42.195 km course of the 50th Beppu-Oita Mainichi Marathon were enrolled in this study. Neutrophil oxidative burst activity, phagocytic activity and expression of CD11b and CD16 per cell were measured by flow cytometry immediately before and after the marathon. Total leukocyte/neutrophil counts increased significantly (p < 0.001), whereas total oxidative burst activity per neutrophil cell decreased significantly after the race (p < 0.001). Furthermore, total phagocytic activity per neutrophil cell also decreased after the race, although it was not significant (p = 0.08). Although CD11b expression per cell did not change, the expression of CD16 per cell significantly decreased (p < 0.001) after the race. In conclusion, a competitive marathon race decreased neutrophil functions (oxidative burst activity and phagocytic activity), which may be partly due to a decrease in CD16 expression. The increase in total neutrophil counts might reflect a compensatory response to counteract the decrease in neutrophil functions.
    Luminescence 11/2003; 18(6):324-9. DOI:10.1002/bio.744 · 1.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate whether cytokines and neutrophils mediate exercise-related pathogenesis, we examined their responses and possible association after exhaustive exercise. Plasma and urine samples were obtained from 10 male runners before and after a 42.195-km marathon race. Major cytokines and neutrophil activation markers [myeloperoxidase (MPO) and lactoferrin (LTF)] were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Functional modulation of standard neutrophils and monocytes by plasma was determined on their luminol-dependent chemiluminescence responses. The race induced peripheral neutrophilia accompanied by an increase in band neutrophils and monocytosis. Plasma MPO and LTF concentrations increased significantly by 1.8 and 1.4 times after the race. There was a greater increase in urine concentrations of MPO and LTF, 12.3 and 3.5 times after exercise, respectively, suggesting that neutrophil activation occurred and that renal clearance exceeded the increase in plasma concentrations. Plasma interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, IL-10, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), macrophage CSF (M-CSF), and monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1) increased significantly after the race, and urine IL-1beta, IL-6, G-CSF, M-CSF, and MCP-1 increased significantly. The plasma IL-6 responses correlated with the increases of band neutrophil count (r = 0.860, P < 0.01), suggesting IL-6-mediated bone marrow release of neutrophils. Furthermore, the increases in urine MPO concentration were correlated with increases in urine IL-6 (r = 0.868, P < 0.01) and G-CSF (r = 0.875, P < 0.01), suggesting that these cytokines promoted neutrophil activation. However, preincubation of neutrophils and monocytes with postexercise plasma could not cause priming responses, possibly because of the exercise-induced enhancement of plasma antioxidant activity. Although many cytokines recruiting and priming neutrophils and monocytes were secreted and functional after exhaustive exercise, overwhelming antioxidant and antiinflammatory defenses were induced, preventing exercise-induced oxidative stress.
    Medicine &amp Science in Sports &amp Exercise 02/2003; 35(2):348-55. DOI:10.1249/01.MSS.0000048861.57899.04 · 3.98 Impact Factor
  • Takashi Kumae · Hatsuko Arakawa ·
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    ABSTRACT: Chemiluminescence responses have been used for the evaluation of phagocyte function. In this study, to evaluate effects of training started after maturation on pulmonary immunity, the activity levels of rat alveolar macrophages (AMs) were assessed as reactive oxygen species (ROS) generating capacity, measured by lucigenin- and luminol-dependent chemiluminescence, using a parallel luminometer. One group of male Wistar rats started training at 11 weeks old and another group at 17 weeks old. The experimental period was 12 weeks, and about half of the rats were sacrificed after 6 weeks. The forced and voluntary exercises affect the mean levels of body weights and cell populations in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in younger animals; however, the voluntary exercise group in younger animals seemed to adapt after 12 weeks. By contrast, chemiluminescence responses in older rats observed after 6 weeks suggest that AMs are primed, and the maximum releasing activities of ROS are reduced. These changes in AM activity may be caused by the exercise and separation stresses and the rats may adapt to those stressors after 12 weeks. The chemiluminescent technique is thought to be useful to evaluate the changes of AM activity.
    Luminescence 01/2003; 18(1):61-6. DOI:10.1002/bio.702 · 1.52 Impact Factor
  • Takashi Kumae ·
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    ABSTRACT: To obtain accurate estimates of daily nutrient intake, duplicate food samples should be analyzed chemically. Traditional methods of chemical analysis, however, are impracticable for surveys of numerous samples. This paper describes a new, rapid, and simple method of estimating dietary intake that utilizes a high speed and high performance carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen autoanalyzer. In the present study, the applicability of the proposed method to surveys in the field was examined using duplicate samples consumed in one day. Protein weights were identical, because nitrogen values obtained by the autoanalyzer were used to calculate protein amounts in food samples. Fat weights estimated by the new method correlated significantly (n = 50; r = 0.979; y = 0.941x - 0.43; p < 0.001) with those measured by Soxhlet's ether-extraction method, and good measuring agreement was observed. Carbohydrate amounts and energy levels estimated by the proposed method also correlated significantly to the analytical values, and good measuring agreements were observed. These results suggest that this new method is applicable to field surveys, especially to the study of mixed and cooked foods where agreement has been lowered by misidentifications of foodstuffs and interference by the culinary process.
    Nutrition Research 03/2001; 21(3). DOI:10.1016/S0271-5317(01)00264-0 · 2.47 Impact Factor
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    Takashi Kumae ·
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    ABSTRACT: Evaluations of daily nutrient intakes with practical accuracy contribute not only to public but also to personal health. To obtain accurate estimations of nutrient intake, chemical analyses of a duplicate sample of all foods consumed are recommended. But these analytical methods are expensive, time consuming, and not practically applicable for field surveys dealing with numerous food samples. To solve this problem, a new rapid and simple method of estimating nutrients is developed here. Elemental compositions of cooked foods were examined using a high speed and high performance carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen autoanalyzer, and the results showed good reproducibility. A significant correlation between Kjeldahl's and the autoanalyzer methods was observed in the nitrogen measurement (n=20; r =0.999; p< 0.001), and very good agreement was observed between the methods. Therefore, the nitrogen amount obtained by the autoanalyzer was used for the estimation of the protein proportion in the cooked foods. The fat and carbohydrate proportions estimated by the new method correlated with the values obtained by the chemical method (p< 0.001 each). There were also good agreements of fat and carbohydrate proportions between the chemical and the new estimation methods. According to these results, the new, rapid and simple estimation method established in this study should be applicable to nutritional research.
    Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine 01/2000; 4(4):205-11. DOI:10.1007/BF02931259
  • Takashi Kumae ·
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    ABSTRACT: To develop an index to measure alveolar macrophage activity, the fluorescent technique for detection of calcium flux was paid special attention. In this study, a parallel luminescence measuring system was remodelled for fluorescence measurement using a 96-well microplate. The fluorescence indicators widely used to measure cytosolic free calcium ion concentration require excitation at ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths. Instruments to produce UV wavelengths are expensive compared to those used to produce visible wavelengths, and UV wavelengths are potentially injurious to cells. To avoid these problems, Fluo 3 (excitation wavelength in the visible range) was used as the fluorescent dye for detecting calcium ions. The parallel luminometer was remodelled successfully for fluorescent measurement as assessed by the results obtained from the measurements of a common fluorescent dye, fluorescein. Concentrations of free calcium ions were measured using Fluo 3 at 37 degrees C to consider the measurement of calcium flux in living cells. Although a linear relationship between concentrations of free calcium ions and fluorescence were observed, a diminution of fluorescence over time was also observed. To measure calcium flux in living cells, further instrumental and experimental improvements are thus needed.
    Luminescence 11/1999; 14(6):375-81. DOI:10.1002/(SICI)1522-7243(199911/12)14:6<375::AID-BIO566>3.0.CO;2-Y · 1.52 Impact Factor
  • T Kumae · K Yamasaki · K Ishizaki · T Ito ·
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    ABSTRACT: The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of endurance training during a 1-month summer camp on the non-specific host defence systems of ten highly trained male long-distance runners. Examinations with informed consent were carried out three times: 2 days before the training began, an intermediate day, and 2 days after the camp. The subjects ran a total of about 800 km during the camp. Neutrophilic reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation determined by luminol- and lucigenin-dependent chemiluminescence and cytochrome c reduction methods was assayed at two time points because the camp was held far from our laboratory: neutrophils isolated 6 hours after blood sampling were examined at all three time points and neutrophils isolated immediately after blood sampling were examined before and after the camp. The ROS production indicated by peak height of luminol-dependent chemiluminescence and peak velocity of cytochrome c reduction from neutrophils isolated 6 hours after blood sampling was suppressed after the camp (P < 0.05 for both), but, the ROS production from neutrophils isolated immediately after blood sampling and the serum opsonic activity appeared not to be affected. Neutrophils diminished their activity during the 6-hour waiting time after the camp. These results suggest that the non-specific host defence system is not directly impaired by long, strenuous endurance training.
    International Journal of Sports Medicine 09/1999; 20(6):390-5. DOI:10.1055/s-2007-971150 · 2.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The principal objective of this paper is to develop a simple and rapid method of estimating levels of fatigue so that chronic fatigue can be prevented. Long-distance runners belonging to a successful corporate team (Group A; 25 males) and representative runners at the prefectural level (Group B; 14 males) participated in this study. We examined the effects of strenuous physical exercise on serum enzyme activity and the fatigue level felt by the runners (subjective fatigue).The following parameters were measured on two consecutive mornings during a training period: physical characteristics, serum-biochemistry using the dry-chemistry method, and subjective fatigue determined using the questionnaire regarding subjective symptoms authorized by the Japan Association of Industrial Health and the Profile of Mood State (POMS). Group A was divided into A-Senior (17 males; highest performance level) and A-Freshman (8 males) subgroups according to the length of employment within the corporation (one year or more and less than one year, respectively).The levels of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and creatine kinase (CK) were significantly lower in the A-Senior group than the other groups and this group displayed the "iceberg" POMS profile at both examinations. Some significant correlations between the elements of POMS and serum enzyme activity levels were observed among all three groups during both examinations. The decline of serum CK levels tended to accompany a decrease in "Fatigue" according to POMS among 9 of 17 members of the A-Senior group. This tendency between the A-Senior and the A-Freshman groups statistically differed according to theX - square analysis.Our results suggest that the effects of physical stress on serum enzyme activity levels and subjective fatigue are affected by performance levels. Physical fatigue seemed to be reflected by serum CK levels. Monitoring subjective fatigue while measuring serum enzyme activity levels using the dry-chemistry method immediately provides clinical value to players and coaches on site, and should therefore help to prevent a shift from "overreaching" to "overtraining".
    Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine 07/1998; 3(2):89-95. DOI:10.1007/BF02931790
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    ABSTRACT: We have developed a microplate photon counting system based on a cooled charge-coupled device (Lumi Box U-800 II) jointly with Maikurotekku Nition Company (Chiba, Japan). The system makes it possible to quantify chemiluminescence (CL) in a 96-well microplate automatically and simultaneously in a single experiment. We studied the measurement conditions for a luminol-dependent CL assay from neutrophils stimulated with opsonized zymosan (OZ) using this system. Parameters examined included the effect of OZ dose per well, mixing speed, mixing time and detection time on CL responses. The results indicated that this system allows the measurement of CL from phagocytes on a large number of samples using small amounts of sample and regents.
    Journal of Bioluminescence and Chemiluminescence 05/1997; 12(3):149-53. DOI:10.1002/(SICI)1099-1271(199705/06)12:3<149::AID-BIO440>3.0.CO;2-O
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    Takashi Kumae · Takashi Kawahara · Iwao Uchiyama ·
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    ABSTRACT: The principal objective of this paper is basic research on the development of methods for the prevention of chronic fatigue. Overtraining was paid special attention to as one of the types of chronic fatigue condition. Six healthy male participants in a distance-running competition were recruited and used as subjects for this study with informed consent for all examinations. Subjects, that is, participants in the competition, tried to achieve their objective maximum running distance designated before the competition during one month, while in the same period performing their routine work duties. It was reported that the competition caused participants to exhibit an overtrained condition. In this paper, effects of endurance running during one month on blood properties and the fatigue level felt by the subject (subjective fatigue) were studied. Examinations carried out in this research were as follows; 1) physical examination was conducted 3 times during the study; 1 week before the competition, immediately before and 3 weeks after the end of the competition, 2) blood sampling was conducted 4 times; prior to the competition, 1 week after the beginning of and immediately before the end of the competition, and about 3 weeks after the competition, 3) subjective fatigue levels were monitored 8 times; 1 week before and one time in every week during the competition, and 1 week and again 3 weeks after the competition. Immediately before the end of the competition, when subjects might be expected to exhibit the overtrained condition, minor influences on fatigue levels were found. However, effects of the endurance run seemed to remain more than 3 weeks after the competition as indicated by changes of the population of white blood cells and blood hormone levels. The above mentioned results suggest that it is important to determine signs of overtraining at an early stage. To determine overtraining at an early stage, norepinephrine, testosterone and the ratio of testosterone to cortisol may be the most useful indices. These, as well as the element of “drowsiness and dullness” in the questionnaire on subjective symptoms of fatigue authorized by the Japan Association of Industrial Health and the elements of “anger”, “fatigue”, and “confusion” in the Profile of Mood State (POMS) questionnaire are thought to be the most important subjective indices.
    Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine 04/1997; 2(1):21-27. DOI:10.1007/BF02931225
  • Takashi Kumae · Yoshio Saburi · Masaru Nasu ·
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper, we examine the effects of SPG, which is a well known BRM, both in vivo and in vitro on the neutrophilic ROS production and the serum opsonic activity by the chemiluminescence technique using luminol as a probe. To investigate the in vivo effects, SPG was administered to 12 healthy male volunteers and two phases of enhancement of the neutrophilic ROS production and the serum opsonic activity was observed. In vitro, the addition of SPG showed a dose-dependent suppression. To investigate the mechanisms in these contradictory effects of SPG, supernatants of a lymphocytes culture medium in the presence of SPG with or without mitogen were added to the neutrophils. The addition of supernatants at a lower concentration of SPG (0.01 mg/ml) with mitogens showed significant preventive effects on the neutrophilic ROS production for the duration of incubation. This suggests that cytokines derived from lymphocytes may contribute to the in vivo effects of SPG. SPG can play an important role in the host's defense against microbe infections by enhancing it's effect on non-specific immunity when administered in vivo.
    Biotherapy 02/1997; 10(2):121-7. DOI:10.1007/BF02678539

Publication Stats

299 Citations
24.71 Total Impact Points


  • 2003-2013
    • National Institute of Health and Nutrition
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 1997-2001
    • National Institute of Public Health
      Saitama, Saitama, Japan
    • Institute of Public Health
      Bengalūru, Karnātaka, India
    • Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Public Health
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 1999
    • Nippon Sport Science University
      Kawasaki Si, Kanagawa, Japan
  • 1989-1994
    • Hirosaki University
      Khirosaki, Aomori, Japan